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Up until the late 1800s, there were just a few European colonies on the African coastline. No Europeans had really explored the interior of what they.

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Presentation on theme: "Up until the late 1800s, there were just a few European colonies on the African coastline. No Europeans had really explored the interior of what they."— Presentation transcript:


2 Up until the late 1800s, there were just a few European colonies on the African coastline. No Europeans had really explored the interior of what they called the “Dark Continent”.

3 Remember “The White Man’s Burden”???
Which one do you think is more accurate?

4 Forms of Imperial Control

5 Management Methods Indirect Control Direct Control Characteristics
-Local officials were used -Limited self-rule -Goal to develop future leaders -Govt’s based on European styles, but may have local rulers -Foreign officials brought into rule - No self-rule -Goal assimilation---adopt the White Way -Govt’s institutions based only on European styles Examples -British colonies such as Nigeria, India, Burma -U.S. colonies on Pacific Islands -French colonies such as Somaliland, Vietnam -German colonies such as Tanganyika

6 Forms of Imperialism Direct military intervention total control of the country Protectorate - own govt. but “guided” by mother country Sphere of influence - imperialist hold exclusive economic interests But overall aim was to gain the most at the least expense

7 Forms of Colonial Control
Forms of Imperialism Characteristics African Example Colony Country governed internally by a foreign power Somaliland by France Protectorate Country with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power Niger River Delta by Britain Sphere of Influence Area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges Liberia by the United States

8 Types of Control Settlement Colonies: large groups of people from one country living together in a new place (Australia). British convicts The aborigines were of African descent. They were brutally treated and systematically murdered by the British settlers.

9 Protectorates Protectorates: the local ruler keeps their title, but the colonizers really control the area (Puerto Rico). A political unit that depends on another government for its protection Spanish-American War of 1898 – the U.S. gained the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

10 Dependent Colonies (Direct Rule or Indirect Rule)
Direct Rule: European officials ruled the natives Indirect Rule: Europeans left the local chiefs or kings in charge and ruled through them.

11 New Patterns of Government
Direct Rule European Governments controls everything Indirect Rule European officials make decisions and native leaders enforce them

12 Forms of Imperialism Examples of Differences Between French and British
The French used their colonial officials to govern, spread French culture, and make territories overseas extensions of France The British focused strictly on administration and were less apt to convert colonial peoples to British ways The British often allowed local rulers to govern territories as their representatives

13 Direct Rule

14 Colonization under Direct Rule
Colonies featured administrative districts headed by European personnel who assumed responsibility for tax collection, labor and military recruitment, and the maintenance of law and order. Administrative boundaries intentionally cut across existing African political and ethnic boundaries in order to divide and weaken potentially powerful indigenous (native) groups.

15 Direct Rule This was used commonly by France.
Would have a governor-general in charge of the colony. Was to assimilate African subjects into French culture. Did not preserve native traditions. Africans were could run for office and even serve in French National Assembly in Paris Though this was rare

16 Difficulties Under Direct Rule
Constant shortage of European personnel Ex. In French West Africa some thirty-six hundred Europeans tried to rule over an African population of more than nine million. The combination of long distances and slow transport limited effective communication between regional authorities and officials in remote areas. An inability to speak local languages and a limited understanding of local customs among European officials further undermined their effective administration.

17 Indirect Rule

18 Indirect Rule Local rulers allowed to keep their authority and status in the new colonial setting Made access to region’s natural resources easier Was cheaper because few officials had to be trained Affected the local culture less But some local elites resisted foreign conquest Was used by Great Britain

19 Indirect Rule First implemented by Lord Lugard in Nigeria and used by the British in West Africa Consisted of keeping the African power structure and making it part of the colonial administration If there was no local power structure, then new tribes and chiefs were created. The local leaders had to follow the colonial rules in return for protection, salaries and gifts

20 Indirect Rule The local leaders were responsible for collecting taxes, providing cheap labor, and reporting back to the governor or the colony The governor was an official appointed by the British government The intent of the British was not to destroy the African structure and culture, but to share skills and values

21 Colonization under Indirect Rule
A British colonial administrator Frederick D. Lugard was the driving force behind the doctrine of indirect rule, which the British employed in many of its African colonies. Lugard wrote The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa. In this he stressed the moral and financial advantages of exercising control over subject populations through indigenous (native) institutions.

