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Chapter 1 – annotations / analysis

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1 Chapter 1 – annotations / analysis
Lord of the Flies Chapter 1 – annotations / analysis

2 Annotation / Analysis Expectations
This powerpoint will overview some of the things that you should have noted and commented on in chapter 1 The purpose of reading this novel is not to passively read the story and simply understand the plot The purpose of reading this novel is to actively and critically read the story and analyze the details and literary devices for a deeper understanding If you do not have any of the following annotations in your text, please add them as we go. This is the level of annotation and analysis that is expected for all chapters going forth

3 Characterization- Ralph
“The boy with the fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way toward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from one hand, his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead.” (7) That he has taken off his school sweater suggests a separation from the structure and rules of his school / society – clothing falls away as the boys become more “wild” His shirt being grey can suggest a middle ground, or confusion, perhaps he is going to be a median or torn character

4 Characterization- Ralph
“The fair boy said this solemnly; but then the delight of a realized ambition came over him” (8) Ralph is excited at the possibilities of an island with no adults – freedom from rules

5 Characterization- Ralph
“there was a mildness about his mouth and eyes that proclaimed no devil. He patted the palm trunk softly, and, forced at last to believe in the reality of the island, laughed delightedly again and stood on his head.” (10) “proclaimed no devil” suggests he is genuinely good at heart The connotation of the word “forced” suggests that he has been resisting accepting the situation at hand However the fact that he “laughed delightedly” suggests that once he has accepted it, he enjoys it. Why?

6 Characterization- Ralph
“ Stillness descended on them. Ralph, looking with more understanding at Piggy, saw that he was hurt and crushed. He hovered between the two courses of apology or further insult. ‘Better Piggy than Fatty,’ he said at last, with the directness of genuine leadership.” (25) Throughout the chapter, Ralph treats Piggy with more and more disregard, and by the end of the chapter here, he is beginning to show a true harsh/ mean side of his personality “Directness of genuine leadership” – suggests a theme perhaps that power or leadership requires or causes a person to become mean

7 Characterization- Piggy
“He bent down, removed the thorns carefully, and turned around. He was shorter than the fair boy and very fat. He came forward, searching out safe lodgments for his feet, then looked up through thick spectacles.” (7) “carefully” – diction characterizes him as a very meticulous person “searching out safe lodgments for his feet” – even his walking is calculated, cautious, he is not at home in this environment

8 Characterization- Piggy
“The fat boy hung steadily at [ralph’s] shoulder” (9) Symbolizes the hierarchy of their relationship “ He looked critically…Then he opened the zipper with decision” (11) Diction “critically” and “decision” further supports our characterization of him “I expect we’ll want to know all their names (…) we’ll make a list. We ought to have a meeting.” (11) He is logical, structured, still clings to order even in this chaotic setting

9 Characterization- Piggy
“Piggy grinned reluctantly, pleased despite himself at even this much recognition.” (11) Piggy longs to be accepted and is joyful at any amount of positive attention he gets. “He took off his glasses and looked for something with which to clean them” (13) Piggy is clinging to norms of regular society, trying to remain clean and maintain clear vision Glasses – symbol of clear vision / logic or intelligence

10 Characterization – Jack
“Within the diamond haze of the beach something dark was fumbling along (…)The creature was a party of boys, marching approximately in step in two parallel lines and (…)each boy wore a square black cap with a silver badge on it. Their bodies, from throat to ankle, were hidden by black cloaks.” (19) Diction of “something dark” and “black” and “the creature” suggests that jack and his crew are a negative presence on the island – foreboding Marching in parallel lines – suggests militaristic order

11 Characterization – Jack
“ The boy who controlled them” (19) “Controlled” instead of “lead” or “guided” suggests Jack is harsh and uncaring “The choir, who perched like black birds, (…) examined Ralph with interest” (20) Black birds are often an ominous symbol, foreboding bad events “You’re talking too much. Shut up fatty” (21) Jack immediately shows his harsh uncaring nature toward Piggy

12 Characterization – Jack
“I ought to be chief,” said Jack with simple arrogance, “ because I’m chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing a C sharp.” (22) Jack seeks power, not leadership. He doesn’t express concern for the group and touts an irrelevant skill as his qualification for leadership “They were left looking at each other and the place of terror. Jack’s face was white under the freckles. He noticed that he still held the knife aloft, and brought his arm down, replacing the blade in the sheath” (31) At the end of the chapter, when the boys attempt to kill a pig, Jack illustrates he is too afraid or unprepared to actually kill “face was white” suggests he is terrified or startled by the situation

