2 General Characteristics includes cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones directly into the body fluids to help regulate metabolic processes such as chemical reactions, reproduction, growth, and developmentThe 9 Endocrine glands include the 1. pituitary (anterior and posterior), 2. thyroid, 3. parathyroid, 4. adrenal, 5. pineal, 6. thymus, 7. pancreas, 8. testes, and 9. ovaries
4 Hormonesbiochemicals secreted by a cell that affect the function of another cell3 types:Steroid – derived from cholesterol (fat)Peptide – an amino acid based hormone (protein)Prostaglandins – hormone-like lipids (fat); act more locally than hormones; only affect organ where producedHormones are released based on the body’s need and are carried by the blood to the target cell; controlled by negative feedback
5 Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Target tissueEffectsAdreno - corticotropic hormone (ACTH)Adrenal glandsStimulates production of steroid hormonesFollicle- stimulating hormone (FSH)Ovaries and testesRegulates development of male/female gametes Regulates development of male/female gametes and production of testosterone in testes of malesLuteinizing hormone (LH)Stimulates release of egg from ovary; stimulates production of testosterone
6 Hormones of Anterior Pituitary (cont). Target tissueEffectsProlactinMammary glandsStimulates milk production in breastsGrowth hormone or somatotropin (GH)All tissuesstimulates cell growth and division, particularly bone and muscle
7 Hormones of Posterior Pituitary Target tissueEffectsAntidiuretic hormone (ADH)Kidneys, blood vesselsStimulates absorption of water (less urine production) and thereby regulates water balanceOxytocinMammary glands, uterusStimulates uterine contractions, onset of labor, and the letting down of milk to the breasts.
16 Hormones of Thyroid Gland Target tissueEffectsCalcitoninBone tissueInhibits release of calcium from bone; lowers blood calcium levels (opposite of parathyroid hormone)ThyroxineAll tissuesRaises metabolic rate; necessary for normal growth
18 Hormones of Ovaries Hormone Target tissue Effects Estrogen All tissues, female reproductive structuresControls dev. of secondary sex charac. and sex organs; initiates preparation of uterus for pregnancyProgesteroneUterus, breastsCompletes preparation of uterus for pregnancy; stimulates breast dev.
26 Disorders - Pituitary Gland Diabetes insipidus – deficiency of ADH; characterized by large volumes of dilute urine and constant thirst; usually caused by an injury to the head, complications with brain surgery, or a brain tumor; can be genetic
27 Disorders - Pituitary Gland (dwarfism) Pituitary Dwarfism – any person who is under 4’ 10” tall is considered a dwarf. Is caused by a deficiency of HGH in adolescence; limbs proportional and normal mental development; but may not develop adult sex features. 10,000 to 15,000 in U.S.Achondroplasia - is the most common type of dwarfism. It is characterized by abnormal body proportions. Affected individuals have arms and legs that are very short, while the torso is nearly normal size. Caused by mutation on chromosome 3 effects cartilage formation. 80% of dwarves
29 Disorders - Pituitary Gland (gigantism) Gigantism – overproduction of HGH in adolescence; height may exceed 8 ft; rare, usually result of tumor (or small tumors); other hormones of pituitary gland usually affected so other hormone-related problems. Top 1% in height.Acromegaly – overproduction of HGH after puberty and growth plates have fused can cause type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and arthritis.
31 Disorders - PancreasDiabetes mellitus – insulin deficiency; inhibits conversion of glucose to glycogen therefore blood sugar is too high; results in excess urine output; also, cells use protein for energy instead of sugar so body tissues waste away; results are weight loss, hunger, fatigue, dehydrationType I – juvenile – autoimmune disease; immune system attacks cells that synthesize insulin; treatment – insulin injectionsType II – adult – usually appears after age 40; usually in overweight adults; body cells lose sensitivity to insulin; treatment – controlling diet, exercise, maintaining healthy body weight
32 DiabetesHypoglycemia – low blood sugar (can cause diabetic coma). No energyHyperglycemia – high blood sugar (can cause the rupture of blood vessels, blurred vision, thirst, hunger, and frequent urination.Gestational Diabetes – Diabetes during pregnancy caused by high level of production of FSH and LH which blocks the effectiveness. Typically not a problem after pregnancy and does not usually cause birth defects like normal diabetes if managed correctly.
33 Disorders - ThyroidGraves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) – elevated metabolic rate; restlessness; overeating; eyes protrude b/c of swelling in the tissues behind them; thyroid gland enlarges causes swelling in neck called a goiterHypothyroidism – in infants called Cretinism – stunted growth, abnormal bone formation; mental retardation; low body temp; sluggishness; in adults called Myxedema – lethargy; hair loss; low metabolic rate; obesity; more common in females
35 Disorders – Adrenal gland Cushing’s syndrome – hypersecretion of cortisol; alters carb and protein metabolism and electrolyte balances; upper body obesity; rounded face; increased fat around neck; thinning arms and legsAddison’s disease – hyposecretion of cortisol and aldosterone; weight loss; dehydration; muscle weakness; fatigue; low blood pressure; darkening of skin; JFK had this disease
36 Cushings syndromeSame patient 2 yrs later after treatment
37 Disorders – Parathyroid Kidney stones – too much PTH; stimulates osteoclast activity; bones soften, deform; excess calcium in body fluids results in abnormal storage of calciumkidney stones