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Chapter 12 Entity-Relationship Modeling Pearson Education © 2009
2 Chapter 12 - Objectives u How to use Entity–Relationship (ER) modeling in database design. u Basic concepts associated with ER model. u Diagrammatic technique for displaying ER model using Unified Modeling Language (UML). u How to identify and resolve problems with ER models called connection traps. u How to build an ER model from a requirements specification. Pearson Education © 2009
3 ER diagram of Branch user views of DreamHome Pearson Education © 2009
4 Concepts of the ER Model u Entity types u Relationship types u Attributes Pearson Education © 2009
5 Entity Type u Entity type –Group of objects with same properties, identified by enterprise as having an independent existence. u Entity occurrence –Uniquely identifiable object of an entity type. Pearson Education © 2009
6 Examples of Entity Types Pearson Education © 2009
7 ER diagram of Staff and Branch entity types Pearson Education © 2009
8 Relationship Types u Relationship type –Set of meaningful associations among entity types. u Relationship occurrence –Uniquely identifiable association, which includes one occurrence from each participating entity type. Pearson Education © 2009
9 Semantic net of Has relationship type Pearson Education © 2009
10 ER diagram of Branch Has Staff relationship Pearson Education © 2009
11 Relationship Types u Degree of a Relationship –Number of participating entities in relationship. u Relationship of degree : –two is binary –three is ternary –four is quaternary. Pearson Education © 2009
12 Binary relationship called POwns Pearson Education © 2009
13 Ternary relationship called Registers Pearson Education © 2009
14 Quaternary relationship called Arranges Pearson Education © 2009
15 Relationship Types u Recursive Relationship –Relationship type where same entity type participates more than once in different roles. u Relationships may be given role names to indicate purpose that each participating entity type plays in a relationship. Pearson Education © 2009
16 Recursive relationship called Supervises with role names Pearson Education © 2009
17 Entities associated through two distinct relationships with role names Pearson Education © 2009
18 Attributes u Attribute –Property of an entity or a relationship type. u Attribute Domain –Set of allowable values for one or more attributes. Pearson Education © 2009
19 Attributes u Simple Attribute –Attribute composed of a single component with an independent existence. u Composite Attribute –Attribute composed of multiple components, each with an independent existence. Pearson Education © 2009
20 Attributes u Single-valued Attribute –Attribute that holds a single value for each occurrence of an entity type. u Multi-valued Attribute –Attribute that holds multiple values for each occurrence of an entity type. Pearson Education © 2009
21 Attributes u Derived Attribute –Attribute that represents a value that is derivable from value of a related attribute, or set of attributes, not necessarily in the same entity type. Pearson Education © 2009
22 Keys u Candidate Key –Minimal set of attributes that uniquely identifies each occurrence of an entity type. u Primary Key –Candidate key selected to uniquely identify each occurrence of an entity type. u Composite Key –A candidate key that consists of two or more attributes. Pearson Education © 2009
23 ER diagram of Staff and Branch entities and their attributes Pearson Education © 2009
24 Entity Type u Strong Entity Type –Entity type that is not existence-dependent on some other entity type. u Weak Entity Type –Entity type that is existence-dependent on some other entity type. Pearson Education © 2009
25 Strong entity type called Client and weak entity type called Preference Pearson Education © 2009
26 Relationship called Advertises with attributes Pearson Education © 2009
27 Structural Constraints u Main type of constraint on relationships is called multiplicity. u Multiplicity - number (or range) of possible occurrences of an entity type that may relate to a single occurrence of an associated entity type through a particular relationship. u Represents policies (called business rules) established by user or company. Pearson Education © 2009
28 Structural Constraints u The most common degree for relationships is binary. u Binary relationships are generally referred to as being: –one-to-one (1:1) –one-to-many (1:*) –many-to-many (*:*) Pearson Education © 2009
29 Semantic net of Staff Manages Branch relationship type Pearson Education © 2009
30 Multiplicity of Staff Manages Branch (1:1) relationship Pearson Education © 2009
31 Semantic net of Staff Oversees PropertyForRent relationship type Pearson Education © 2009
32 Multiplicity of Staff Oversees PropertyForRent (1:*) relationship type Pearson Education © 2009
33 Semantic net of Newspaper Advertises PropertyForRent relationship type Pearson Education © 2009
34 Multiplicity of Newspaper Advertises PropertyForRent (*:*) relationship Pearson Education © 2009
35 Structural Constraints u Multiplicity for Complex Relationships –Number (or range) of possible occurrences of an entity type in an n-ary relationship when other (n-1) values are fixed. Pearson Education © 2009
36 Semantic net of ternary Registers relationship with values for Staff and Branch entities fixed Pearson Education © 2009
37 Multiplicity of ternary Registers relationship Pearson Education © 2009
38 Summary of multiplicity constraints Pearson Education © 2009
39 Structural Constraints u Multiplicity is made up of two types of restrictions on relationships: cardinality and participation. Pearson Education © 2009
40 Structural Constraints u Cardinality –Describes maximum number of possible relationship occurrences for an entity participating in a given relationship type. u Participation –Determines whether all or only some entity occurrences participate in a relationship. Pearson Education © 2009
41 Multiplicity as cardinality and participation constraints Pearson Education © 2009
42 Problems with ER Models u Problems may arise when designing a conceptual data model called connection traps. u Often due to a misinterpretation of the meaning of certain relationships. u Two main types of connection traps are called fan traps and chasm traps. Pearson Education © 2009
43 Problems with ER Models u Fan Trap –Where a model represents a relationship between entity types, but pathway between certain entity occurrences is ambiguous. u Chasm Trap –Where a model suggests the existence of a relationship between entity types, but pathway does not exist between certain entity occurrences. Pearson Education © 2009
44 An Example of a Fan Trap Pearson Education © 2009
45 Semantic Net of ER Model with Fan Trap u At which branch office does staff number SG37 work? Pearson Education © 2009
46 Restructuring ER model to remove Fan Trap Pearson Education © 2009
47 Semantic Net of Restructured ER Model with Fan Trap Removed u SG37 works at branch B003. Pearson Education © 2009
48 An Example of a Chasm Trap Pearson Education © 2009
49 Semantic Net of ER Model with Chasm Trap u At which branch office is property PA14 available? Pearson Education © 2009
50 ER Model restructured to remove Chasm Trap Pearson Education © 2009
51 Semantic Net of Restructured ER Model with Chasm Trap Removed Pearson Education © 2009
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