Presentation on theme: "Voting, Campaigns, Campaign Finances, Media and Interest Groups"— Presentation transcript:
1 Voting, Campaigns, Campaign Finances, Media and Interest Groups
2 “Let us never forget that government is ourselves “Let us never forget that government is ourselves. The ultimate rulers of our democracy …are the voters of this country.”-Franklin D. Roosevelt
3 A right and a responsibility of citizenship. VOTINGA right and a responsibility of citizenship.
4 VOTING: QUALIFICATIONS 18 years oldU.S. CitizenState ResidentMentally CompetentNot a convicted felon
5 VOTING: REGISTRATION Must register 20 days before the election at: DMV Registrar’s OfficeMail in Application
6 VOTING: PARTICIPATION Increased turn-out in Presidential ElectionsParticipation more likely:EducationAgeIncome
7 VOTING: NON VOTERS Lack Interest Forget to register Not informed on issuesParticipation less likely:IncomeAgeEducation
8 VOTING: MAIN IDEAQualified citizens have a responsibility of stay informed about campaign issues and exercise their right to vote.
9 Voting: Absentee For people who can not get to voting booths Request form prior to Election DayMailed in and counted on Election Day
10 Voting: Why your vote matters!! Stay informed!Separate fact from fictionGives you a chance to choose your government leadersExpress/voice your opinionElect new leaders
11 Election Campaigns General Election: * First Tuesday after the first Monday of November* All seats in H.O.R. and 1/3rd of Senate are up* Every 4 years* Ballot can include governor, state legislatures, county government, local offices
12 Presidential Elections 3 steps:Nominations of CandidatesCampaignVote
13 Presidential Election: Nomination Campaigns start a year or so before electionNational conventions held Summer before electionToday, used to kick off the campaign and rally party members
15 Presidential Elections: Vote Electoral CollegePerson who wins the popular vote, wins the states Electoral Votes (winner-take-all system)
16 ELECTORAL COLLEGEThe President and the Vice President are elected by a majority vote in the Electoral College.
17 # of electoral votes in each state ELECTORAL COLLEGEEach state has the same number of electors as it does Congress Members# of Senators+# of Representatives =__________________# of electoral votes in each state
18 ELECTORAL COLLEGE 538 Total Electoral Votes 270 Electoral votes needed to win the election
19 WHY ELECTORAL COLLEGE Why do we need electors? What made the framers of the Constitution create this system for the election of the President and Vice-President?WHYWhy do we need electors?
20 Electoral College Why we need it?? * Compromise between founding fathers* To have each state legislatures choose presidential electors* Popular vote chooses who will receive electoral votes
21 How to balance power between the large and small states? ELECTORAL COLLEGERepresentationQuestion for the framers:How to balance power between the large and small states?Result: Electoral votes for each state are determined by population
22 ELECTORAL COLLEGE Fear Issue for the framers: People are not educated enough to make a good decision.Result: Electors who were educated about the process would make the official vote.
23 ELECTORAL COLLEGE Knowledge Issue for the framers:Voters do not know about candidates from other states.Result: Using electors would keep people from only voting for candidates from their state.
24 ELECTORAL COLLEGEElectoral CollegeThe President and the Vice President are elected by a majority vote in the electoral college.Each state has the same number of electors as it does Congress Members# of Senators+# of Representatives =____________________# of electoral votes in each state
25 Process ELECTORAL COLLEGE Each party picks electors who promise to vote for their party’s candidate.Popular vote: first Tuesday after the first Monday in November
26 Electoral Vote: December Winner take all systemThe candidate with most votes in a state wins all of the electoral votes for that state.Electoral Vote: DecemberElectors cast the official votes for President and Vice President.
27 Effect of the Electoral College on Campaigns Candidates concentrate on states with more electoral votes (California, New York)Small states can make the difference in close electionsFavors a 2-party systemIt is possible to tie (269 electoral votes each)
28 A TIE!!! What if… no candidate receives 270 votes? House of Representatives selects the PresidentSenateselects the Vice President
30 Electoral College Schoolhouse Rock-Electoral College Schoolhouse Rock-Electoral College
31 Campaign FinancingCanvassing: Political party members going door to door asking for votes or taking polls
32 Campaign FinancingEndorsements: Famous and popular person supports or campaigns for a candidatePoint= If people like the person who is making the endorsements, people might vote for the candidate as well
33 Campaign FinancingCampaign Expenses: T.V. ads cost tens of thousands of $$-Airfare and other transportation-Salaries of staff members-Fees-Computer, television, phone, postage, printing costs
34 Financing a Campaign*Congress placed control on campaign financing after 1970Law required:Public disclosure of each candidate’s spendingestablished federal funding of presidential electionstried to limit how much individuals and groups could spend
35 Financing a Campaign Public Funding: * Presidential Campaign Fund= allows taxpayers to donate $3 of their federal income tax return to go to the fund.* Presidential candidates can qualify to get some of this money to campaign in primary elections if they have raised $100,000 on their own
36 Financing a Campaign Private Funding: * Private sources provide campaign funds and include individual citizens, party organizations, and corporations, special interest groups (labor unions) donate funds to candidates* Donations given to political parties and note designated for a particular candidate’s election campaign = SOFT MONEY*Soft Money must be used for general purposes – voter registration, direct mailings, or advertisements
37 Gives an advantage to rich people $Rising Campaign CostsLots of fund raising by candidates and partiesGives an advantage to rich peopleLimits opportunities to run for office.
