Texas and its Independence
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada and California were all part of New Spain in the early 1830’s
Missions were the center of life in these regions (protected by presidios)
Each mission was located one day’s ride from each other In some areas, Indians and Spanish settlers got along, but in many they did not In southern Texas, Tejanos developed new breeds of cattle and ranching methods – still had to worry about Indians
Rebellion 1810 Mestizos and Indians rebelled against the government of New Spain Led by Father Miguel Hidalgo, many reforms took place Abolishing slavery Ending unfair taxes on Indians By 1821 Mexico declares itself an independent country from Spain Texas The fighting chased away many of the Tejanos in Texas and the Mexican government was afraid that with so few people, it would be hard to defend from Indians or invasion – wanted to recruit settlers What was happening in the United States in 1821?
Settlement of Texas Moses Austin, an empresarios, (brought people to Texas) started the idea of bringing people to Texas, his son Stephen Austin continued upon his fathers death Empresarios received up to 67,000 acres (104 ½ sq. miles) for every 200 families recruited to Texas Had to become Mexican citizens Obey Mexican laws Support the Roman Catholic church By 1834, 20,000 Americans living in Texas Many received 640 acres (additional 320 acres available for each child)
Conflict with Mexico Immigrants didn’t learn Mexican customs or laws
Too much power in the government; not people American settlers ignored Mexican laws; they acted and lived like they did in the U.S. Kept slavery Not all supported the Catholic church Mexico sent soldiers to Texas to restore order
Stephen Austin 1833 Tried to restore order and asked Mexican government for more rights Gen. Santa Anna threw him in jail and suspended the Mexican constitution 1834, upon his release, Austin calls for Texans to fight Mexican government
1836 Texans form a temporary government
Army was all volunteer Captured towns of Goliad and San Antonio Alamo (an old mission) held by 189 Texans v. 3,000 Mexican soldiers After a 13 day siege, with no reinforcements arriving, Santa Anna attacked (March 6, 1836) All killed except those not fighting (a few women)
Convention of 1836 and Texas Independence
Mexican army also captured Goliad Santa Anna executed 400 prisoners Convention of 1836 and Texas Independence March 1836 delegates met to declare independence and make a constitution Legalized slavery President 3 yr term (non-consecutive)
San Jacinto Sam Houston new general of Texan army
Eventually made a stand at San Jacinto (April 1836 present day Houston) Defeated Santa Anna Texan Independence was recognized Santa Anna thrown out of power in Mexico
The Lone Star Republic Sept. 1836
Sam Houston elected President of Texas Sent a delegation Washington D.C. asking for the U.S. to annex Texas President Jackson refused due to adding another slave state would upset the balance in Congress Texas tried to make it as a country but debt and no money made it difficult Many Texans still hoped to join the union President Van Buren put off the issue (over concerns about slavery)
President Tyler (1st vice president to become president upon death of a president – William Henry Harrison) Supported annexation Senate failed to ratify annexation treaty 1845 President Polk (who won his election by supporting annexation of Texas and the Oregon Territory) finally passed a resolution to annex Texas. Texas joined the union on December 29, 1845 Video:
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