2 LINE Line is a mark made by a pointed tool - brush, pencil, stick, pen, etc. -- and is often defined as a moving dot.It has length. A line is created by the movement of atool and pigment, and often suggests movement in adrawing or painting.
3 Line can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal, thick, thin, short, fat, and long. The variety of lines is almost endless, and manyadjectives can describe the quality of a line (nervous, soft, etc.)therefore, lines can be expressive and suggestive.
4 Contour Lines indicate the edges of forms or shapes and actually describe shapes and actually describe shapes andforms in the simplest way.
5 Line can be used tocreate values and textures. Hatchingis the placing ofmany lines next toeach other. Cross-hatching occurs when many parallel linescross each other.
6 Gestural lines indicate action and physicalmovement. Our eyesfollow the active linesAs they swirl acrossthe page.
7 Our eyes often readedges of objects(the lemon) as impliedlines. The dots andshort lines also createimplied lines movingacross the page.
8 Mark Tobey’s painting,“Calligraphy in White”,Is all line. He actuallydrew with his brush, therepeated lines creatingA complex pattern. Theword “calligraphy” inthe title refers to a qualityof line that is thick and thin,varying with brush pressure,similar to Oriental brushwriting and painting.Tobey’slines are the subject of thepainting and are not used tooutline shapes or objects.
9 Variety in thethickness oflines createssurface interest.Some lines arethick; someare thin; andmany are boththick and thin(Organic orcalligraphic).Value contrast inThe lines fromVery dark toWhite let us seeThe layering ofLine upon line.Because of theLayering of linesover lines, aShallow depth isSensed.The length oflines varies inTobey’s “Picturewriting” techniquefrom dots to shortjabs, to long andfluid strokes. Someare geometric,others are organic.
10 SHAPE Shape is an area that is contained within an implied line, or is seen and identified because of color or value changes.Shapes have two dimensions, length and width, and can begeometric or free-form. Design in painting is basically theplanned arrangement of shapes in a work of art.
11 All shapes can be described with two basic terms: 1) geometric shapes (angular with straight edges, also called rectilinear shapes;and 2) organic shapes (free-form, biomorphic, also calledcurvilinear shapes).
12 Shapes are eitherpositive or negative.The subject in arepresentationalwork is usually thepositive shape(the sheep), andthe background isthe negative shape.
13 Shapes in nature are usually organic; leaves, tigers, trees, butterflies, mountains, clouds, etc. To draw or paint them,we must see their shapes (contours).
14 In abstract ornonobjectiveart, positiveshapes areusually centralor featuredelements;negative shapessurround them.
15 Abstractionoften reducesthings to theirsimplest shapes.Margo Hoff hasreduced peopleto flat S shapesto simplifyingthe start of amarathon raceto its basicelements.
16 Pablo Picasso’s painting, “The Three Musicians”, Is anabstract painting in which thethree figures are simplified to anArrangement of flat shapes. Theartist used a variety of shapes increating an image that resemblesAn interlocking jigsaw puzzle.Look for these shape varieties:Large, medium and small shapes.Flat and patterned shapes.Dark and light valued shapes.Geometric and organic shapes.Positive and negative shapes.Outlined and unoutlined shapes.
17 Some of Picasso’s imaginative shapes Of things. They include musicalInstruments and a sheet of music. CanYou find more “thing” shapes?Design shapes need not completelyfollow the contours of edges of things.Can you find these design shapes inPicasso’s painting?
18 Most of Picasso’s shapes are flat, but Several are patterned. Find thesePatterned shapes. Picasso usedpatterned shapes to add variety to hisdesign.
19 FORM Form describes volume and mass, or the three-dimensional aspects of objects that take up space. Form can and should beviewed from many angles. When you hold a baseball, shoe, orsmall sculpture, you are aware of their curves, angles, indentations,extensions, and edges - their forms.
20 Form refers to three dimensional quality of objects. This is a drawing of aTwo-dimensional shape.This is a drawing of aThree-dimensional form.
21 When looking at Barbara Hepworth’s sculpture group, “Assemblage of Sea Forms”, we think of underwater rocksand other sea-sculpted forms. When exhibited, these can berearranged from time to time, similar to the way that naturerearranges rocks on a beach. How does value contrast help you“feel” the forms with your eyes?
22 Space can be felt inHepworth’s sculpturegroup because of theclustering andoverlapping of forms.Space is a strongelement in establishinga sense of form.
23 Space can be feltbetween the formsin this grouping(even in a flatphotograph). Thespace between andaround objects helpsus recognize andidentify three-dimensionalForms.
24 Architectural forms usually contain enclosed spaces for various activities. Most are geometric forms, but some architects usecurvilinear forms in their building designs.
25 In nature, forms are easily identifiable because we are surrounded by them. Rocks, trees, mountains, flowers, animals, and peopleare examples of natural forms.
26 Abstract forms, suchas this Eskimo stonecarving, simplifynatural forms to theiressential, basic character-istics. Nonobjectiveforms do not representany natural forms.Sculpted geometric Formsare angular, Squarish,cubistic and Straight-edged.Sculpted Organic formsare rounded, Flowing,undulating, and oftenbulbous.Realistic formsdepict people,animals, birdsand plans asthey mayactually appear.
27 The appearance of a sculpted form changes as we walk around it.
28 VALUE Value refers to dark and light. Value contrast help us to see and understand a two-dimensional work of art.This type can be read because of the contrast of darkletters and light paper. Value contrast is also evidentin colors, which enables us to read shapes in a painting.
29 A gray scale shows ten values of gray from light to dark. The farther apart the values are on the scale, the more value contrastcan be noted. Values next to each other on the scale have theleast contrast.
