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Functional Properties of Carbohydrate

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1 Functional Properties of Carbohydrate
Dudsadee Uttapap

2 Chemical elements/Functional group Molecular size
Carbohydrate Structure Chemical elements/Functional group Molecular size Molecular arrangement Function

3 CHO in commercial products
Sorbitol, cellulose gum, xanthan gum, sucralose Sorbitol, Carrageeenan, cellulose gum

4 CHO in commercial products
Xanthan

5 carboxymethyl cellulose
CHO in commercial products carboxymethyl cellulose (cellulose gum)

6 Sucrose vs Sucralose Sucralose Sucrose
Sucralose can be found in more than 4,500 food and beverage products. It is used because it is a no-calorie sweetener, does not promote dental cavities,[11] is safe for consumption by diabetics,[12] and does not affect insulin levels.[13] Sucralose is used as a replacement for, or in combination with, other artificial or natural sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame potassium or high-fructose corn syrup. Sucralose is used in products such as candy, breakfast bars and soft drinks. It is also used in canned fruits wherein water and sucralose take the place of much higher calorie corn syrup based additives. Sucralose mixed with maltodextrin or dextrose (both made from corn) as bulking agents is sold internationally by McNeil Nutritionals under the Splenda brand name selective chlorination of sucrose Sucrose sucralose is 600 times sweeter than sugar and does not metabolize to produce energy

7 CHO in commercial products
Sorbitol

8 Carrageenan Monomer: D-galactose (anhydro/sulfate)
Bonding: -1,4/-1,3

9 kappa iota -Most important red seaweed polysaccharides used by food industry. -3 forms differ in sulfate ester -commercial products contain a mixture of 3 fractions -stabilize milk protein -water gel in low-calorie jams and jellies -thickeners/stabilizer (combine with other hydrocolloid) lambda

10 CHO in commercial products
with International Patented Prebio ProteQ Combination consist of GOS / FOS in patented ratio Sucralose can be found in more than 4,500 food and beverage products. It is used because it is a no-calorie sweetener, does not promote dental cavities,[11] is safe for consumption by diabetics,[12] and does not affect insulin levels.[13] Sucralose is used as a replacement for, or in combination with, other artificial or natural sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame potassium or high-fructose corn syrup. Sucralose is used in products such as candy, breakfast bars and soft drinks. It is also used in canned fruits wherein water and sucralose take the place of much higher calorie corn syrup based additives. Sucralose mixed with maltodextrin or dextrose (both made from corn) as bulking agents is sold internationally by McNeil Nutritionals under the Splenda brand name

11 CHO in commercial products
Several strains of bacteria live in the colon. Good ones and bad ones. Vivinal GOS is food for the good bacteria. The good bacteria grow faster and therefore the bad bacteria in your colon decrease. This provides a number of health benefits such as, relief of constipation, support of natural defences, growth of bifidobacteria and improved mineral absorption. Vivinal GOS is an ingredient rich in galacto-oligosaccarides. It is derived from lactose (milk sugar). Lactose is a disacaccharide and consists of mono sugars, galactose and glucose. (Figure 1) Prebiotic

12 CHO in commercial products
Hyaluronic acid Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body. It is found in the highest concentrations in fluids in the eyes and joints. The hyaluronic acid that is used as medicine is extracted from rooster combs or made by bacteria in the laboratory. People take hyaluronic acid for various joint disorders, including osteoarthritis. It can be taken by mouth or injected into the affected joint by a healthcare professional. The FDA has approved the use of hyaluronic acid during certain eye surgeries including cataract removal, corneal transplantation, and repair of a detached retina and other eye injuries. It is injected into the eye during the procedure to help replace natural fluids. Hyaluronic acid is also used as a lip filler in plastic surgery. Some people apply hyaluronic acid to the skin for healing wounds, burns, skin ulcers, and as a moisturizer. There is also a lot of interest in using hyaluronic acid to prevent the effects of aging. In fact, hyaluronic acid has been promoted as a "fountain of youth." However, there is no evidence to support the claim that taking it by mouth or applying it to the skin can prevent changes associated with aging. hyaluronic acid is utilized in many products, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food