22 Frederick D. Lugard

23 Indirect Control Lugard thought that by using tribal and customary laws Europeans could establish a strong foundation for colonial rule. Forms of indirect rule worked in regions where Africans had already established strong and highly organized states Often this plan was not effective, especially in the regions that were not well organized under the control of its colonial leaders.

24 Indirect Rule British administrators made all the major decisions while local authorities just carried out the orders Kept the old African elite in power and provided few opportunities for ambitious and talented young Africans Sowed the seeds for class and tribal tensions of the 20th century

25 Indirect Company Rule Was adopted in Northern and Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe and Zambia Was implemented by Cecil Rhodes In 1888, Rhodes set up his own private company, the British South Africa Company, after he acquired control of the gold and diamond resources in the area Between 1890 and 1923, Rhodes and his company set up a colonial administration using the British system of indirect rule In 1923, the company colony became self-governing The white settlers ran the administration free from British government control

26 Difficulties Under Indirect Rule
Many colonial leaders were confused by the complexity of tribal laws and boundaries and imposed their own idea of what they thought was tribal boundaries and tribal laws. This was done with little regard to the differences between tribes and these tribes were split up into what Europeans thought was acceptable boundaries. These colonial boundaries divided ethnic groups or grouped traditional enemies. Some groups were even given limited access to water in their newly drawn up lines of tribal territories.

27 Results of Indirect Rule
As a result of colonial rule with little regard to African’s tribal boundaries and practices many African nations today are fighting tribal wars Ex.(Rwandan genocide) and still having disputes over land for reasons such as ethnic dominance and control over natural resources.

28 Berlin Conference

29 The Division of Africa Diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) were discovered in South Africa. Berlin Conference ( ): 14 European nations agreed to lay down rules for the division of Africa. No African ruler was invited to this conference. Demand of Raw Materials: Africa was rich in mineral resources like copper and tin in the Congo and gold and diamonds in South Africa. Cash crop plantations for peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber were also developed.

30 Berlin Conference 1884 GOALS: to promote the three c’s
Commerce Christianity civilization Ensure Free trade Ensure free navigation on Niger River Agree to rules to divide up Africa

31 Also, there was the question of how to divvy up Africa in an orderly manner…
Of course, no one asked the native Africans. Over time, “warring” tribes would be placed together Straight lines in Africa and the Middle East clearly indicate “imperial” meddling.

32 The Berlin Conference laid down certain rules--
A European power with holdings on the coast had prior rights Occupation must include administrators or troops Each power must give notice to the others of what territories it considered its own THE REAL SCRAMBLE BEGAN!

33 African Colonization 1884 Berlin Conference: European powers meet and agree on how to divide Africa into colonies. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remain independent.

34 “We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod.
We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers were.” -British Official

35 Berlin Conference of Another point of view? 

36 England, France, and Germany take the most territory.
France takes most of the Sahel.

37 : Berlin Conference *Recognized the International Association of the Congo (IAC) as sovereign government Belgium* Britain France Germany Italy Portugal Spain Independent Kevin P. Dincher

38 1884-1885: Berlin Conference “Spheres of Influence”
Region over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity An international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres "International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs" (Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness) Kevin P. Dincher

39 Europeans: Carving up a Continent
Who is missing from this picture???



42 British Colonies in Africa

43 Why would the British have the largest empire?
Industrial demands, need for navy

44 No Regard for Tradition
Suez Canal 1869, Suez Canal influenced Britain’s interest in Egypt Canal linked Mediterranean with Red Sea, shortened trip from Europe to Indian Ocean; no need to sail around southern tip of Africa 1882, Egyptian government appeared unstable; British occupied Egypt to protect British interests in Suez Canal; later established partial control as protectorate to ensure British access to canal European nations competed aggressively for other territories 1884–1885, European leaders met in Berlin to divide African territory Tried to prevent conflict between European nations Division in Africa Berlin Conference—for European nation to claim new African territory, it had to prove it could control territory No attention paid to ethnic boundaries in dividing Africa No Regard for Tradition

Egypt – in name ruled by Ottoman Turks, but largely independent European capital investments Suez Canal opened in 1869 Built by the Egyptians and French Taken over by the British (1875) British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli Bought shares in Suez Canal Company from Egypt Egypt was nearly bankrupt from the expense of building the Suez Canal British government became largest shareholder

46 EUROPEANS IN EGYPT 1870s – with the Egyptian government bankrupt, the British and French took over financial control of the country Egyptian monarchs (technically Ottoman viceroys) ruled as puppet leaders 1882 – Egyptian nationalist rebellion France withdrew its troops Great Britain left in control of Egypt Lord Cromer introduced reforms De facto British protectorate Made official in 1914 Independence came in 1922

