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What is philosophy? * The Life of Reason *“A reasoned pursuit of fundamental truths.” Concerned with problems whose solution depend not on facts but ways.

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Presentation on theme: "What is philosophy? * The Life of Reason *“A reasoned pursuit of fundamental truths.” Concerned with problems whose solution depend not on facts but ways."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is philosophy? * The Life of Reason *“A reasoned pursuit of fundamental truths.” Concerned with problems whose solution depend not on facts but ways of thinking about these facts. * A critical approach to all subjects. *A careful examination and reflection on our ideas, beliefs, opinions. * An attitude of critical and systematic thoughtfulness “We are philosophers already”: It is in our nature!

2 PHILOSOPHY IN ANCIENT TIMES Challenging the authority of the historians and poets like Hesiod and Homer. Seeking a rational explanation of why things happen. Karl Jaspers: The axial period. Man becomes aware of Being as a whole, of himself and he asks radical questions. In the East and the West. Philosophy as historically developing concept.

3 SOCRATES: SNUBBED NOSE, THE GADFLY AND DRUNK! Aristophanes: Socrates and the clouds. Plato: The Apology and other Discourses. His Story: Plato’s “Apology.” His Maxims: Know Thyself. The Unexamined Life is not worth living. The fear of death is nothing but the imitation of knowledge. The only thing he knows is that he does not know.

4 Philein+Sophia Philein: Love between friends. A Madness? Sophia: Wisdom (not knowledge) Method: Conversation, Discourse. Plato and Dialectic, more on this later. Aristotle: Philosophy as Wonder. Thinking our way around the maze! Wonder as sense or feeling of the mental importance of things. Humans are rational animals! Philosophy as human centered.

5 Eve and Philosophy Who was or is Eve? Philosophy as the queen of the sciences Takes our heads out of the clouds and enlarges our view of ourselves and the world Mary Midgley: Philosophy and Plumbing The acceptance of confusion, ambiguity, perplexity

6 PHILOSOPHY AS WAY OF LIFE Confucius and Buddha The Stoics: Epicurus. Live according to Nature. Reason is limited and can only concern itself with what it can change.

7 THE MIDDLE AGES St. Thomas Aquinas The use of reason to justify and complement faith. Concern for cause and ultimate cause (God). Using Aristotle to think about fundamental issues related to the nature of things, God and the human world.

8 THE MODERN CONCEPTION “Philosophy is first and foremost a discipline that teaches us how to articulate, hold and defend beliefs that we have held but have held without spelling them out and arguing for them” -- Solomon Reason and good reasoning: Logic also Formulating, clarify ideas and beliefs Like Science: assumes universe is rational and operates according to laws or principles Ideal of Modern Philosophy: Thinking for oneself Critical Reflection

9 DESCARTES AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT The Age of Reason Great hope that reason would improve life The power of reason and mind Doubt and Skepticism: Questioning traditional authority and church Descartes’ Method: introspection, doubt and the quest for certainty Philosophy as fundamental Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy

10 MARX AND NIETZSCHE Marx: Philosophy as activity. Idea of Praxis; analysis of labour/work which is human conscious activity. Philosophy no longer just interpretation but world force (“Philosophy has hitherto only interpreted the world; the point is to change it”) The Proletariate and Class Consciousness: radicalism-- getting to the root, which is human beings themselves. End of Philosophy or Fulfillment? Nietzsche: The critique of philosophy; philosophy as self-critique or self critical Philosophy and truth are antithetical and at odds with human beings Psychological approach to why humans want truth and philosophy

11 Philosophy as Philosophy of... Aims at the Big Questions: the role of definition Philosophy of Art Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of Mind Philosophy of Salad?


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