13 CHO in commercial products
Tablet Binder, Disintegrant, Sweetening Coating Agent -Starch and Pregelatinized Starch Microcrystalline Cellulose Guar Gum Fructose, Mannitol, and Xylitol Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Maltodextrin Starch and Pregelatinized Starch are used primarily as binders to improve tablet durability and integrity. Both are derived from corn. Pregelatinized starch is partially hydrolyzed and dried to make it flow better during tableting. It also has superior binding characteristics. Starch and pregelatinized starch are also used as disintegrants. After ingestion, these starch granules swell in the fluid environment of the stomach and force the tablet to break apart. Microcrystalline Cellulose serves multiple functions in tablet formulas. It is an excellent binder and disintegrant. It is derived from plant fiber. Modified Food Starch (Dextrin) functions as a stabilizer and a binder. It may also help to improve tablet solubility and texture. It is produced from starch. Guar Gum functions as a strong binder. It helps to keep the tablets from disintegrating during packaging, storage and handling. It is derived from the seed kernel of the guar plant. Fructose, Mannitol, and Xylitol are used in chewable tablets as sweetening agents to mask the unpleasant taste of vitamins and minerals and to improve texture. These natural sweeteners are extracted and purified from plant sources, particularly from fruits. In addition, these ingredients have good binding properties and aid in the tablet formation and integrity. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose is constituent of the film-coating agent used on most USANA tablets. As its name implies, this excipient is derived from cellulose or plant fiber. It helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease of swallowing the tablets. Maltodextrin is another constituent of the film-coating agent on most USANA tablets. It helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease of swallowing the tablets. It is derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch. Starch and Pregelatinized Starch, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Guar Gum, Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Fructose, Mannitol, and Xylitol , Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Maltodextrin

14 ATP: energy currency

15

16 Monoosaccharide Carbon Aldose Ketose 3C glyceraldehyde
dihydroxyacetone 4C erythrose, threose erythrulose 5C arabinose, lyxose, ribose, xylose ribulose, xylulose 6C allose, altrose, galactose, glucose, gulose, idose, mannose, talose fructose, psicose, sorbose, tagatose

17 Glucose vs Fructose Fructose Glucose
จากการวิเคราะห์ Unknown starch พบว่าเนื้อสัมผัสของแป้งมีลักษณะที่ร่วน ไม่ติดมือ และเมื่อนำไปส่องกล้องลักษณะเม็ดแป้งที่ได้มี 2 ขนาด คือ ขนาดเล็กและใหญ่ ซึ่งมีขนาดอยู่ในช่วง 1-20 ไมครอน มี%ความชื้นอยู่ที่ 13.49% และเมื่อทำการวิเคราะห์ด้วยเครื่อง RVA พบว่า มีความหนืดต่ำ และมีการอัตราคืนตัวสูง จากนั้นทำการเปรียบเทียบกับงานวิจัยต่างๆ พบว่ามีความสอดคล้องกับงานวิจัยแป้งข้าวสาลี Fructose Glucose

18 Relative sweetness Sucralose can be found in more than 4,500 food and beverage products. It is used because it is a no-calorie sweetener, does not promote dental cavities,[11] is safe for consumption by diabetics,[12] and does not affect insulin levels.[13] Sucralose is used as a replacement for, or in combination with, other artificial or natural sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame potassium or high-fructose corn syrup. Sucralose is used in products such as candy, breakfast bars and soft drinks. It is also used in canned fruits wherein water and sucralose take the place of much higher calorie corn syrup based additives. Sucralose mixed with maltodextrin or dextrose (both made from corn) as bulking agents is sold internationally by McNeil Nutritionals under the Splenda brand name

