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Disorders of the Endocrine System

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Presentation on theme: "Disorders of the Endocrine System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Disorders of the Endocrine System

2 Thyroid Gland Hormone: Thyroxin Overactivity (Too much hormone)
Increased metabolic rate Increased food intake but loss of weight Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) Goiter (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes)

3 Goiter

4 Thyroid Gland Hormone: Thyroxin Underactivity (Not enough hormone)
Hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease) - Reduced metabolic rate Low food intake but gain of weight Myxoedema (when onset in adults) Cretinism (when onset in children) Can also cause a goiter

5 Myxoedema Puffiness (swelling) Fatigue Obesity Dry, thickened skin
Mental impairment Thin, brittle hair

6 Cretinism Protuberant abdomen Short Stature Infertility
Neurological impairment Constant Fatigue Obesity

7 Thyroid Gland Hormone: Calcitonin Overactivity
- Increased Bone Ca, decreased Blood Ca - Tetany (nerve problems leading to muscle spasms or cramps) Underactivity - Increase Blood Ca, decreased Bone Ca Osteoporosis (brittle bones) Kidney stones

8 Parathyroid Glands Hormone: Parathormone (PTH) Underactivity
Low Blood calcium, High Bone Ca Tetany Overactivity High Blood calcium, Low Bone Ca Osteoporosis

9 Pancreas Hormone: Insulin Overactivity Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)
Hypoglycemia Underactivity High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL) Hyperglycemia Diabetes

10 Pancreas Hormone: Glucagon Overactivity High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)
Diabetes Underactivity Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL) Hyper insulinism

11 Anterior Pituitary Gland
Hormone: Growth Hormone Overactive Gigantism (children - very tall) Acromegaly (adults - bones & skin thicken) Underactive - Dwarfism (very short)

12 Gigantism The man holding the baby in the photo is 8 ft, 2.5 inches tall

13 Acromegaly

14 Dwarfism Dwarfism occurs when there is short supply of GH in childhood. There are two types of dwarfism – Lorrain and Frohlich’s

15 Thyroxin – increases metabolic rate
Overactive Goiter Hyperthyroidism Grave’s Disease Underactive Goiter Hypothyroidism Hashimoto’s Disease Myxoedema (adults) Cretinism (kids)

16 Calcitonin – Increase Ca uptake by bones and decrease Ca level in blood
Overactive Tetany Underactive Kidney Stones Osteoporosis

17 Parathormone (PTH) – inc. Ca level in blood, dec. Ca level in bone
Overactive Kidney Stones Osteoporosis Underactive Tetany

18 Insulin – dec. blood sugar levels
Overactive Hypoglycemia Hyperinsulinism (insulin shock) Underactive Hyperglycemia Diabetes

19 Calcitonin Vs. Parathormone
Over Reactivity Under Reactivity Blood Ca Blood Ca Blood Ca Blood Ca Tetany Osteoporosis Kidney Stones Blood Ca Blood Ca Tetany Osteoporosis Kidney Stones

20 Glucagon – inc. blood sugar levels
Overactive Hyperglycemia Diabetes Underactive Hypoglycemia Hyperinsulinism

21 Insulin vs Glucagon Insulin – Glucagon - Over Reactivity
Under Reactivity BSL BSL Hypoglycemia BSL BSL Hyperglycemia Diabetes BSL Hyperglycemia Diabetes Hypoglycemia BSL

22 GH - Growth Hormone – increases bone growth
Overactive Gigantism (children) Acromegaly (adults) Underactive Dwarfism (Frohlich’s and Lorrain)

23 MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone – causes color cells (melanocytes) in skin to darken
Overactive Skin darkens Under active Skin will not darken Most severe condition is albinism

24 LH, FSH, ICTH – sex hormones in males and females that aid in sperm or egg (gamete) production
Overactive Unknown Underactive Sterility

25 Corticoid imbalances:

26 Corticoids – inc. blood pressure, inc. food metabolism and dec
Corticoids – inc. blood pressure, inc. food metabolism and dec. inflammation Overactive Cushing’s Syndrome Underactive Addison’s Disease Decreased cortisol and/or aldosterone production

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