Presentation on theme: "We continue to Learn a lot about the Solar System by using Space Exploration CHAPTER 11."— Presentation transcript:
We continue to Learn a lot about the Solar System by using Space Exploration CHAPTER 11
Section 11.1 The Sun page 390 -Average sized star -300,000 more massive than Earth, 99% of all mass in our solar system -Millions of km away -Approx. 5 billion Years old with 5 billion more to go!
The Huge size of the sun causes pressure to build up at the center of the sun as gravity pulls the mass inward… Thermonuclear Reactions turn H (hydrogen)He (helium) giving off Heat, Light and UV radiation in the process HHe Pressure Heat, Light and UV radiation
Solar Radiation – Energy (E) Emitted from the sun in the form of Electromagnetic Radiation … E that is carried or radiated in the form of waves that range in length, ex. Microwaves, radio waves, UV waves The Earth is located in the “Goldilocks Zone”, not too hot, not too cold, just right!
SUNSPOTS – dark patches of slightly cooler (3500°C) surface areas on the sun, they increase and decrease in number on an 11-yr cycle. They may be related to changes in the Earth’s climate. SOLAR FLARES – eruptions of gas on the suns surface – can last a few hours, temperatures increase up to 11,000,000°C Creates Solar Winds
Solar WindSolar Wind page 393 Hot E bubbles “pop” on the surface of the sun and send high E particles rushing past Earth. Earth is protected from this solar wind by its magnetic field. Some of the particles enter the Earth’s atmosphere at the poles where they collide with the gas in the atmosphere to create Auroras (Northern/Southern lights) page 394.
Some solar winds can disturb Earth’s magnetic field and disable satellites, knock out power lines, and expose astronauts to high levels of radiation
Section 11.2 page 398 Characteristics of the Celestial Bodies of the Solar System
The Planets To be a planet you must… … orbit 1 or more stars … be large enough so its gravity holds it in place … be the only body in its orbital path
Astronomical Units (AU) Used to measure distances in space 1 AU = 150 million km (the distance from the Earth to the Sun) 5.27 AU 1 AU
Activity 11-2A: Terrestrial and Jovian Planets Read Sectioon 11.2 of your text on the planets and complete the table in your notes. Mnemonic Device to Remember the order of the Planets??? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
PLUTOPLUTO Now considered Dwarf Planet – a celestial body orbiting the Sun that is generally smaller than a planet but massive enough for its own gravity to give it a round shape. However they are not strong enough to clear their orbit of debris There are many other “dwarf planets” some are bigger and some like Pluto have moons
A Comparison of 3 dwarf planets and Earth, notice some have moons and some don’t
COMETS “dirty snowballs” composed of ice, rock and gas Originate from the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud They travel in long elliptical orbits around the sun which are affected by thegravitational pulls of other planets It has a long dust tail as sunlight starts to melt the ice, these can stretch millions of km Most famous Halley’s comet which is visable every 76 years or so
Periodicity of Comets: "Period" is the amount of time it takes an object in orbit to return to its starting location.time object starting location Comets travel in short and long periods around the sun in elliptical orbits
ASTEROIDS Small bodies believed to be the leftover remains of the formation of the Solar System Mostly found in an asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter They have irregular shapes Range in size from a grain of sand up to 1000km An asteroid up to 1 km would devastate Earth
METEORSMETEORS Meteoroid – a rocky chunk, broken off an asteroid or planet, which floats through space Meteor – a meteoroid that burns up as it passes through Earths atmosphere, seen as a shooting star Meteorite – a meteoroid that does not burn up fully in the Earths atmosphere and hits the Earths surface
Deep Impact Sites A place where a relatively small object (meteorite) has collided with a larger object (planet) Produces a fairly circular depression in the surface of the larger object referred to as an impact crater
QUIZ Thursday, October 17, 2013 10 True/False 15 Multiple Choice 6 Matching 2 Short Answer Questions Study Guide: The Sun – characteristics, diagram, sunspots, solar flares, solar winds, etc The Planets – characteristics, table of comparison for inner/outer planets What is an astronomical unit? Pluto Comets Asteroids Meteors, meteoroid, meteorite Deep impact sites Worksheet for Section 11.3