19 Carbohydrate functions
Energy sources (glucose/glycogen) Structural elements cell wall (plants, bacteria) connective tissues adhesion between cells AMORPHOUS GROUND SUBSTANCE 1. PROTEOGLYCANS (diagram) a. Physical characteristics 1. polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans (GAG)complexes 2. attached to an inner protein core 3. bottle brush arrangement 4. long polysaccharide chains 5. high carbohydrate content relative to protein 6. generally negatively charged b. Major classes of proteoglycans 1. hyaluronic acid 2. chondroitin 3. dermatan sulfate 4. keratan sulfate 5. heparin sulfate c. Functions 1. contributes to physical consistency of ground substance 2. an adhesive substance for collagen fibrils 3. transport and regulation of water and electrolytes 4. barrier to spread of bacteria 5. lubrication and viscosity (e.g.. synovial fluid) 6. absorb compressive loads

20 composed of L-iduronate (many are sulfated) + GalNAc-4-sulfate
Dermatan sulfate composed of L-iduronate (many are sulfated) + GalNAc-4-sulfate linkages is  (1, 3)

21 The most abundant heteropolysaccharides in the body are the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These molecules are long unbranched polysaccharides containing a repeating disaccharide unit. The disaccharide units contain either of two modified sugars--- N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and a uronic acid such as glucuronate or iduronate. GAGs are highly negatively charged molecules, with extended conformation that imparts high viscosity to the solution. GAGs are located primarily on the surface of cells or in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Along with the high viscosity of GAGs comes low compressibility, which makes these molecules ideal for a lubricating fluid in the joints. At the same time, their rigidity provides structural integrity to cells and provides passageways between cells, allowing for cell migration. The specific GAGs of physiological significance are hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, heparin, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate.

22 Characteristics of GAGs
Localization Comments Hyaluronate synovial fluid, vitreous humor, ECM of loose connective tissue large polymers, shock absorbing Chondroitin sulfate cartilage, bone, heart valves most abundant GAG Heparan sulfate basement membranes, components of cell surfaces contains higher acetylated glucosamine than heparin Heparin component of intracellular granules of mast cells lining the arteries of the lungs, liver and skin more sulfated than heparan sulfates Dermatan sulfate skin, blood vessels, heart valves Keratan sulfate cornea, bone, cartilage aggregated with chondroitin sulfates

23 Plant cell wall

24 The Gram positive cell wall
Muramic acid, in N-Acetylated form (MurNAc) is one of the building blocks of bacterial cell walls. It is similar to sialic acid in that it has a nine-carbon skeleton. MurNAc has a branched skeleton, however, where NeuNAc does not. Muramic acid can be visualized as the linkage of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose to D-lactic acid. The Gram positive cell wall

25 Peptidoglycan two sugars are N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) and
N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM).

26

27

28 Glyceraldehyde tasteless
Dihydroxy acetone sweet, cooling taste

29 Galactose Mannose Ribose Glucose

30 Derivatives of Glucose

31

32

33 Oligosaccharide -starch oligosaccharide; maltose, stachyose
-cellulose: cellobiose -sucrose, lactose, trehalose -cyclodextrin (6C,7C,8C) -fructooligosaccharide (GF2,GF3,GF4) -coupling sugar (Gn-G-F) Beans and other legumes contain a number of oligosaccharides (stachyose, raffinose) that are very poorly digested in the small intestine. These carbohydrates pass into the large bowel where they are fodder for bacterial fermentation.

34

35 Glycosidic linkage/acetal lingkage

36 Cyclodextrin Monomer: Glucose Bonding: -1,4

37 Fructan

38 Fructans are probably the most abundant storage carbohydrate in plants next to starch and sucrose.  Fructans are linear or branched polymers of mostly ß-fructosyl-fructose linkages.  Unlike sucrose they are synthesized and stored in vacuoles and can accumulate in the stems, bulbs and tubers of a number of plants

39 Fructooligosaccharides are a fruit derived sugar
Fructooligosaccharides are a fruit derived sugar. These promote the grown of bifidobacteria in the gut. Bifidobacteria produce a natural antibiotic against E.Coli 0157:H7 AND stroptococcus. There are fewer bifidobacteria in the elderly (who also tend to eat less fruit). So, it is the elderly who mostly die from this deadly E.Coli infection.

40 Polysaccharide Homopolymer/Heteropolymer

41 Sources Microbial: xanthan, gellan, dextran
Seaweed; carrageenan, agar, alginate Plant: gum arabic, guar gum, pectin, cellulose, starch, konjac Animal: chitin Exudate Gum arabic Gum karaya Gum tragacanth Seed gum Locust bean gum Guar gum

42 Starch Amylose

43 Amylopectin

44

45 Cellulose Monomer: glucose Bonding: -1,4 Carboxymethyl cellulose
The basic functions of CMC is to bind water or impart viscosity, stabilizethe other ingredients, orprevent syneresis -control ice crystals in ice cream -bulking agent because of high water binding -at low pH it loses viscosity and had a tendency to precipitate Cellulose Monomer: glucose Bonding: -1,4 Carboxymethyl cellulose

46

47 -Glucan Monomer: Glucose Bonding: -1,4/-1,3
Beta glucan is a natural complex carbohydrate or biopolymer whose efficacy in stimulating the immune system to destroy foreign invaders has been demonstrated in numerous scientific studies. Beta glucan stimulates the macrophages, a type of white blood cell that identifies and destroys foreigner intruders and rallies the other defenders. Biopolymer Engineering markets two beta glucan product lines under the Imucell™ WGP and Life Source Basics brands. Beta glucan is a safe and very potent dietary supplement that empowers the immune system to build up and, when necessary, renew our bodies disease defenses; enabling better disease prevention, faster recoveries, protection from radiation and extension of life by anti-aging attributes. Beta glucan also is a powerful antioxidant with heightened free-radical scavenging activity to fight back against these devastating health invaders to our bodies. Technically named Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan, Beta glucan is a polysaccharide (glucose) molecule derived from the cell wall of common baker's yeast. The ß-1,3 glucan, callose, also similar to cellulose, is an important polymeric component of sieve plates of phloem tubes.  Callose is also produced during wound healing of damaged plant tissues

48 Chitin Monomer: acetylglucosamine Bonding: -1,4

49 Agarose Monomer: D-galactose/3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
-Galactose polymers characterized by thermoreversible gelation -low setting and high melting temperature Agarose Monomer: D-galactose/3,6-anhydro-L-galactose Bonding: -1,3/-1,4

50 Konjac (glucomannan) Monomer: glucose, mannose Bonding: -1,4

51 Alginate G M G, M Monomer: -mannuronic acid (M)
Because of their heat stability, alginate gel are often used in preference to some thermoreversible gelling system -excellent thickening properties/stabilizing capabilities -At low pH, it gel or precipitate, can not be stabilizer to products; fruit juices, salad dressing -May use glycol alginate; carboxyl groups were esterified. -propylene glycol alginate acts as emulsifier/emulsion stabilizer (bear foam) Monomer: -mannuronic acid (M) -L-guluronic acid (G) Bonding: -1,4/-1,4

52 Pectin Monomer: D-galacturonic acid, L-rhamnose
Others: D-galactose, D-xylose, D-arabinose short side chain) Bonding: -1,4 -gelling and thickening agents -bound to calcium in the middle lamella -bound to cellulose in the primary cell wall

53 Pectin-Alginate image

54 Carrageenan Monomer: D-galactose (anhydro/sulfate)
Bonding: -1,4/-1,3

55 kappa iota -Most important red seaweed polysaccharides used by food industry. -3 forms differ in sulfate ester -commercial products contain a mixture of 3 fractions -stabilize milk protein -water gel in low-calorie jams and jellies -thickeners/stabilizer (combine with other hydrocolloid) lambda

