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2015/8/30 Ch3 Needs analysis 9710008M Venus 9710009M Carl.

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Presentation on theme: "2015/8/30 Ch3 Needs analysis 9710008M Venus 9710009M Carl."— Presentation transcript:

1 2015/8/30 Ch3 Needs analysis 9710008M Venus 9710009M Carl

2 2015/8/30 Introduction What are “needs”? Wants, desires, demands, expectation, motivations, lacks, constraints, and requirements (Brindley 1984) P54 What are “needs analysis”? Procedures for collecting information about learners’ needs When did “needs analysis” introduced into teaching? 1960s; through the ESP movement (P28)

3 2015/8/30 The Purpose of needs analysis 1. To find out what language skills a learner needs 2. To help determine if an existing course adequately addresses the needs of potential students 3. To determine which students are most in need of training in particular language skills

4 2015/8/30 The Purpose of needs analysis 4. To identify a change of direction that people in a reference group feel is important 5. To identify a gap between what students are able to do and what they need to be able to do 6. To collect information about a particular problem learners are experiencing

5 2015/8/30 The Purpose of needs analysis ‘Needs’ also includes students’ rights ‘It’s school’s responsibility to take into account the cultural, political, and personal characteristics of students …. in order to plan activities and objectives that are realistic and purposeful.’ (Linse, 1993) Immediately needs: 1. employment; 2. students’ right Not so immediately needs: 1. compulsory subject 2. consider best for ss

6 2015/8/30 The Purpose of needs analysis Needs also includes perceived and present needs, potential and unrecognized needs Needs analysis may take place 1. prior to 2. during 3. after a language program

7 2015/8/30 Examples of needs analyses conducted prior to a language program Method: Staff questionnaire: * background information about the course the lecturer was describing * overview of problems experienced by ESL students * linguistic demands of the course * suggestions to which language skills should be focuses on * modifications made in teaching or in examinations Students questionnaire

8 2015/8/30 What are needs? Needs: 1. a linguistic deficiency 2. “It’s not a thing that exists and might be encountered real-made on the street” (Porcher 1977) 3. language needs—need to survive in a English-dominant society Planning an ESL curriculum involves: identifying ss’ language needs, but seeks “to enable them to critically examine” and become active in shaping their own role in it. (Auerbach 1995)

9 2015/8/30 The users of needs analysis Large-scale needs analysis curriculum officers in the ministry of education Teachers Learners Writers Testing personnel Staff of tertiary institutions Small-scale needs analysis Teacher Program coordinator

10 2015/8/30 The target population Language learners or potential language learners Policy makers Ministry of education officials Teachers Academics Employers Vocational training specialists Parents Influential individuals and pressure groups Academic specialists Community agencies

11 2015/8/30 The target population Subcategories of respondents students currently enrolled in a foreign language course students previously enrolled but no longer studying a language students who have never studied a foreign language An important issue in determining the target population: Sampling Sampling involves asking a portion of potential population instead of the total population

12 2015/8/30 Administering the needs analysis Who will administer the needs analysis, collect and analyze the results? * academic or research assistant * colleagues in different department * students who piloted the questionnaire * academic staff of the university * secretarial support

13 Procedures for conducting needs analysis Questionnaires Self-ratings Interviews Meetings Observation Collecting learner language samples Task analysis Case studies Analysis of available information 2015/8/30

14 1. Questionnaires a. advantages 。 prepare easily 。 make tables to analyze easily b. Two types 。 Structured items (limited answers chosen) 。 Unstructured items (open-ended answers) c. disadvantages 。 superficial or imprecise probably 。 need a follow-up to gain more understandings 。 many badly designed questionnaires * Advice: to familiar with the principles of good questionnaire design.

15 2. Self-ratings a. using scales to rate knowledge or abilities b. might be included as part of a questionnaire c. a disadvantage 。 provide imprecise (impressionistic) information 3. Interviews (face-to-face or telephone) a. allowing for a more in-depth exploration of issues b. being useful at the preliminary stage c. disadvantages 。 take time 。 being proper for smaller groups

16 4. Meetings a. allow to collect many information in a short time b. disadvantages 。 Impressionistic (imprecise information) 。 subjective 。 more ideas of outspoken members 5. Observation a. learners’ behavior in a target situation b. a disadvantage 。 perform not well while being observed c. specialized-training observer

17 6. Collecting learner language samples a. written or oral tasks b. simulations or role plays c. achievement tests 。 test the abilities in different domains d. performance tests 。 test on job-related or task-related 7. Task analysis a. analyze many tasks the learners carry out 。 future occupational or educational setting 。 Assessment of demands of the task 2015/8/30

18 8. Case studies a. a single student or a selected group of students 。 through a relevant work or educational experience 。 in order to determine the characteristics of the situation 9. Analysis of available information a. various sources of available information 。 books 。 journal articles 。 reports and surveys 。 Records and files b. first step in a needs analysis normally 2015/8/30

19 Designing the needs analysis 1. being made on the practical procedures a. collecting, organizing, analyzing, and reporting 2. avoiding information too much a. collect the information that will actually be used 3. Procedures for larger-scale needs analysis: a. literature survey b. analysis of a wide range of survey questionnaires c. contact with others d. interviews with teachers e. identification of participating departments f. presentation of project proposal g. development of a pilot student and staff questionnaires 2015/8/30

20 g. review of the questionnaires h. piloting of the questionnaires i. selection of staff and student subjects j. developing a schedule for collecting data k. administration of questionnaires l. follow-up interviews m. tabulation or responses n. analysis of responses o. writing up of report and recommendations 2015/8/30

21 4. Procedures for smaller-scale needs analysis: a. initial questionnaire b. follow-up individual and group interviews c. meetings with students d. meetings with other teachers e. ongoing classroom observation f. test 2015/8/30

22 Making use of the information obtained 1. Making a list a. consisting of information from different sources and summarized in ranking 2. Needing more analysis and research a. in order to develop aims and objectives 3. Some changes needed a. degree of importance of needs b. immediate or longer-term c. more consultation (discussion) needed 4. Stufflebeam et al. (1985) remind the goal of analysis a. bring meaning to the obtained information 2015/8/30

23 5. Take various views into account a. learners’ view b. academics’ view c. employers’ view d. teachers’ view 6. The function of the result of needs analysis a. provide the basis for evaluation b. offer the basis for planning goals and objectives c. assist with developing tests d. help with the selection of proper teaching methods e. provide the basis for developing a syllabus and materials f. provide other information used as part of a course 2015/8/30

24 Thank you for listening !! 2015/8/30

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