47 Suez Canal

Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) Named for Cecil Rhodes North of Union of South Africa Bechuanaland (now Botswana) 1885 – became a British protectorate Kenya 1888 – became a British protectorate

Sudan Area south of Egypt Under Anglo-Egyptian control Cotton needed for British textile mills Entente Cordiale (1904) Great Britain controlled Sudan France controlled Morocco Cape-to-Cairo Railroad Idea of Cecil Rhodes Would secure Great Britain’s dominance in Africa Never completed – sections missing through modern Sudan and Uganda

50 Cape-to-Cairo Railway: Crossing over Victoria Falls

51 South Africa Cecil Rhodes Kimberley
Dr Jameson Jameson Raid, unsuccessful attempt to take over Boer regions. Boer War ( ) British eventually won a war of attrition

52 Soon after that, the British got involved in the Boer War—The Germans supported the Boers, while the British were ultimately victorious.

53 South Africa By 1880 European nations only controlled 10% of Africa
The British took the Dutch settlement of Cape Town after the Napoleonic Wars Boers - Dutch descendants moved northward to avoid the British. Vortrekkers - The Great Trek created two independent states: Orange Free State and Transvaal After 1853 the Boers proclaimed political independence and fought the British By 1880 British and Boer settlers controlled much of South Africa

54 Second Boer War The Second Boer War was In 1899, the Boers end up taking up arms against the British. This is the first “total war”. The Boers use commando raids and guerilla tactics against the British. The British burn Boer farms and imprison women and children in concentration camps. The British finally won this war. In 1910 the Boer Republic joins the Union of South Africa.

55 Dead British soldiers lying in trenches after the Battle of Spion Kop, near Ladysmith, Natal

56 French and German Colonies in Africa

57 French and Germans French West Africa
West Africa, leader of Malinke peoples, Samory Touré, formed army to fight against French rule; fought for 15 years; proclaimed self king of Guinea 1898, French defeated Touré, ended resistance to French rule in West Africa German East Africa Africans called on gods, ancestors for spiritual guidance in resistance 1905, several African peoples united to rebel against Germans’ order to grow cotton for export to Germany Rebellion Put Down To combat Germans, spiritual leader encouraged followers to sprinkle magic water over bodies to protect selves from German bullets; did not work Rebellion quickly put down; Germans killed tens of thousands of Africans

58 FRENCH IN AFRICA Algeria Tunis Morocco 1830 – invasion
1831 – annexation Tunis 1881 – controlled by France Led Italy to join the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany Morocco 1881 – large part under French control 1905 and 1911 – nearly sparked a European war between France and Germany 1906 – Algeciras Conference – Germany recognized French rights in Morocco 1911 – Agadir Crisis – Germany recognized French protectorate over Morocco in exchange for part of France’s territory in the Congo

59 French Colonies By 1879, there are 150,000 French in Algeria so France takes control made Tunisia a protectorate made Morocco a protectorate By 1900, France had added the French West Africa to empire

60 FRENCH IN AFRICA Madagascar Somaliland West Africa Sudan
1896 – controlled by France Somaliland 1880s – partly under French control West Africa Late 1800s – largely under French control Sudan 1898 – met Britain’s area of control and nearly went to war Entente Cordiale settled British-French disputes in Africa

61 FRENCH IN AFRICA By World War I – 1914
France controlled 3,250,000 square miles in Africa 14 times the area of France France ruled 30,000,000 Africans 75% of the population of France

62 GERMANS IN AFRICA Togoland (now Togo and Ghana)
Cameroons (now Cameroon and Nigeria) Southwest Africa (now Namibia) East Africa (now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanzania)

63 Belgian Colonies in Africa

64 Ne Vunda, Kongolese ambassador to the Vatican, 1608
Pre-Colonial Congo Ne Vunda, Kongolese ambassador to the Vatican, 1608 The Kingdom of Kongo According to Portuguese explorers the kingdom was a sophisticated and well run state, an imperial federation Known for advanced working in copper and iron Rich in ivory and rubber Introduction of Christianity in 15th c by Portuguese explorers. Kongolese king converts almost immediately, and Kingdom of Kongo develops mythology in which Congo is central to Christianity and many events in Bible are believed to have actually taken place in Kongolese locations.

