Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae Chapter 22. Plants are divided into 2 categories: Vascular – have internal tissues to conduct nutrients and water. Nonvascular - do not."— Presentation transcript:
Sphenophyta – Horsetails About 25 species exist today. Live in vacant lots, roadsides, and other disrupted habitats.
Pterophyta – Ferns (12,000 sp) Most are native to tropical areas, but they are also popular houseplants. Can range in size from 1cm across to 25 meters tall.
Fern Spores The leaves are called fronds. On the lower part of the frond leaflets there are small rust colored patches called sori (sorus), which are responsible for producing spores.
Rise of Seed Bearing Plants There are two groups of seed bearing plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Microspores develop into pollen grains Megaspores develop into eggs (ovules) that will get fertilized within the ovary to become seeds.
Pollination is the arrival of pollen on the female reproductive organ Pollen and ovule combine during fertilization to make a seed (embryo)
Gymnosperms – Seed bearing plants Conifers – woody trees or shrubs that produce needle-like leaves and have seeds exposed on cone scales.
Most conifers are evergreen – they shed a few leaves all year, but some are deciduous – they shed all of their leaves in cold weather. The most abundant – pine trees, Tallest – redwoods, Oldest – Bristlecone pine.
Gingko They were very diverse in dinosaur times. Only surviving species is the Gingko biloba. They are deciduous.
Gnetophyta Gnetum trees have leathery leaves and exist in the humid tropics. Ephedra thrives in California deserts and other arid regions.
Angiosperms Produce specialized reproductive structures called flowers. Angeion refers to the female reproductive parts at the center of the flower. The enlarged base of the vessel is the ovary where ovules and seeds develop.
At least 260,000 species live in a variety of habitats. They are divided into two categories: Monocots and Dicots
180,000 dicots most are herbaceous (nonwoody). Cabbages and daisies, flowering shrubs and trees, water lilies and cacti. 80,000 species of monocots. Orchids, palms, lilies, grasses, and highly valuable crop plants.
Trait DicotsMonocots Embryo Two cotyledons (seed leaves) One cotyledon (seed leaf) FlowersParts in 4 / 5Parts in 3x RootsTaprootFibrous Leaf VeinsNetParallel