38 Limits opportunities to run for office. Interest Groups have more powerEncourage PACsCampaign Finance ReformRising campaign costs have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws. Limits exist on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns.
40 Political Action Committees PACsPolitical Action CommitteesEstablished to raise money to support an issue or candidate
41 Political Action Committees PACs are the political branch of a special interest group.PACs raise voluntary donations of money from people who agree with their cause.They give money to elections campaigns of people they support and to the political party that will work for their goals.
42 PAC’s give their soft money to INCUMBENTS (politicians who have already been elected to office) * Result: lawmakers were reluctant to change the rules in ways that could help their opponents in the next election
49 Role of the Media in Elections The editorial section of the newspaper, a televised debate or T.V. program can provide candidates and experts a way to present opposing viewpoints on the issues.Air Different Points of View
50 Role of the Media in Elections Call Attention to Important IssuesBy printing articles or airing stories about a particular issue, the media is able to create interest in a topic where none existed.
51 Role of the Media in Elections Identify candidates & their platforms (stand/opinion on the issues)Government officials and candidates use the media to communicatewith the public.
52 How can voters evaluate speeches, literature and advertisements for accuracy? BY:Separating fact from opinionDetecting biasEvaluating sources of informationIdentifying propaganda
54 “Candidate Roberts is corrupt and caters to special interest groups.” Name Calling“Candidate Roberts is corrupt and caters to special interest groups.”Use of an unpleasant label or description to harm an opposing candidate.
56 “Vote for Hillary Clinton, who understands the problems of Florida.” Plain Folks Appeal“Vote for Hillary Clinton, who understands the problems of Florida.”Candidates describe themselves as regular people; average, hard working citizens.
58 Public PolicyHow individuals, interest groups and the media influence the actions of the government.
59 What influences people’s opinions?? Family & FriendsMedia (Print and T.V.)Importance
60 Why might a group have more influence than an individual? Louder VoiceMore $Represent more people
61 The actions of the government as they deal with the issues of the day. Public PolicyThe actions of the government as they deal with the issues of the day.
62 Ways that individuals influence public policy. VotingBeing informedParticipating in politicsExpressing opinions:* Letters to politicians* DemonstratingCampaigningLobbyingJoining interest groups
63 Ways that groups influence public policy. Interest Groups: organizations that seek to influence government policyIdentify and publicize issuesOffer different viewpointsLobby- seeking to influence legislators to introduce legislation or to vote for or against a bill.Donate $
64 -Vary in size, goals and budget Interest GroupsInterest groups:-Vary in size, goals and budget-Attempt to influence both the government and public opinion-Hire lobbyists to represent their interestsAn interest group is a structured organization of people with shared attitudes who attempt to influence public policy.
67 Public Policy is influenced by: IndividualsInterest GroupsMediaVotecampaignKeep informedExpress Opinions by:-Writing letters to politicians-Demonstrating-LobbyingJoin interest groupsIdentify and publicize issuesOffer different viewpointsLobbyDonate Money $$$Draws attention to issuesShows different views on issuesHolds candidates accountableAllows officials to communicate with citizens
68 Influencing Government: Lobbyists Lobbyist: Representatives of interest groups who contact lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making Persuade government officials to support their interest groups policies Give important information to lawmakers (suggest solutions for problems and issues) Draft their own bills for lawmakers Concerned with making sure laws are carried out, enforced, and upheld in court
70 Initiative- a way a citizen can propose new laws or state constitutional amendments Citizens will get qualified voters to sign a petition. If enough people sign the proposed law, PROPOSITION, is put on the ballot at the next general election.Referendum- a way for citizens to approve or reject a state or local law.-Citizens have the right to have a law referred (sent back) to voters for their approval at the next general election.
71 Another type of special election is called a RECALL * citizens vote to to remove a public official from office*Starts with a petition and can recall an official because they do not like his or her position on issues or because the official has been charged with wrongdoing.
72 Straight-Ticket: When a citizen votes for all republican or democratic candidates on a ballot. Returns: Ballots and results of an electionButterfly: A ballot that has candidates and issues on both sides and it separated by the numbered marks to punch down the middle.