65 Pre-Colonial Congo Slavery
Slavery was part of the culture of the Congo Originally slaves were captured during warfare, were criminals, or were debtors who could earn back their freedom Eventually, Muslim slave traders began to sell their slaves to European traders for export to the Americas

66 Company Rule The Congo Free State was the personal domain of King Leopold II of Belgium His rule is known as the most brutal of all colonial rulers He gave Belgian businesses free access to the Congo, who administered the colony and exploited the mineral and human resources The treatment of the Africans was so hard that when the Belgian government took control of the territory in 1908, it became known as the Belgian Congo However, the Belgian businesses still ruled the colony

67 Where the story begins…
In 1872, Henry Stanley, an American journalist, ventured into the central region of Africa, known as the Congo, and located a “lost” British explorer named David Livingstone.

68 The news of Stanley’s successful venture became a sensation in Europe, and the King of Belgium, Leopold II, became instantly interested in the territory known as, “The Congo”.

69 In particular, Leopold was drawn to Stanley’s reports of rubber trees, ivory-tusked elephants, and gold-wearing natives.

70 The Congo Free State Leopold sent the famous explorer of Africa, Henry Morton Stanley, to negotiate treaties with the natives. Native chiefs were offered trinkets or cloth if they would place an X on a document in foreign tongue. In 1877, Henry Morton Stanley called attention to the Congo region and was sent there by the association, the expense being defrayed by Leopold.[1] Through corrupt treaties with native chiefs, rights were acquired to a great area along the Congo, and military posts were established. The treaties were extremely one-sided in favor of Leopold. In some cases chiefs not only handed over their lands, but also promised to help provide workers for forced labor.

71 The Congo "I do not want to risk...losing a fine chance to secure for ourselves a slice of this magnificent African cake.”--Leopold II Belgian Congo

72 The Berlin Conference, 1884-1885
The Congo Free State Use of river to gain access to ivory- and rubber-rich interior made the Congo a coveted area for colonization. European nations negotiated and agreed to respect each others’ claims to African territory, Leopold made claim for Congo. The Berlin Conference,

73 Leopold waged a skillful public relations campaign to promote his “Congo Free State” as an effort to stop the Arabs from running a slave trade in Africa. This, of course, was a ruse. Slave raids such as this one carried out by the kingdom of Dahomey in return for European muskets and money provided Leopold II with his “humanitarian” excuse for going into the Congo.

74 Role of Stanley in Congo
Stanley began to sign treaties with over 450 native chiefs from the Congo As a result, Leopold gained rule of these lands given up by the chiefs In 1885, after the Berlin Conference, Leopold was given personal rule over the newly declared Congo Free State Leopold had what he wanted because other European powers recognized his hold over Congo

75 Chiefs of Ngombi & Mafela, in return for "one piece of cloth per month to each of the undersigned chiefs, besides present of cloth in hand," they promised to "freely of their own accord, for themselves and their heirs and successors for ever...give up to the said Association the sovereignty and all sovereign and governing rights to all their territories...and to assist by labour or otherwise, any works, improvements or expeditions which the said Association shall cause at any time to be carried out in any part of these territories....All roads and waterways running through this country, the right of collecting tolls on the same, and all game, fishing, mining and forest rights, are to be the absolute property of the said Association.” --Treaty handing over land to Leopold II

Took over land in central Africa Berlin Conference (1885) Leopold’s control over Congo Free State recognized by major powers Belgian Congo (1908) Leopold criticized for the cruelty of his rule in the Congo Leopold forced to sell Congo Free State to Belgian government Renamed Belgian Congo Created European race for African colonies – “Scramble for Africa” Diamonds, foodstuffs, gold, ivory, rubber

77 The Congo Free State: Leopold’s False Promises
European countries recognized Leopold’s claim to the territory in 1885 because of: Stanley’s treaties for Leopold Leopold’s assurances that he would end slavery Leopold’s promise that the Congo would remain a free trade area. The colony “belonged” to Leopold personally. The International Association of the Congo sought to combine the numerous small territories acquired into one sovereign state and asked for recognition from the European Powers. On April 22, 1884, the United States government, having decided that the cessions by the native chiefs were lawful, recognized the International Association of the Congo as a sovereign independent state, under the title of the Congo Free State, and this example was followed by Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, and Sweden. The international conference on African affairs, which met at Berlin, 1884–85, determined the status of the Congo Free State. The Free State of the Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society. Thus the territory of today's Democratic Republic of the Congo, some two million square kilometers, was made essentially the property of Léopold II (because of the terror regime established, it would eventually become a Belgian colony). It was primarily because of this point that Joseph Conrad sarcastically referred to the conference as "the International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs” in Heart of Darkness.

