Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 The spine: Objectives Explain how anatomical structure affects movement capabilities of the spine Identify factors influencing relative mobility."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 The spine: Objectives Explain how anatomical structure affects movement capabilities of the spine Identify factors influencing relative mobility and stability of different regions of the spine Explain the ways in which spine is adapted to carry out its biomechanical functions Explain the relationship between muscle location and the nature and effectiveness of muscle action in the trunk Describe the biomechanical contributions to common injuries of the spine
The Spine: Outline Structure Muscles and movements Low Back Pain Strengthening exercises Lifting guidelines Common low pack problems WebSite for spine and spinal problems: MMG - Patient Education back TOC Study questions for exam: –Introductory problems, p 305: 1,6,7,9,10 –Additional problems, p 306: 1,5,8
Lifting recommendations (1)bend knees, (2) keep weight close to hips
(3) Avoid lifting while twisting and asymmetrical frontal plane loading of the trunk– it places 3 times more stress on the spine (question #9, p 205) (4) Avoid rapid, jerking motion while lifting Lifting recommendations
Common Spinal Injuries Lumbar spinal injury is by far the most prevalent of all areas of the spine Low back pain is most common and most expensive injury in work place Low back pain is usually related to mechanical stress 60% of cases are ideopathic
Stress Fractures Most common type of vertebral fracture is in pars interarticularis –Spondylolysis –Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis don’t tend to heal with time –Common with sports involving repeated hyperextension of the lumbar spine.
Common low back problems Disc degeneration Spondylolisis – separation of vertebra Spondylolisthesis – forward movement of vertebral body
Disc Herniations Cause of 1-5% back pain cases Protrusion of part of nucleus pulposus from the annulus. Traumatic or stress related. Common sites: between 5 th -6 th and 6 th -7 th cervical vertebrae and 4 th -5 th lumbar and 5 th lumbar and 1 st sacral. Sensory nerves supplying anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments generate pain signals.
Two common causes of low back pain Compressive, or neurogenic: Symptoms are referred due to Spinal nerve compression Mechanical - localized pain due to Damage to facets, discs, and/or soft tissue Illustrations below are from: MMG - Patient Education back TOC MMG - Patient Education back TOC