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The Endocrine System Chapter 18.

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine System Chapter 18."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Endocrine System Chapter 18

2 General Characteristics
includes cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones directly into the body fluids to help regulate metabolic processes such as chemical reactions, reproduction, growth, and development The 9 Endocrine glands include the 1. pituitary (anterior and posterior), 2. thyroid, 3. parathyroid, 4. adrenal, 5. pineal, 6. thymus, 7. pancreas, 8. testes, and 9. ovaries


4 Hormones biochemicals secreted by a cell that affect the function of another cell 3 types: Steroid – derived from cholesterol (fat) Peptide – an amino acid based hormone (protein) Prostaglandins – hormone-like lipids (fat); act more locally than hormones; only affect organ where produced Hormones are released based on the body’s need and are carried by the blood to the target cell; controlled by negative feedback

5 Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
Target tissue Effects Adreno - corticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal glands Stimulates production of steroid hormones Follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) Ovaries and testes Regulates development of male/female gametes Regulates development of male/female gametes and production of testosterone in testes of males Luteinizing hormone (LH) Stimulates release of egg from ovary; stimulates production of testosterone

6 Hormones of Anterior Pituitary (cont).
Target tissue Effects Prolactin Mammary glands Stimulates milk production in breasts Growth hormone or somatotropin (GH) All tissues stimulates cell growth and division, particularly bone and muscle

7 Hormones of Posterior Pituitary
Target tissue Effects Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Kidneys, blood vessels Stimulates absorption of water (less urine production) and thereby regulates water balance Oxytocin Mammary glands, uterus Stimulates uterine contractions, onset of labor, and the letting down of milk to the breasts.



10 Hormones of Adrenal Glands
Target tissue Effects Aldosterone Kidneys Maintains blood volume and pressure (stimulates kidneys to conserve sodium, and therefore retain water) Cortisol All tissues Controls inflammation, increases blood glucose concentration, suppresses immune response Epinephrine and norepinephrine Skeletal and cardiac muscle, blood vessels Initiates response to stress; increases metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure; dilates blood vessels; raises blood glucose levels


12 Hormones of Pancreas Hormone Target tissue Effects Insulin All tissues
Stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen; lowers blood glucose levels Glucagon Liver, fatty tissues Stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose; raises blood glucose levels


14 Hormones of Pineal Gland
Target tissue Effects Melatonin Uncertain, possibly testes and ovaries May regulate biorhythms and moods; may control onset of puberty


16 Hormones of Thyroid Gland
Target tissue Effects Calcitonin Bone tissue Inhibits release of calcium from bone; lowers blood calcium levels (opposite of parathyroid hormone) Thyroxine All tissues Raises metabolic rate; necessary for normal growth


18 Hormones of Ovaries Hormone Target tissue Effects Estrogen
All tissues, female reproductive structures Controls dev. of secondary sex charac. and sex organs; initiates preparation of uterus for pregnancy Progesterone Uterus, breasts Completes preparation of uterus for pregnancy; stimulates breast dev.


20 Hormones of Testes Hormone Target tissue Effects Testosterone
All tissues, male reproductive organs Controls dev. of secondary sex charac. and sex organs; stimulates sperm formation


22 Hormones of Parathyroid Gland
Target tissue Effects Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Bone tissue, kidneys Stimulates breakdown of bone and release of calcium into bloodstream; raises blood calcium levels


24 Hormones of Thymus Gland
Target tissue Effects Thymosin Bone Marrow Altered in spleen Regulates production of white blood cells (immunity)


26 Disorders - Pituitary Gland
Diabetes insipidus – deficiency of ADH; characterized by large volumes of dilute urine and constant thirst; usually caused by an injury to the head, complications with brain surgery, or a brain tumor; can be genetic

27 Disorders - Pituitary Gland (dwarfism)
Pituitary Dwarfism – any person who is under 4’ 10” tall is considered a dwarf. Is caused by a deficiency of HGH in adolescence; limbs proportional and normal mental development; but may not develop adult sex features. 10,000 to 15,000 in U.S. Achondroplasia - is the most common type of dwarfism. It is characterized by abnormal body proportions. Affected individuals have arms and legs that are very short, while the torso is nearly normal size. Caused by mutation on chromosome 3 effects cartilage formation. 80% of dwarves

28 Achondroplasia

29 Disorders - Pituitary Gland (gigantism)
Gigantism – overproduction of HGH in adolescence; height may exceed 8 ft; rare, usually result of tumor (or small tumors); other hormones of pituitary gland usually affected so other hormone-related problems. Top 1% in height. Acromegaly – overproduction of HGH after puberty and growth plates have fused can cause type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and arthritis.

30 12 yr old boy with mother 8 ft 11 inches

31 Disorders - Pancreas Diabetes mellitus – insulin deficiency; inhibits conversion of glucose to glycogen therefore blood sugar is too high; results in excess urine output; also, cells use protein for energy instead of sugar so body tissues waste away; results are weight loss, hunger, fatigue, dehydration Type I – juvenile – autoimmune disease; immune system attacks cells that synthesize insulin; treatment – insulin injections Type II – adult – usually appears after age 40; usually in overweight adults; body cells lose sensitivity to insulin; treatment – controlling diet, exercise, maintaining healthy body weight

32 Diabetes Hypoglycemia – low blood sugar (can cause diabetic coma). No energy Hyperglycemia – high blood sugar (can cause the rupture of blood vessels, blurred vision, thirst, hunger, and frequent urination. Gestational Diabetes – Diabetes during pregnancy caused by high level of production of FSH and LH which blocks the effectiveness. Typically not a problem after pregnancy and does not usually cause birth defects like normal diabetes if managed correctly.

33 Disorders - Thyroid Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) – elevated metabolic rate; restlessness; overeating; eyes protrude b/c of swelling in the tissues behind them; thyroid gland enlarges causes swelling in neck called a goiter Hypothyroidism – in infants called Cretinism – stunted growth, abnormal bone formation; mental retardation; low body temp; sluggishness; in adults called Myxedema – lethargy; hair loss; low metabolic rate; obesity; more common in females

34 Goiter

35 Disorders – Adrenal gland
Cushing’s syndrome – hypersecretion of cortisol; alters carb and protein metabolism and electrolyte balances; upper body obesity; rounded face; increased fat around neck; thinning arms and legs Addison’s disease – hyposecretion of cortisol and aldosterone; weight loss; dehydration; muscle weakness; fatigue; low blood pressure; darkening of skin; JFK had this disease

36 Cushings syndrome Same patient 2 yrs later after treatment

37 Disorders – Parathyroid
Kidney stones – too much PTH; stimulates osteoclast activity; bones soften, deform; excess calcium in body fluids results in abnormal storage of calciumkidney stones

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