78 Leopold II 1885: Congo Free State
Leopold pledge to uphold Berlin Conference Suppress East African slave trade Promote humanitarian policies Guarantee free trade within the colony Impose no import duties for 20 yrs. Encourage philanthropic and scientific enterprises "I do not want to miss a good chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake." King Leopold II Kevin P. Dincher

79 Promises, Promises Leopold promised the European nations at the conference that he would build a nation of free Congo states, like the United States, and end the slave trade.

80 In the early 1880s, King Leopold II of Belgium paid for expeditions to the the Congo in the center of the African continent. He claimed that, “millions of men still plunged in barbarism will be at the dawn of a better era.” But he really wanted the Congo’s natural resources: copper, rubber and ivory. He forced the locals to work for almost nothing and had them killed and tortured if they complained or disobeyed.

81 Instead, Leopold began a 70 year plunder of the Congo of its rubber, ivory, gold, diamonds, copper, and tin. And, his Belgian forces enslaved Congolese peoples with regularity.

82 Leopold II Exploitation of resources
Ivory, Rubber, Minerals One of the greatest international scandals of the early 20th century Forced/slave labor Starvation Disease Torture/mutilation Directly and indirectly eliminated 20% of the population 10 to 13 million people A 1906 Punch cartoon depicting Leopold II as a rubber vine entangling a Congolese man Kevin P. Dincher

83 The Congo Free State : “The Profit Imperative”
Leopold drove slave traders out and portrayed it as humanitarian act. Reality: he did it to gain control of region. Leopold paid his ‘agents’ in the Congo a percentage of profits, encouraging them to make the trade more and more profitable. Also authorized the use of as much force as was deemed necessary.

84 Harvesting Rubber

85 The Congo Free State : “The Profit Imperative”
Colony not profitable in first few years. Soon the idea of free trade was abandoned Natives could only trade with Leopold’s representatives, with 50% of profits going to Leopold himself. Profit required cheap labor (gathering rubber is very labor intensive).

86 Belgian soldiers enforcing rubber sap quotas

87 Leopold’s Abuse of the Congo
Agents ‘encouraged’ young men to work by holding their wives and children captive until each man’s quota was met. Many who resisted were killed on the spot. Others were beaten with whips made from dried hippo hide with sharp edges. 20 lashes resulted in unconsciousness 100 lashes resulted in death.

88 Women kept hostage to force their husbands to go and gather rubber.
Rubber was harvested by climbing the rubber tree, tapping into it and letting the sap run all over the slave’s body, where it would congeal. Later he would peel the rubber off his body, taking any body hair with it. Rubber harvesters were given impossible quotas to fill each month. In addition to enduring the hardships of gathering rubber in the jungle, many of them were killed by wild animals.

89 "The station chief selects the victims
"The station chief selects the victims....Trembling, haggard, they lie face down on the ground...two of their companions, sometimes four, seize them by the feet and hands, and remove their cotton drawers....Each time that the torturer lifts up the chicotte, a reddish stripe appears on the skin of the pitiful victims, who, however firmly held, gasp in frightful contortions....At the first blows the unhappy victims let out horrible cries which soon become faint groans....In a refinement of evil, some officers, and I've witnessed this, demand that when the sufferer gets up, panting, he must graciously give the military salute.” -- Stanislas Lefranc, Belgian prosecutor The chicotte, a particularly vicious type of whip made from rhinoceros hide.

90 Punishing “Lazy” Workers

91 Two victims (l.) who lost their hands, one because his wrists were tied too tightly, the other because company militia cut it off to claim him as killed and get a reward. Below, a father looks at the severed hand and foot of his daughter Belgian Congo

92 Primary Source: Roger Casement, Report from the Congo Basin in 1903
Here Nkwabali took up the tale from Moyo, the Bangongo chief: ‘We said to the white men, We are not enough people now to do what you want us. Our country has not many people in it and we are dying fast. We are killed by the work you make us do, but the stoppage of our plantations, and the breaking up of our homes.’”

