Current trends in life expectancy in Moscow and some Eastern European countries
Main features of recent improvement Highest gains in working ages (15- 64) Main improvements due to causes directly related to alcohol, accidents and respiratory diseases These improvements may be related to the recent measures of increased control after alcohol production adopted in 2005
Additional factor – fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality Age-standardized mortality of men (per 100,000) from accidental poisoning by alcohol
Improvement in life expectancy in 2005-2006, Men
Improvement in life expectancy in 2005-2006, Women
Migration Different types of migration: International migration Internal migration Labor migration Forced migration Repatriation
Migration statistics in the Soviet Union Soviet Union had unique and very accurate system of migration statistics (for internal migration) This system was closely related to the passport system and residence registration (‘propiska’). Data were collected by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) Change of address was accompanied by departure registration and arrival registration The system was totalitarian (migration required permission from police)
Migration statistics in Russia (1990s) Soviet system of migration statistics was destroyed Main changes happened in 1995 when the system of registration was modified. All migrants were divided into two categories: (1) those who change their permanent address; (2) those who register for temporary residence. Migration statistics covers only permanent migrants. Main limitation: incomplete coverage
Staying in Russia required registration in police Police could stop person without any reason and ask for registration
Problems with migration statistics in Russia (continue) Problems also existed in registration of external migration (migration to/from other countries) Restrictive laws about obtaining permanent residence in Russia were adopted in 2000 and then in 2003. As a result, many immigrants registered as temporary migrants and were not accounted by the state statistics (migration underestimation)
Migrants often have problems with police Deportation of illegal immigrants
Migration flows in the FSU countries Until recently only Russia and Belarus had positive migration rates
Migration in FSU countries Migration rates are declining in most countries. Exception – Kazakhstan Migration outside FSU countries is also declining. Most emigrants go to USA, Germany and Israel Over 80% of migrants are at working ages
Migration between Russia and FSU countries In 1980-1989 positive migration flows to Russia from all FSU countries except for the Baltic countries In 1990-1994 positive migration flows from all FSU countries except for Ukraine In 1995-1999 positive migration flows from all FSU countries except for Belarus With outside world (non-FSU countries) migration rate was always negative (out- migration exceeded in-migration)
Labor migration in Russia Most labor migrants come to Russia illegally. Researchers estimate over 4 million illegal migrants in Russia. Until 2005 the number of official migrants comprised no more than 5% of all labor migrants In January 2007 – new legislation was adopted, which facilitated official registration for labor migrants
Labor migrants in Russia Migrants often occupy low- skilled jobs
Labor migrants to Russia in 2006 (official data) 16.9% came from Ukraine 10.4% came from Uzbekistan 9.7% came from Tadjikistan 10% came from Turkey 20.8% came from China 40% work in construction 30% work in trade
According to surveys 70% of migrants are men Mean age: 32-33 years 35-40% have 3 or more dependents About 50% had no stable work in their country of origin 40-50% could be called “very poor” before migration
Recent tendencies in labor migration in Russia Proportion of migrants from Central Asia is increasing Cultural distance between migrants and local population is increasing – 3% of migrants in Moscow and 17% in Astrakhan (Southern city) know Russian “poorly” Educational level of migrants is decreasing
Russia will depend on labor migrants By 2015 labor force in Russia will decrease by 8 million people; by 2025 – by 18-19 million
New migration policy in Russia On March 17 2005 President Putin called stimulation of migration processes to be one of the most important task New laws “On migration accounting of foreign citizens and persons without citizenship in Russian Federation” and “On legal status of foreign citizens” were adopted on July 18 2006 and significantly facilitated migration to Russia
New migration policy in Russia Registration at the place of residence (all immigrants) – simple procedure, which does not require permission (in the past it required personal visit to police for all persons living at the registration address) Permission to work (non-visa immigrants) – simple procedure (in the past permission was given to employer) Migrant quotas – separately for visa and non-visa immigrants. No quotas for qualified specialists.
Registration among migrants to Russia before and after the new migration laws (survey results in 2007) Question: Have you registered?
Obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia before and after the new migration laws (survey results in 2007) Question: Have you obtained your work permit?
Gender differences in registration and obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
Age differences in registration and obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
Education differences in registration and obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
Ethnic differences in registration and obtaining work permit among migrants to Russia (2007)
Positive results of new migration policy in Russia More accurate data about total number of immigrants including labor migrants. During 2007 eight million entries to Russia were registered Significant decrease of illegal immigration, increase of legitimate status of temporary labor migrants. Two-fold increase of taxation base Better estimation of the number of labor migrants, which is about 4.5 million in Russia in 2007
Russia and international standards of migration statistics International standards consider two major statistical categories – flows (number of persons changed their place of residence during the studied period) and stocks – number of migrants at the particular territory on a specific date.
