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Motion & Force: Dynamics Physics 11

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Galileo’s Inertia Galileo attempted to explain inertia based upon rolling a ball down a ramp Predict what would happen in each of the following situations:

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Forces and Motion Predicting the motion of an object is known as kinematics and as we have seen in the previous section, result in the equations of motion Now, we will begin to consider the forces that act on an object to describe the why of motion; this is known as dynamics

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Inertial Mass Inertia is often understood as the resistance of an object to a change in its motion Inertial mass is used to describe this property of an object Another type of mass, gravitational mass, describes the attraction between massive objects

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Fundamental Forces There are four forces that result in the behaviours we observe in the Universe: Gravitation Electromagnetic Strong Nuclear Weak Nuclear

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Gravitation All massive objects attract other massive objects This means that the Earth exerts a force on you (toward the centre of the Earth) but at the same time, you exert an equal and opposite force on the Earth Because the mass of the Earth is significantly larger than your mass, your acceleration toward the Earth is much greater than the Earth’s acceleration toward you

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Weight vs. Mass Although mass and weight are used interchangeably in common vernacular, from the standpoint of scientific language, this is not correct Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object and does not change; it is measured using a balance Weight is the measure of the gravitational attraction between objects and can change; it is measured using a spring scale

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Weight vs. Mass Although they are different, weight and mass are related using the following equation:

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Newton’s 1 st & 2 nd Laws of Motion Physics 11

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Newton’s Laws There are three laws that Newton used in Principia in order to explain motion What are the three laws?

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Newton’s Laws of Motion 1.An object at rest or in uniform motion will remain rest or in uniform motion unless acted on by an external force. 2.Acceleration is directly proportional to the force applied to an object and inversely proportional to its mass. 3.For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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Newton’s Laws of Motion 1.An object at rest or in uniform motion will remain rest or in uniform motion unless acted on by an external force. 2.Acceleration is directly proportional to the force applied to an object and inversely proportional to its mass. 3.For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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Inertial and Non-Inertial Frames of Reference An inertial frame of reference is one in which Newton’s Laws are valid An inertial frame is either at rest or in uniform motion but they are no accelerating A non-inertial frame of reference is one in which Newton’s Laws are not valid Accelerating frames of reference are always non-inertial

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Newton’s Second Law Acceleration is directly proportional to the force applied to an object and inversely proportional to its mass.

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Friction Physics 11

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Friction Friction is a contact force and occurs when one object moves or is attempted to be moved across another Based upon physical properties, it is possible to determine the maximum amount of frictional force that can be present but friction only acts to oppose motion

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Static vs. Kinetic Static frictional forces exist when there is no motion Kinetic frictional forces exist when one object slides across another Static frictional forces are greater than kinetic frictional forces

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Coefficient of Friction The maximum amount of frictional force that can exist between two surfaces is related to the weight of the object and the properties of the surfaces We use the coefficient of friction (μ) to describe interaction of the two surfaces Typically you will be given a static and kinetic coefficient depending on the situation

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Normal Force The normal force is the force that opposes the gravitational force (weight) Currently your weight is pushing down on the chair you are sitting on and the chair is pushing back with a force that is equal and opposite Similarly, you and the chair are applying a force on the floor and the floor is applying an equal and opposite force on you and the chair

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Normal Force In most situations, the normal force will simply be the opposite of the weight

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Direction and the Frictional Force The direction of the frictional force will not be determined from the equation Instead, you need to look at your diagram and apply the correct direction (positive or negative) to the force The direction will always be the opposite of the direction of motion

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Frictional Force The frictional force is the product of the normal force and the coefficient of friction Common coefficients of friction are available in Table 4-2, p. 97

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Uniform Motion Normally, when an object is in a state of uniform motion, the applied force is equal to the kinetic frictional force Additionally, when a force is applied to an object, the force that is applied just before it begins to move is assumed to be equal to the static frictional force

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Net Force Physics 11

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Putting it All Together Now that we have considered Newton’s Second Law, you can use that to analyze kinematics problems with less information than we have used previously We can either use dynamics information to then apply to a kinematic situation or vice versa

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Free Body Diagrams A free body diagram will be used in most dynamics problems in order to simplify the situation In a FBD, the object is reduced to a point and forces are drawn starting from the point FgFg FNFN FaFa FfFf

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The Net Force In most situations, there is more than one force acting on an object at any given time When we draw the FBD we should label all forces that are acting on an object and also determine which would cancel each other out Ones that do not completely cancel out will be used to determine the net force

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The Net Force The net force is a vector sum which means that both the magnitude and direction of the forces must be considered In most situations we consider if Physics 11, the forces we consider will be parallel or perpendicular

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An Example A 25kg crate is slid from rest across a floor with an applied force 72N applied force. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is.27, determine: The acceleration of the crate? The time it would take to slide the crate 5.0m across the floor.

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FBD F g =-250N F N =250N F a =72N F f =?

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Use the frictional force equation to determine the magnitude of the frictional force

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The net force is the sum of the forces (acting parallel or anti- parallel)

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Use Newton’s Second Law to solve for the acceleration

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Use kinematics to solve for the time taken to cross the floor

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Springs and Hooke’s Law Physics 11

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Springs A mass-spring system is given below. As mass is added to the end of the spring, how would you expect distance the spring stretches to change?

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Springs

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2 times the mass results in a 2 times of the displacement from the equilibrium point… 3 time the mass… 3 times the displacement…

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Hooke’s Law F spring : Applied force X : displacement of the spring from the equilibrium position K: the spring constant

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Hooke’s Law the restoring force is opposite the applied force. (negative sign) Gravity applied in the negative direction, the restoring force is in the positive direction

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