93 Mutilated People in the Congo Free State

94 "I have just returned from a journey inland to the village of Insongo Mboyo. The abject misery and utter abandon is positively indescribable. I was so moved, Your Excellency, by the people's stories that I took the liberty of promising them that in future you will only kill them for crimes they commit.“ John Harris (Missionary) Kevin P. Dincher

95 The men in this photo are holding human hands.
Brutalities were brought to the attention of the world by the many Catholic missionaries who had moved to the region, along with various explorers. Reports included appointed officials outright murdering those who could not pay their taxes and then cutting off and drying their right hands to keep a tally of those who could not pay. Our people were forced to turn to cannibalism and murder to survive. The only food to be found was that off of our brothers' bodies, the only solace for our barbarity was hope that one day, Leopold would pay for his crimes. Finally, the Belgian Government decided to do something about these atrocities and turn the Congo Free State into a protectorate of the Belgian Government. It will soon be renamed the Belgian Congo and be remanded into the hands of parliament.

96 5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit Belgian Official

97 Leopold’s Abuse of the Congo
Revolt broke out. Leopold sent troops into villages to exterminate the young men. To make sure bullets weren’t wasted, soldiers were expected to return with the severed right hands of those they killed. Soldiers who couldn’t meet quotas or spent bullets hunting would cut hands off of living women and children. Between an estimated 8-10 million people died due to murder, mistreatment and starvation.

98 The “Hand” Tax Hands cut off as proof of killing or punishment: received payment for hands and “proved” that supervisors were not “wasting” bullets on game hunting

99 Leopold’s men then proceeded to rape the land of its riches, especially ivory and rubber, ruthlessly using forced labor to get the job done. "It was most interesting, lying in the bush, watching the natives quietly at their day's work. Some women ...were making banana flour by pounding up dried bananas. Men we could see building huts and engaged in other work, boys & girls running about, singing.... I opened the game by shooting one chap through the chest. He fell like a stone....Immediately a volley was poured into the village.” "Six shots & four deaths were sufficient to quiet the mocking.”--Henry Stanley

100 The village of Baringa before and after it was burned & converted into a rubber plantation, it being easier to clear a village than a deeply rooted jungle Belgian Congo

101 Leopold’s Conscience??

102 Negative press about what the Belgians were doing in the Congo
The Belgian King Leopold II says to the USA " I'll give you enough rubber to make you an elastic conscience" 

103 “Heart of Darkness” Joseph Conrad (1857-1914) Marlow’s & Conrad’s
journey into “Heart of Darkness”

104 The First Modern Genocide?
From the Congolese population declines by one-half to 10 million due to 1) murder 2) starvation/exhaustion 3) disease 4) low birth rate An estimated 10 million people died during this time



107 Effects of Imperialism on Congolese Continued
They were forced to collect sap from rubber plants by European Companies that King Leopold II issued. A near 10 million Congolese died from the brutality of Leopold’s rule. Humanitarians all around the world wanted big changes because of the horrible acts of Leopold. The Belgium Government took control in 1908, away from the vicious Leopold. There was slavery throughout Africa and they were beaten and forced to work but that would soon be over because they were going to gain independence from Belgium soon.

108 Effect on the Congo: The Human Rights Movement
Public pressure eventually forced Leopold to sell the Congo Free State to the Belgian government. It became The Belgian Congo in 1908 The Belgian Government ended the worst of the atrocities, but still controlled the fate of the African natives “For their own good.” The African natives were never consulted about their future

109 Imperial Power Removed In Congo
In 1908 the Congo was surrendered by King Leopold II to Belgium. It was renamed the Belgium Congo. Working conditions were harsh but the Belgium rule improved them significantly. People began to demand self rule. The Belgium government agreed to give their political power to the people because they were so confident that they would later regain control. The Belgium Government was wrong, on June 30,1960, Congo gained their independence. Joseph Kasavubu and Patrick Lumumba were the new president and prime minister of the Belgium Congo.

110 Benefits and Modernization
The Belgian modernized the colony The Belgians built railroads and automobiles They brought over electricity and telephones ("Encyclopedia Britannica,“).

111 Cultural Imperialism The Belgians forced many different Congo tribes to live together The Belgians set up Belgian style schools The Congolese lost their native language and way of religion The Belgians brought a new system of law (Everything Culture," ).

112 Resistance and Independence Movements
Congo rebelled from beginning The first Congolese party started in whose name was Congo nation movement In 1959 riots broke out and Congo people demanded independence Congo became an independent republic on June 30, 1960 ("Encyclopedia Britannica," ).

113 Consequences on the Occupied Region
When the Belgians left the country was unstable The Congo lost a lot of its resources Most people live in poverty Government corruption has caused civil wars (Democratic Republic of the Congo, n.d.).