Russia and international standards of migration statistics Flows are registered by the current migration statistics (number of persons changed their place of residence during the current year), border statistics (number of departures and entries during the year), statistics of foreign workers getting their jobs, statistics of foreign students, etc.
Improvement of migration statistics after 2007 Since 2007 Rosstat (former Goskomstat) gets data from the Federal Migration Service about foreign migrants Since 2008 Rosstat gets data from the FMS about migrants-Russian citizens registered at their new residence for more than a year (information about ethnicity removed but info about the purpose of migration added) In the forthcoming 2010 census more questions related to migration are added
Improvement of migration statistics after 2007 (continue) Since 2007 Federal Migration Service presents information on its activity at FMS website http://www.fms.gov.ruhttp://www.fms.gov.ru Administrative systems became more open (e.g., statistics on obtaining Russian citizenship) Development of these information systems is at the beginning now, so we will see the results later.
Russia and international standards of migration statistics Stocks can be estimated by census (number of foreign citizens living in the country or number of persons born abroad), by FMS (persons with residence permit or work permit, refugees). Standard methods of migration statistics are not completely applicable to Russia and other FSU countries, which were a single country in the past (e.g., number of persons born abroad).
Russia and international standards of migration statistics In the past moving from one part of the country to another one was made by the citizens of the same country within the boarders of one country Most migrations occurred before the Soviet Union dissolution. For example, censuses in Ukraine and Belarus showed that 85% and 68% of persons born outside these countries migrated before the Soviet Union dissolution (so cannot be considered as international migrants).
New citizens in Russia In 1992-2006 Russian citizenship obtained more than 6 million people
New citizens in Russia by the country of previous residence
Internal migration in Russia Five zones (migration in 1991-2003) European accepting zone. Accepted 1.9 million people due to migration from other parts of Russia European North and Republics of Northern Caucasus – lost population (about 20% of population received by European accepting zone) Eastern out-migration zone – 60% of the Russian territory but only 10% of population. Provided about 60% of population received by European accepting zone (strong Western drift)
After WWII migration to Moscow exceeded natural increase (rates per 1000)
Net migration in Russia and Moscow (in thousand)
Natural and migration increase in Moscow in 1989-2002 (in thousand)
Migration to Moscow compared to other Russian regions In 2006 only 22 regions out of 80 had positive migration rate (increase). Migrants to Moscow comprised 46.5% of all migrants. In 2007 Moscow migration rate was 48.6 persons per 10000 inhabitants. Migration rate in Moscow oblast was 111 persons per 10000 (easier to register, cheaper housing, lower police racket, etc.). Few regions are able to compete with Moscow for migrants – St Petersburg, and Leningrad oblast, Krasnodar kray, Tumen.
Moscow is a city of migrants According to 2002 census, 47% of Moscow residents were not born in Moscow. This is similar to Russia: 45% of persons living in Russia were not born in Russia (2002 census) 27.7% of them arrived in Moscow in 1992-2002 This is similar to Russia: 45% of persons living in Russia were not born in Russia (2002 census) 2002 – labor migrants predominantly from Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Moldova and China. 2007 – labor migrants predominantly from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Structure of permanent and temporary migrants in Moscow by country of departure in 2007
Migrants from Transcaucasia Relative changes in ethnic groups between censuses. 1989 – 1.00
Family status of migrants from Transcaucasia coming to Moscow Many migrants (mostly men) come alone and with friends
Type of occupation by ethnicity in Moscow Many migrants from Transcaucasia occupy top positions
Proportion of Russians in Moscow and Russia population is declining Unlike many world capitals, population of Moscow still remains very uniform (for example, proportion of ethnic minorities in Paris is over 29%)
Proportion of men per 1000 women of marriageable age (20-34) by ethnicity in Moscow (2002 census)
Ethnic tensions According to surveys, 67% of moscovites believe in the existence of ethnic tensions However, only 12-14% personally encountered xenophobic actions Unlike many world capitals, migrants to Moscow are more complementary to the resident population, most of them know Russian. Their children born in Moscow lose native language (61% of Armenian children, 24% of Azerbaijan children)
Forced deportations during Stalin period 1941-1942 – “preventive” deportations of Germans, Finns, Greeks (about 1.2 million people) 1943-1944 – deportations of “retaliation.” Crimea tatars, Chechens, Ingush, Balkar, Karachaev, Kalmyk 1944-1945 – preventive deportations in the end of WWII (to “clean-up” the borders). Turks-meskhi from Georgia, many nations of Crimea, Western parts (Ukraine, Baltic countries). Totally about 260 thousands
Forced “compensation” migrations Lands left after deportations showed decline in agriculture productivity. Forced migration of Russians from nearby regions to keep production of collective farms. Many forced migrants fled the territories later.