56

57 Xanthan Monomer: backbone glucose (as cellulose)
side chain mannose/glucuronic acid Bonding: -1,4/-1,2/-1,3 -only microbial gum permitted for use in food -has cellulose backbone -is made water soluble by the presence of short chains attached to every second glucose -exists in solution as a rigid rod stabilized by noncovalent interaction between the backbone and the side chains -high viscosity -viscosity stability at elevated temp. and over a wide pH range in the presence of salt -synergistic interaction with guar gum or locust bean gum. Guar gum increased viscosity, lbs produces thermoreversible gel -readily disperse in hot and col water give high viscosity

58 Dextran -only microbial gum permitted for use in food -has cellulose backbone -is made water soluble by the presence of short chains attached to every second glucose -exists in solution as a rigid rod stabilized by noncovalent interaction between the backbone and the side chains -high viscosity -viscosity stability at elevated temp. and over a wide pH range in the presence of salt -synergistic interaction with guar gum or locust bean gum. Guar gum increased viscosity, lbs produces thermoreversible gel -readily disperse in hot and col water give high viscosity Dextran is an α-D-1,6-glucose-linked glucan with side-chains 1-3 linked to the backbone units of the Dextran biopolymer. The degree of branching is approximately 5%. The branches are mostly 1-2 glucose units long. Dextran can be obtained from fermentation of sucrose-containing media by Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512F.

59 Locust bean gum Seed Gum Monomer: galactose, mannose (galactomannan)
Bonding: -1,4/-1,6 (branch)

60 Guar gum Monomer: galactose, mannose (galactomannan)
Bonding: -1,6/-1,4

61 Tamatind gum, the heavily substitured natural cellulosic
Exhibits a very low level of mixed gelling interaction with other polysaccharides.

62 Plant exudate Gum karaya Gum ghatti Gum Tragacanth Gum arabic

63 Gum Arabic -complex heteropolysaccharide -low viscosity

64 Functional properties of carbohydrate
Food products Nonfood products Structural-function relationship Molecular size Molecular arrangement Chemical composition Functional group

65

66 Micelle formation Three-dimensional gel network

67 Agar Gel Forming Mechanism

68 B: association of polygalacturonic acid sequences through chelation of Ca++ ions according to the egg-box model C: chelation formala

69 Pectin gel forming mechanism

70 Pectin

71 High methoxy pectin

72 Low methoxy pectin

73

74 Olestra is synthesized using a sucrose molecule, which can support up to eight fatty acid chains arranged radially like an octopus, and is too large to move through the intestinal wall. Olestra has the same taste and mouthfeel as fat, but since it does not contain glycerol and the fatty acid tails can not be removed from the sucrose molecule for digestion, it passes through the digestive system without being absorbed and adds no calories or nutritive value to the diet.

75

76

77

78 Silverlon® Calcium Alginate Wound Dressings
Product Description: Silverlon™ CA Advanced Antimicrobial Alginate Dressing, is a sterile, non-woven pad composed of a High M (manuronic acid) alginate and a silver nylon contact layer. The silver ions provides an antimicrobial barrier which protects the dressing from bacterial contamination. The dressing absorbs exudates, maintains a moist wound environment and allows for intact removal.

79 Dissolve on your tongue instantly just one strip will freshen-up your breath in seconds.
Leave you with a clean mouth feeling. Contain no sugar or calories. INGREDIENTS CoolMint: Pullulan, Menthol, Flavours, Aspartame, Acesulfame Potassium, Copper Gluconate, Polysorbate 80, Carrageenan, Glyceryl Oleate, Cineole (Eucalyptol), Methyl Salicylate, Thymol, Locust Bean Gum, Propylene Glycol, Xanthan Gum, Fast Green FCF.

