2 The global situation (1) Global mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) remains unacceptably high and is increasing. 38 million people die each year from NCDs, mainly from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes.Over 14 million deaths from NCDs occur between the ages of 30 and 70 each year, of which 85% are in developing countries.
3 The global situation (2) The number of NCD deaths has increased worldwide and in every World Health Organization (WHO) region since 2000.Over 80% of NCD deaths — 29 million — occur in low- and middle-income countries.Cardiovascular diseases account for most NCD deaths, 17.3 million people annually, followed by cancers (7.6 million), respiratory diseases (4.2 million), and diabetes (1.3 million).These four groups of diseases account for around 80% of all NCD deaths.
5 Behavioural risk factors Tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and the harmful use of alcohol increase the risk of, or cause, most NCDs.Tobacco use accounts for almost 6 million deaths every year (including over 600,000 deaths from exposure to second-hand smoke), and is projected to increase to 8 million by 2030.About 3.2 million deaths annually can be attributed to insufficient physical activity.Approximately 1.7 million deaths are attributable to low fruit and vegetable consumption.Half of the 2.3 million annual deaths attributable to harmful drinking are from NCDs.
6 Lower middle income group Upper middle income group National scale: selected countries and indicatorsCountryIndicatorAfghanistanLow income groupIndiaLower middle income groupIranUpper middle income groupUKHigh income groupProportion of deaths from cardiovascular diseases (%)19264631Proportion of deaths from cancers (%)671329Proportion of deaths from chronic respiratory diseases (%)348Proportion of deaths from diabetes (%)12Probability of dying between ages 30 and 70 from the four main NCDs (%)1712Male Female TotalMale Female TotalMale Female TotalMale Female Total% tobacco smoking daily (2011)N/ATotal alcohol consumption per capita (litres per year) (2010)% raised blood pressure (2008)% obese (2008)Source: WHO (2014)
7 ObesityThe number of people in the world who are obese or overweight has topped 2.1 billion, up from 875 million in 1980.More than half of the world's 670 million obese people live in ten countries, ranked in order: USA, China, India, Russia, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt, Germany, Pakistan, Indonesia.The UK has the third highest rates in western Europe, with 67% of men and 57% of women overweight or obese.Source: The Lancet (May 2014)
8 The WHO Global NCD Action Plan 2013–2020 (1) This has six global objectives:Make prevention and control of NCDs a priorityStrengthen national capabilities and leadershipReduce modifiable risk factorsStrengthen health systemsPromote high-quality researchMonitor trends of diseaseWithout taking action WHO estimates a $7 trillion loss of productivity.WHO states that the annual cost of the action plan is $11 billion.
9 The WHO Global NCD Action Plan 2013–2020 (2) WHO has set a global target of a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025.This is to be achieved by nine targets:Establish 80% availability of affordable technology and medicine to treat NCDsEnsure that 50% of people receive preventive therapy for heart attacks and strokesHalf the rise in diabetes and obesity30% reduction in salt intake
10 The WHO Global NCD Action Plan 2013–2020 (3) 10% reduction in the harmful use of alcohol25% reduction in premature death of people aged 30 to 70 from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases10% reduction in prevalence of insufficient physical activity30% reduction in tobacco use25% reduction in prevalence of high blood pressure
11 Useful weblinksSome of the weblinks used for this presentation are: An interesting perspective on the issues of obesity and diabetes in India can be found at: