WAVES Carries energy from one place to another Classified by what they move through 1. Mechanical Waves the energy is transferred by vibrations of medium (medium = matter) ex/ ocean waves move through water 2.Electromagnetic waves (EM Waves) the energy moves through disturbances in the electromagnetic field. a disturbance that transfers energy
WAVE STRUCTURE CREST (peak) AMPLITUDE resting to max peak WAVELENGTH TROUGH
Basic Properties of Waves Amplitude Wavelength Frequency Hertz
AMPLITUDE The maximum distance the medium vibrates from the rest position Gives indication of “power” or “strength” of wave (magnitude of earthquake = Richter scale) Does not affect velocity of wave Determines loudness (sound) or brightness (EM wave)
WAVELENGTH Distance between any two corresponding parts of a wave crest-crest, trough-trough, expansion-expansion, compression- compression Determines what colors we see; what notes we hear (pitch) Shorter wavelengths have more cycles per minute because they aren’t as long
SPEED the rate at which the energy travels; speed & direction Depends on medium Mechanical waves travel faster through dense mediums EM Waves are faster through less dense mediums
MECHANICAL WAVES travel through & gradually lose energy to that medium Examples: water, sound, rope, & spring waves Mechanical Media: water, air, rope, spring require a medium ( the material through which the disturbance is moving) to transmit energy Making a pulse
MECHANICAL WAVES Classified by how medium vibrates Pulse = direction of energy transfer Vibration = direction of vibration of medium relative to pulse 3 typestypes: Longitudinal,transverse,surface
MECHANICAL WAVES Classified by how medium vibrates Longitudinal Waves: Vibration is in the same direction as wave pulse (parallel to wave pulse) Transverse Waves: Vibration is at 90 0 (right angles) to wave pulse Surface Waves: Vibration is circular Ex/ Ocean waves; surface waves
TRANVERSE WAVES Sideways or up & down Examples: S-type earthquake waves Electromagnetic (EM) or light waves Vibration is perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the wave
LONGITUDINAL WAVES Back and forth (compression & rarefraction) Also called compression or pressure wave Examples: P-type earthquake waves Sound waves Vibration is parallel to the direction of the motion of the wave Rarefraction (expansion) Compression
Compressional Wave Matter vibrates in the same direction as the wave travels. Example: Slinky
Compressional wave The parts,where the coils are close together are called compressions, the parts where the coils are spread out are called rarefactions.
Combinations of waves Surface waves are a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves.The waves occur at the surface between water and air.