114 BELGIANS IN AFRICA 1908 Belgium gained control of Congo (Congo Free State) from King Leopold II Leopold was infamous for the cruelty of his rule in the Congo Congo Free State (today’s Democratic Republic of Congo) 80 times the size of Belgium Source of uranium

115 Modern Status Congo Belgium GDP-$37,900 per year Literacy rate-99%
HDI-.867 (rank 18) GDP-$300 per year Literacy rate-67.2% HDI-.239 (rank 168) (The World Factbook, n.d.).

116 Italian Colonies in Africa

117 ITALIANS IN AFRICA 1882-1896 1896 1912 Eritrea (along the Red Sea)
Somaliland (along the Indian Ocean, part of today’s Somalia) 1896 Defeated in attempt to conquer Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 1912 Won Tripoli from Ottoman Turks

118 Portuguese Colonies in Africa

119 PORTUGUESE IN AFRICA Under “old imperialism” Portugal gained African territory and led the early trans-Atlantic African slave trade Angola Mozambique Portuguese territory in Africa, 1810

120 Spanish Colonies in Africa

121 SPANISH IN AFRICA Spain had very few possessions in Africa
Tip of Morocco Rio de Oro Rio Muni

122 Modern boundaries, drawn by Europeans

123 Examples of African Resistance to Imperialism

124 Primary Source… Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament. Thus the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic exploitation and militarism. Edward Morel, “The Black Man’s Burden” According to this statement, do you think the Africans could overcome the challenges of Imperialism?

125 Many Africans fought back:
“I have listened to your words but can find no reason why I should obey you – I would rather die first… If you desire friendship, then I am ready for it, today and always. But I cannot be your subject. If you desire war, then I am ready.” -Chief Machemba (1890) What do you think happened?

126 African Resistance Many Africans attempted to resist European imperialism It was difficult for Africans to resist because Europeans had superior weapons More organized armies Unlimited money Aim: What challenges did Africans face in an attempt to resist European imperialism? Do Now: Matching

127 “Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not.”
Remember? “Whatever happens, we have got the Maxim gun, and they have not.” When Africans rebelled, Europeans killed thousands of Yao, Zulu, Asante, Shona, Herero, and Maji-Maji people. Ethiopia was the only exception…

128 African Resistance The Zulu Ethiopia
Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance. Zulu people resisted colonialization more than 50 years Zulu leader Shaka built strong kingdom by subduing several neighboring peoples 1879, British invaded Zulu territory, annexed kingdom as colony The Zulu Only nation to retain independence by matching European firepower 1889, emperor Menelik II modernized nation, army 1895, Italian forces invaded over treaty dispute Menelik’s forces defeated Italians Ethiopia Even without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resisted European powers.

129 Halie Selassie’s cousin, Emperor Menelik II, had modernized Ethiopia by hiring Europeans to build roads, bridges and schools. He bought weapons from Great Britain to fight the Italian invaders, and defeated the Italians in 1896.

130 Ethiopia: Successful Resistance
Only African nation that was successful in resisting the Europeans Menelik II, leader, played the Italians, French and British against each other. He built a large arsnal of weapons Learned that treaties were not always correct Defeated the Italians in the Battle of Adowa Aim: What challenges did Africans face in an attempt to resist European imperialism? Do Now: Matching

131 Menelik II Aim: What challenges did Africans face in an attempt to resist European imperialism? Do Now: Matching

132 When Italy invaded again in 1935, Haile Selassie I made a famous speech to the League of Nations.
Bob Marley used his speech as lyrics to a song, “War”

133 “That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained…”

134 “And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed… Until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We Africans will fight, if necessary, and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.”

135 Shaka Zulu (1785 – 1828)

136 Effects of Imperialism

137 Effects of Imperialism
Positive Reduced Local Warfare The introduction of modern of transportation and communication systems, such as telegraphs, railroads and telephones. Improved Sanitation Introduction of medicine increased population Life Span and Literacy Rates Increased Negative Loss of land and independence Breakdown of traditional culture Division of Continent

138 Effects of Imperialism
Positive For Europe: The imperialists profited from the colonies by digging mines, starting plantations, and building factories and ports Negative for Africans: Africans were used as cheap labor and abused in many colonies. Europeans divided Africa and ignored the tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries of the African people. This has led to tribal conflicts in many African nations that continue to this day.

