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Waves Chapter 14 Notes

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What is a Wave? / A wave is a periodic disturbance of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) / Examples include: / Sound / Light / Ocean waves / A wave is a periodic disturbance of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) / Examples include: / Sound / Light / Ocean waves

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Wave Energy / Waves are also considered transfers of energy / Energy moves from one point to another while the substance vibrates while staying in place / Waves are also considered transfers of energy / Energy moves from one point to another while the substance vibrates while staying in place

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Mechanical vs E-M Waves / Mechanical waves need a substance to travel through / Substance is called a medium / Electro-magnetic waves can travel through emptiness (a vacuum) / Mechanical waves need a substance to travel through / Substance is called a medium / Electro-magnetic waves can travel through emptiness (a vacuum)

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Examples / Name one type of mechanical wave / Name one type of Electromagnetic wave / Name one type of mechanical wave / Name one type of Electromagnetic wave

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Mechanical Waves / A medium could be a / Solid / Liquid / Gas / In general waves travel fastest through solids and slowest through gases / A medium could be a / Solid / Liquid / Gas / In general waves travel fastest through solids and slowest through gases

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Waves / As a wave moves from a source the energy spreads out / The waves spread out in concentric spheres / Each sphere forms a wave front / As a wave moves from a source the energy spreads out / The waves spread out in concentric spheres / Each sphere forms a wave front

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Types of Waves / Transverse Waves / Particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the wave / Longitudinal Waves / Particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave / Transverse Waves / Particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the wave / Longitudinal Waves / Particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave

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Types of Waves / Transverse / Rope/String / _________ / Longitudinal / Coiled spring / _________ / Transverse / Rope/String / _________ / Longitudinal / Coiled spring / _________

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Surface Waves / Occur at the boundary of two mediums / A ball floating on water is a great example / Move both perpendicular and parallel and form a circle / Occur at the boundary of two mediums / A ball floating on water is a great example / Move both perpendicular and parallel and form a circle

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Characteristics of Waves / The relationship that best describes a wave is a sine curve

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Crest & Trough / Crest - high point / Trough - low point / Crest - high point / Trough - low point

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Amplitude (A) / Measures the amount of particle vibration / Determines the energy of the wave / Measures the amount of particle vibration / Determines the energy of the wave

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Amplitude

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Wavelength ( ) / Length of just ONE wave

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Nodes / Point on wave where wave passes through origin

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Period (T) / Period is the length of time for one wave to occur / Abbreviated with a capital T / Measured in seconds / Calculated as: / Total time / Number of waves / Period is the length of time for one wave to occur / Abbreviated with a capital T / Measured in seconds / Calculated as: / Total time / Number of waves

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Frequency (f) / Frequency of a wave is how often the wave occurs / Measures the rate of vibrations / Abbreviated as a lower case f / Measured in cycles per seconds (Hertz) / Calculated as: / Number of waves / Total time of waves / Frequency of a wave is how often the wave occurs / Measures the rate of vibrations / Abbreviated as a lower case f / Measured in cycles per seconds (Hertz) / Calculated as: / Number of waves / Total time of waves

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Period & Frequency / You may notice something about the calculations for period and frequency / They are the inverse of each other / So, / f = 1/T / T = 1/f / You may notice something about the calculations for period and frequency / They are the inverse of each other / So, / f = 1/T / T = 1/f

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Wave Speed / Not all waves travel at the same speed / Speed is determined by two things / The frequency of the vibrations / The medium of the wave / Calculation for wave speed is / Speed = frequency x wavelength / Not all waves travel at the same speed / Speed is determined by two things / The frequency of the vibrations / The medium of the wave / Calculation for wave speed is / Speed = frequency x wavelength

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Wave Interactions / Interactions include / Reflection / Refraction / Diffraction / Interference / Interactions include / Reflection / Refraction / Diffraction / Interference

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Reflection / Reflection is the bouncing of a wave off of a surface or boundary / Boundaries can be / Fixed / Free / Reflection is the bouncing of a wave off of a surface or boundary / Boundaries can be / Fixed / Free

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Refraction / Refraction is the bending of a wave as the wave passes from one medium to another medium

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Diffraction / Diffraction is the bending of a wave as the wave passes around an obstacle or an edge / Corner of a room / Slit or hole / Diffraction is the bending of a wave as the wave passes around an obstacle or an edge / Corner of a room / Slit or hole

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Interference / Interference is the combination of two or more waves to form a new wave / Constructive - waves becomes larger / Destructive - waves become smaller / Interference is the combination of two or more waves to form a new wave / Constructive - waves becomes larger / Destructive - waves become smaller

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Standing Waves / Standing waves form when a wave is reflected off of a boundary / Interference of the original wave interferes with the reflected wave causing the medium to vibrate in a stationary pattern / Creates nodes and anti-nodes / Standing waves form when a wave is reflected off of a boundary / Interference of the original wave interferes with the reflected wave causing the medium to vibrate in a stationary pattern / Creates nodes and anti-nodes

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