Presentation on theme: "MIGRATION AND OTHER SOCAIL PROCESES SAXIE 2006. Migration ■1. Types of Migration What are the major forms of migration? ■2. Selective Migration Why migration."— Presentation transcript:
Migration ■1. Types of Migration What are the major forms of migration? ■2. Selective Migration Why migration can be considered as a selective process? ■3. Brain Drain What is the extent of movements of skilled labor?
Types of Migration ■Emigration and immigration Change in residence. Relative to origin and destination. ■Requires information People and conditions. Two different places. Two different times. ■Duration Permanent. Seasonal / Temporary. ■Choice / constraint Improve one’s life. Leave inconvenient / threatening conditions. A B Problems or benefits? Emigrant Immigrant
Types of Migration ■Gross migration Total number of people coming in and out of an area. Level of population turnover. ■Net Migration Difference between immigration (in- migration) and emigration (out- migration). Positive value: More people coming in. Population growth. –44% of North America and 88% of Europe. Negative value: More people coming out. Population decline. Emigration Immigration Net migration Gross migration
Annual Net International Migration by Continent, 1990-95
Types of Migration ■International Migration Emigration is an indicator of economic and/or social failures of a society. Crossing of a national boundary. Easier to control and monitor. Laws to control / inhibit these movements. Between 2 million and 3 million people emigrate each year. Between 1965 and 2000, 175 million people have migrated: 3% of the global population.
Migration Policies and Global Migration Patterns PeriodPoliciesPattern Before 1914Open policies (“showing up”). Immigration as a source of labor and development. From developed (Europe) to developing countries (Americas, Africa, Australia). Immigration from Europe between 1880 and 1910 was exceeded 25 million. 1920s and 1930s “Closed door” linked with the economic depression. Deportation of immigrants. Limited migration. After 1945More open policies. Reconstruction in Europe (12% of labor force) and economic growth in America. Beginning to shift from developing to developed countries (12%). After 1973Relatively open policies, but with more stringent requirements. Growth of refugees and illegal immigration. From developing to developed countries (88%). 3 million illegal immigrants entering the US per year.
World Migration Routes Since 1700 European African (slaves) Indian Chinese Japanese Majority of population descended from immigrants
International Migration: Main Destination Countries, 1997
Region of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 2000
Types of Migration ■Local Migration No state boundaries are crossed. Buying a new house in the same town or city. Difficult to research since they are usually missed in census data. Based on change of income or lifestyle. Often very high levels of local migration. Americans change residence every 5 to 7 years. Central City Suburb
Types of Migration ■Voluntary migration The migrant makes the decision to move. Most migration is voluntary. ■Involuntary Forced migration in which the mover has no role in the decision- making process. Slavery: About 11 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between 1519 and 1867. In 1860, there were close to 4 million slaves in the United States. Refugees. Military conscription. Children of migrants. Situations of divorce or separation.
Types of Migration TypeCharacteristics InternationalCrossing a boundary; easier to control; regulated; difference in income; 2-3 million per year. NationalBetween states or provinces; little control; employment opportunities; education; retirement. LocalWithin a city/region; change of income or lifestyle. VoluntaryThe outcome of a choice. InvoluntaryThe outcome of a constraint.
Population Pyramid of Native and Foreign Born Population,Europe 2000 (in %) MaleFemale Male Foreign Born Native Age
Brain Drain ■Definition Relates to educationally specific selective migrations. Some countries are losing the most educated segment of their population. Can be both a benefit for the receiving country and a problem to the country of origin. ■Receiving country Getting highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right away. Promotes economic growth in strategic sectors: science and technology. Not having to pay education and health costs. 30% of Mexicans with a PhD are in the US.
World Urban Population, 1950-2000 with Projections to 2020 (in billions)
Annual Growth of World and Urban Populations, 1950-2030 (in millions)