80 Tablet Excipients Excipients are inactive, non-medicinal ingredients that are used by all manufacturers of tableted products to impart desirable characteristics important for manufacture, convenience of use, and product efficacy.  Most are inert powdered materials that are blended with the active ingredients prior to tableting.  Excipients may be classified as follows according to their general function.

81 Binders are added to hold a tablet together after it has been compressed.  Without binders, tablets would break down into their component powders during packaging, shipping, and routine handling. Disintegrants are used to ensure that, when a tablet is ingested, it breaks down quickly in the stomach.  Rapid disintegration is a necessary first step in ensuring that the active ingredients are bioavailable and readily absorbed.

82 Lubricants are required during manufacture to ensure that the tableting powder (i.e. the raw ingredient blend) does not stick to the pressing equipment.  Lubricants improve the flow of powder mixes through the presses, and they help finished tablets release from the equipment with a minimum of friction and breakage. Sweetening and Flavoring Agents are commonly added to chewable tablet formulations to improve taste, texture and overall palatability.

83 Coating Agents are used to impart a finished look and a smooth surface to tablets, and to mask any unpleasant flavors that the tablet ingredients may have.  Coating agents are applied after tablet pressing in a separate operation. Emulsifying agents are widely used as dispersing, suspending and clarifying agents. They are used to stabilize blends of liquids that are not mutually soluble and improve the bioavailability of some lipid-soluble compounds.

84 Starch and Pregelatinized Starch are used primarily as binders to improve tablet durability and integrity. Both are derived from corn. Pregelatinized starch is partially hydrolyzed and dried to make it flow better during tableting. It also has superior binding characteristics. Starch and pregelatinized starch are also used as disintegrants. After ingestion, these starch granules swell in the fluid environment of the stomach and force the tablet to break apart. Microcrystalline Cellulose serves multiple functions in tablet formulas. It is an excellent binder and disintegrant. It is derived from plant fiber.

85 Modified Food Starch (Dextrin) functions as a stabilizer and a binder
Modified Food Starch (Dextrin) functions as a stabilizer and a binder. It may also help to improve tablet solubility and texture. It is produced from starch. Guar Gum functions as a strong binder. It helps to keep the tablets from disintegrating during packaging, storage and handling. It is derived from the seed kernel of the guar plant.

86 Croscarmellose Sodium (Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose) is called a "super disintegrant" because it is very effective even at very low concentrations at promoting the breakdown of tablets following ingestion. It is manufactured from cellulose (plant fiber) which has been processed to have a high affinity for water. Dextrose a simple sugar is used in some formulas as binder and disintegrant.

87 Fructose, Mannitol, and Xylitol are used in chewable tablets as sweetening agents to mask the unpleasant taste of vitamins and minerals and to improve texture. These natural sweeteners are extracted and purified from plant sources, particularly from fruits. In addition, these ingredients have good binding properties and aid in the tablet formation and integrity. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose is constituent of the film-coating agent used on most USANA tablets. As its name implies, this excipient is derived from cellulose or plant fiber. It helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease of swallowing the tablets.

88 Maltodextrin is another constituent of the film-coating agent on most USANA tablets. It helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease of swallowing the tablets. It is derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch.

89 As a group, sugar alcohols are not as sweet as sucrose, and they have less food energy than
Source: Antonio Zamora, "Carbohydrates" Name Sweetness relative to sucrose Food energy (kcal/g) Sweetness per food energy, relative to sucrose Arabitol 0.7 0.2 14 Erythritol 0.812 0.213 15 Glycerol 0.6 4.3 0.56 HSH 0.4–0.9 3.0 0.52–1.2 Isomalt 0.5 2.0 1.0 Lactitol 0.4 0.8 Maltitol 0.9 2.1 1.7 Mannitol 1.6 1.2 Sorbitol 2.6 0.92 Xylitol 2.4 Compare with: Sucrose 4.0


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