Presentation on theme: "BIOTECHNOLOGY AND FARMING. RICE 10 YEARS- 150 million dollars later…………………….. Rice that is enriched with vitamin A- it was modified using 2 genes-"— Presentation transcript:
RICE 10 YEARS- 150 million dollars later…………………….. Rice that is enriched with vitamin A- it was modified using 2 genes- one from a daffodil and one from a bacteria. The result is rice high in beta carotene – the body converts it to vitamin A Vitamin A prevents blindness
GREEN REVOLUTION Used cross breeding of 2 plant varieties Biotechnologists move desirable genes from one organism to another- plant to plant or animal to plant. New attempts have been made to use soil bacterium- introduce it to plants to help them become resistant to pests.
Cost benefit controversy BENEFITS Crops- taste quality Higher yield Improved resistance Animals- hardiness, resistance, productivity Higher yield (eggs, milk) Improved health Environment-conservation (soil, water) better waste management Society- greater food security CONTROVERSY Safety- human health impact- allergy, resistance, impact on other organisms Access/intellectual property- few dominate world supply Exploitation Dependency on industrialized nations Ethics- tampering with nature ? Of consuming animal genes in plants or vice versa Mixing genes Stress on animals Labeling- not mandatory everywhere Society- interests of rich countries over poor
FOOD PRODUCTION ISSUES FOR THE FUTURE LOSS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY: 75% of genetic diversity of crops was lost in the 20 th century Research is forever ongoing- goal is through diversity and modification and develop resistant varieties to protect against crop destruction and famine. IRISH POTATO FAMINE 1840: 2 varieties of potatoes grown- disease hit both nearly 1 million people died Florida 1984- citrus canker- destroyed crops
Organic farming Established due to concerns over pesticide residue on crops and use of antibiotics in livestock. - GMO not tested enough No real definition of ORGANIC – use of crop rotation, no pesticides, no GMO and no chemicals. Often two or more crops will be produced in the same field
CORPORATE FARMING Loss of family farms Large farms – often have economic advantages Manitoba and Ontario- large hog farms have cornered the market on pork products Concern exists over contamination of water supplies due to the large scale production and corporate focus. Large corporations have control over use of herbicide and fertilizers- corporate connections (business helping business) Historically large corporate farms have cornered markets and become powerful – even politically in nations 1800 United Fruit in Guatemala – gained political power and over threw the gov’t. Huge AGRI-BUSINESS can have immense economic and political power.
ALTERNATIVE METHODS HYDROPONICS: Controlled growing conditions No soil used (water and fertilizer) therefore no soil disease or pests Greenhouses in desert areas Canada- tomatoes, cucumbers are grown in winter AQUACULTURE: Over fishing in oceans Enhanced fish supply Cheaper- salmon and trout Issue- if they “escape” fish farms and breed in the wild (genetically modified and wild)
Land Reform Distribution of land to benefit all residents (not just the rich) In Guatemala 10 large land owners control 93% of farm land. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES Huge is USA & EU- provide wheat subsidies to developing nations Poor farmers in developing world are at a disadvantage Canadian gov’t is not as generous with subsidies. Subsidies can be important in maintaining food supplies.
ROLE OF WOMEN Women produce 50% of world food (80% in sub Saharan Africa and S. Africa) While they are the main producers they have little power to influence the system or decisions made.