13 Characterization – Simon
“The choir boy who had fainted, sat up against a palm trunk, smiled pallidly at Ralph and said that his name was Simon.” (22) The fact that Simon fainted can possibly suggest he is a weaker more gentle boy than the others – perhaps simply physically or as a character overall

14 Characterization – Roger
“There was a slight, furtive boy whom no one knew, who kept to himself with an inner intensity of avoidance and secrecy.” (22) “inner intensity of avoidance and secrecy” suggests Roger is a mysterious character. The negative connotation of this language suggests it is a negative or harmful mystery about him

15 Characterization – The Island
“the undergrowth at the side of the scar was shaken and a multitude of raindrops fell pattering” (7) “scar” refers to the path the plane cut in the island. It suggests that the island is a living thing and that the boys’ presence has damaged or disturbed it “The ground beneath them was a bank covered with coarse grass, torn everywhere by the upheaval of fallen trees, scattered with decaying coconuts and palm saplings.” (10) Death and destructive imagery here creates a dark mood on the island Contrasts with abundant beautiful / calm imagery throughout this chapter 

16 Characterization – The Island
“And almost always visible was the heat” (10) Visible heat creates a hazy and ominous image – hell like “we may stay here till we die” With that word the heat seemed to increase till it became a threatening weight and the lagoon attacked them with a binding effulgence. (14) Island seems to respond on cue to the boys’ thoughts and actions Warning them of the danger or harm it can bring

17 Characterization – The Island
“The great rock loitered, poised on one toe, decided not to return, moved through the air, fell, struck, turned over, leapt droning through the air, and smashed a deep hole in the canopy of the forest. Echoes and birds flew, white and pink dust floated, the forest further down shook as with the passage of an enraged monster: and then the island was still.” (28) foreshadowing destruction of nature and violence of the island

18 Setting “Didn’t you hear what the pilot said? About the atom bomb? They’re all dead.” (14) Indicating the story is taking place in the midst of WWII There are countless examples of significant setting that you should be commenting on!

19 Symbols “He became conscious of the weight of clothes”
Clothing symbolizing their tie to society / uniforms = conformity and rules “There was not enough soil for them to grow to any height, and when they reached perhaps twenty feet they fell and dried, forming a criss-cross pattern of trunks, very convenient to sit on.” (12) Fallen trees symbolize fallen structure, perhaps collapse of civilized society 

20 Symbols “Ralph grasped the idea and hit the shell with air form his diaphragm. Immediately the thing sounded. A deep, harsh note boomed under the palms, spread through the intricacies of the forest, and echoed back from the pink granite of the mountain. Clouds of birds rose from the treetops, and something squealed and ran in the undergrowth.” (17) The conch begins their social order and disrupts nature

21 Conflict “ The choir belongs to you of course,”
“They could be the army –” “Or hunters – “ (23)  The boys are trying to maintain a social order and structure similar to that from which they came

22 Conflict “Lets have a vote”
“What intelligence had been shown was traceable to Piggy, while the most obvious leader was Jack. But there was a stillness about Ralph as he sat that marked him out: there was his size, and attractive appearance; and most obscurely, yet most powerfully, there was the conch. The being that had blown that, had sat waiting for them on the platform with the delicate thing balanced on his knees, was set apart.” (22) Conflict to find a leader

23 Theme “He raised his arm in the air. There came a pause, a hiatus. The pig continued to scream, and the creepers to jerk, and the blade continued to flash at the end of a bony arm. The pause was only long enough for them to understand what an enormity the downward stroke would be. Then the piglet tore loose from the creepers and scurried into the undergrowth. They were left looking at each other and the place of terror. Jack’s face was white under the freckles. He noticed that he still held the knife aloft, and brought his arm down, replacing the blade in the sheath. Then they all three laughed ashamedly and began to climb back to the track. (…) They knew very well why they hadn’t: because of the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; because of the unbearable blood.” (31)

24 Theme continued The previous passage illustrates the boys’ struggle with abandoning their norms of civilized society and adapting to the “wild” nature and murderous norms that survival requires A theme that “without societal norms and structure, man’s morality and humanity comes in to question” is definitely emerging

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