Presentation on theme: "Famous FDR Speech before the War Quarantine Speech –October 1937 –FDR’s appeal to help Europeans from fascist aggressors –“quarantine of aggressor nations”"— Presentation transcript:
Famous FDR Speech before the War Quarantine Speech –October 1937 –FDR’s appeal to help Europeans from fascist aggressors –“quarantine of aggressor nations” Four Freedoms Speech –Made January 1941 –Freedom of: Speech Worship Fear Want –Became basis for United Nations
Relationship with Japan Worsens 1940: Japan invades French Indochina –U.S. stops exporting oil to Japan –U.S. moves Pacific Fleet to Pearl Harbor 1941: Japan begins to plan attack against U.S. –Japan wants to invade Dutch East Indies for oil –Believes the U.S. will try to prevent Both sides engaged in negotiations to prevent war –Only the U.S. was serious
Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 –353 Japanese Airplanes –6 Japanese Aircraft Carriers –2 hours –2,403 killed
Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!
War Declared December 8, 1941 the U.S. declares war on Japan –Only 1 dissenting vote in Congress December 11, 1941 Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S.
The Big Three Un-easy alliance between Stalin, FDR & Churchill –The enemy of my enemy is my friend Work together to 1 st defeat Hitler, then concentrate on Japan Stalin wanted Britain & U.S. to re-open the Western Front
Battle of Stalingrad Aug 1942 - Feb 1943 Biggest battle between Germany & Soviet Union Intense city battle Germany loses, but Soviet Union sustains heavy losses Turning Point of European Theater –Hitler now fighting defensively
Operation Torch North African Campaign Axis powers, led by General Rommel, control North Africa Allies believe this is the weakest area & plan to invade Operation lasts from Nov 1942 – May 1943 Gen. Erwin Rommel, The “Desert Fox”
Operation Torch North African Campaign Gen. George Patton leads American troops Major defeat of Axis Powers at the Battle of El Alamein
The Italian Campaign : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” Invasion began in July 1943 Led by Patton Slow going Liberated Rome in June 1944 Fighting continued until Spring 1945
Mussolini & His Mistress, Are Hung in Milan, 1945
D-Day (June 6, 1944) Britain & the U.S. decide to re-open the Western Front Decision made to invade France at Normandy Called Operation Overlord Led by General Dwight Eisenhower
Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”]
D-Day (June 6, 1944) Will be successful Allies begin moving east toward Germany while the Soviet Union moves west Paris liberated August 25, 1944
Battle of the Bulge Hitler’s last offensive battle Trying to break Allied supply line in Belgium Ardennes Will lose Dec. 16, 1944 to Jan. 28, 1945
Yalta Conference: February, 1945 Stalin agrees to enter war against Japan 3 months after German surrender. All agreed to free European elections after the war Established the basics of the U.N. Germany will be divided into zones of influence after the war
U.S. & Russian Soldiers Victory April 25, 1945 – Allied troops from the West & East meet at the Elbe River Head north toward Berlin
The Holocaust Allies discovered the horrors of the Holocaust while liberating Europe from Hitler
War Ends in Europe Hitler commits suicide April 30, 1945 May 7, 1945: Germany surrenders May 8, 1945: VE Day
The Philippines Dec 1941: Japan gains control of U.S Guam, Wake Island, & Gilbert Islands Wants the Philippines General Douglas MacArthur forced to leave –“I shall return” Philippines under Japanese control by March 1942
Bataan Death March American troops in Philippines become POW Forced to march 60 miles on Bataan Peninsula to prison camp Were tortured & killed along the way 18,000 troops (U.S. & Filipinos) did not make it
U.S. Battle Japan at Sea Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942) Battle of Midway (June 1942) –Turning Point
Japanese Kamikaze Planes Japanese losing by mid 1943 –Not the industrial giant the U.S. is Begin using Kamikaze attacks in 1944 –Pilot flies his plane into U.S. ship
MacArthur Returns to the Philippines Oct 1944: U.S. has won the battle of Luzon & Leyte Gulf MacArthur has recaptured the Philippines
Iwo Jima & Okinawa U.S. capture Iwo Jima Feb 1945 Fierce fighting on Okinawa until April 1945 U.S. now within striking distance & will prepare for invasion
Potsdam Conference July 1945 FDR dead Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan They warn Japan to unconditionally surrender or face “complete and utter destruction” P.M. Clement President Joseph Atlee Truman Stalin
Manhattan Project Established in 1942 to develop an atomic weapon Success! July 16, 1945 tested the Trinity bomb at Alamogordo, NM Dr. Robert Oppenheimer
Hiroshima & Nagasaki August 6, 1945: “Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima August 9, 1945: “Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki Controversial decision made to spare U.S. lives Little Boy Fat Man
Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 70,000 killed immediately.70,000 killed immediately. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 40,000 killed immediately40,000 killed immediately 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
Costs of WWII Direct Costs of the War Military Killed/MIA Civilians Killed United States$288 Billion292,131XX Great Britain$117 Billion271,31160,595 France$111.3 Billion205,707173,260 USSR$93 Billion13,600,0007,720,000 Germany$212.3 Billion 3,300,0002,893,000 Japan$41.3 Billion1,140,429953,000