30 Jean Metzinger’spainting, “Tea Time”,has strong valuecontrasts. The paintingis cubist in style withangular fracturesand shapes. Line isused to create bothgeometric andcurvilinear shapes.Follow the visualmovement from thetea cup and hand atthe bottom over alight-valued visualpath upward to theface, which is the focalarea.
31 Color and value areclosely related. Somepure colors (yellow andorange) are light invalue; other pure huesare dark in value (violetand blue). A black andwhite photo of a full colorpainting helps you see thevalues of the colors thatan artist used.
32 Low key paintings make use of dark valued hues andgenerally contain little valuecontrast. Dark values oftensuggest sadness, depression,loneliness, and sometimesmystery.High key paintings are made mostly of light values and containa minimum of value contrast.Light values often suggest happiness, light, joy, and airiness.
33 Value Contrast is the difference between light and dark values. Ansel AdamssValue Contrast is the difference between light and dark values.photographers use value contrasts to make black and white printsthat are exciting and dramatic.
34 The focal area of a painting can be created by emphasizing dark and light value contrasts or intense color. This is true in realistic, abstractand nonobjective paintings.
35 When photographingor painting landscapes,distant features areusually lighter in valuethan closer features.Depicting such valuecontrast in art is calledatmospheric perspective.
36 Value Changes help us “feel” the roundness of a face or ball by showing us how light hits these forms and creates shadows onthem. The logical system of intense light and shadow contrastsis called chiaroscuro.
37 SPACE Actual space is a three-dimensional volume that can be Empty or filled with objects. It has width, height, anddepth. Space that appears three-dimensional in a paintingIs an illusion that creates a feeling of actual depth. VariousTechniques can be used to show such visual depth or space.
38 Sculptures,architecture, and various craft piecesoccupy actual or realspace. You are awareof actual space in alarge room, in an openlandscape, or lookingat a sculpture.
39 In two-dimensional art, the feeling of space is an illusion. Size can help us sense space. If people (or other objects) are large, they seemclose, and we sense space between them and smaller people who seemfarther away.
40 Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective is a way of using color or value (or both) to Show space or depth. Distant elements appear lighter in value,have less details, and less intense colors.
41 If objects or people overlap in a painting we sense spacebetween them. If overlappingis combined with sizedifferences. The sense ofspace is greatly increased.
42 Linear perspective isa way of organizingobjects in space.One-point perspectiveis used if the artist islooking along a streetor directly at the side ofan object.
44 Two-point perspective is used when looking directly at the front Corner of a box, building, automobile, or other form. CombiningTwo-point perspective with light and shadow greatly increases theSense of space.
45 All horizontal lines converge at one of two vanishing points
47 This painting was done by a famous, yet untrained artist named Grandma Moses. Although charming, it is an example of how awkward buildings can looks if the artist doesn’t understand linear perspective.
49 TEXTURE Texture refers to the surface quality, both simulated And actual of artwork. Techniques used in paintingServe to show texture, i.e. the dry brush techniqueProduces a rough simulated quality and heavyapplication of pigment with brush or other implementProduces a rough actual quality.
50 Georges Rouault (roo-’oh) painted The Old King in oilpaint, with heavy textures.The painting technique thatemphasizes actual texturesis called Impasto. Suchtextures can be applied witha stiff brush or spread on thecanvas with a painting knife.Rouault wan an expressionistartist who emphasized emotionsrather than accuracy and design,yet the design quality of thiswork is strong and solid.
51 Contrast of smooth andtextured areas emphasizesheavy textures.Focal area hasstrongest valuecontrasts-----Broken linesand edges help toemphasize actualtextures.Painting with adry brush producesvisual textures.----Color and value contrastshelp you “feel” thetextures with your eyes.
52 Actual Texture (also known as tactile texture) describesthe surface quality we canfeel with our fingers.Impasto paintings haveactual texture.
53 Textures abound innature and in ourenvironment. Thinkof a gravel path, treebark, a brick, a cat’sfur, a burlap sack, ora stucco wall.
54 Simulated textures (also known as visual textures) occur when smooth painting surfaces (such as paper)appear to be textured.
56 Textural variety isimportant to interiordesigners and architectswho work with fabrics,wood, plaster, metal,glass, paper, plastic,and paint.
57 Collages often emphasize Textures and the texturalContrasts of materialsSuch as papers, fabrics,fibers, wood, paint, andNatural objects. ThisCollage shows contrastof rough surfaces withsmooth.
58 This collage is builtof various fabrics thathave actual textures,and the work has asurface that is roughto the touch.
59 COLOR Color depends on light because it is made of light. There must be light for us to see color. A red shirt will not lookred in the dark, where there is no light. The whiter thelight, the more true the colors will be. A yellow light ona full color painting will change the appearance of all thecolors.
60 August Renoir (ren-’wahr) painted Fruits from the Midi to Emphasize the color and richness of the vegetables and fruit ofSouthern France.
61 Cool green has warm reds and oranges in it to neutralize thebackground, making the purercolors glow andcome forward.Neutralized redshapes go backin spaceBlue and purpleshadows (insteadof gray and black)create a sense ofform.Shadows are cool.Dark purple formsare used to developstrong valuecontrasts.Highlights on fruitare white. White ispure, light color.Warm red shapesseem to come forward.White is an intense color (contains all colors)and comes forward in a painting
62 Color is the most expressive element of art. We see white because of how light reflects off of surfaces.
64 Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a hue. Pure colors have Add black to darken Pure color orange Add white to lightenColor valuescaleGray valueValue refers to the lightness or darkness of a hue. Pure colors havevalues of their own. Yellow is a light value; purple is dark. If whiteis added to a hue, a lighter value is achieved, and is called a tint. Ifblack is added, the value is deeper and is called a shade.