139 Positive/Negative Effects of Imperialism
Led to the rise of African nationalism under a new class of African leaders who had been educated under the Western systems Saw the good and bad of the Western colonists Realized they were hypocrites---did not bring democracy to Africa Upset by the segregated clubs, schools, and churches Upset by how they would call African male boy

140 Positive/NegativeEffects of Imperialism
Schools set up by Europeans taught Africans that European ways were best A western-educated elite had emerged in many European colonies in Africa These elite condemned imperialism They founded nationalist groups to push for self-rule By the end of the 20th Century Africa’s peoples had won their political independence from European rule

141 Positive/Negative Effects of Imperialism
Africans could communicate through a common European language like English. Africans became part of a greater European power. Africans became more ‘civilized’ and spread Europeans customs and traditions. Africans were not using resources that benefitted the Europeans. European entrepreneurs used those resources to provide wealth and trade in Europe and Africa.

142 Positive/Negative Effects of Imperialism
The effect on the economies of Africa was to provide more jobs and trade. Africans were used as labor and provided passage as guides through undeveloped areas. Africans worked in mines, cleared jungles, acted as interpreters, built railroads, and were servants. Africans helped businesses by facilitating trade and worked as local policemen to maintain law and order.

143 Positive Effects of Imperialism
There was a uniform legal code instead of laws varying from tribe to tribe. Intergenerational and intertribal wars were eliminated. The European governments had the military resources to maintain law and order peacefully. Africans were given salvation by converting to Christianity. Africans went to school and learned to read and write.

144 Negative Effects of Imperialism
African culture and heritage were replaced by European culture and heritage. Many Africans were not included in society because they did not speak the European languages. Indigenous peoples were divided according to whether they followed European customs or not. A new set of values and beliefs was created blending European and native traditions.

145 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Many of the natural resources were taken from Africa without any environmental concerns. The profit from the natural resources went to the Europeans. Most of the indigenous people were employed in difficult manual labor and for very low wages. Indigenous economies were replaced by a market economy. The Europeans imposed taxes and forced Africans into the labor force.

146 Negative Effects of Imperialism
African peoples lost the power to govern their own lives. African indigenous peoples already had laws and traditions for maintaining order and did not need European interference. African culture did not grow or prosper. There were arguments among the indigenous peoples over which religion should guide the people. Missionaries destroyed African culture.

147 Negative Effects of Imperialism
The colonial governments took much of the land away from the Africans for personal and commercial use, such as mining and large commercial farms The Europeans took the best land for their own Examples of this: Belgium and Britain in Central, East, and South Africa

148 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Since European powers needed manpower to manage their farms and mining companies, they used Africans as cheap labor The Africans, either having lost their lands or not able to live off their lands, began to move to towns, farms, and mines in search of work The working conditions were horrible, often involving corporal punishment and low wages. Wages were partially given in the form of cash and partially as food rations

149 Negative Effects of Imperialism
The colonial governments needed money to pay for the running of these overseas governments, and the mother country gave them very little financial help. So the colonial governments taxed the Africans heavily Since taxes had to be paid in European currency, the Africans were indirectly forced to work for the Europeans in order to obtain the cash to pay the taxes The result of this was more and more Africans were forced to work for Europeans

150 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Taxes: Europeans were quick to tax Africans on anything they could According to Kumalo, “The government said, ‘You must contribute more; you must pay £1.’ We did so. Then those who took more than one wife were taxed… that is not all. We are also taxed for our dogs… then we were told we were living on private land; the owners wanted rent in addition to the government tax…” Kumalo said, “If we do raise anything, it is never our own: all, or most of it, goes back in taxation”

151 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Due to World War One and Two, the European colonial powers started a new policy of forced labor in the 1920s Africans were recruited to work and sent to towns, farms, and mines This led to many African men being separated from their families, since only men were used The villages lacked the manpower for food production, which led to famine Male homosexuality and female prostitution increased among the African communities in the towns There was alienation from traditional village life, which led to the declining power of the village chiefs Immigrant laborers were brought from Asia to Africa and tensions developed between the native Africans and the foreign immigrants

152 Negative Effects of Imperialism
The Europeans changed the economic structure of African society They introduced commercial or cash crops to meet the industrial demands of the home countries Cocoa, coffee, tea, and cotton were produced on a large scale Minerals were mined extensively Resulted in neglecting of production of food for basic needs

153 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Europeans changed the economy from one where basic foods were produced to feed the native peoples to an economy based on the production of a few cash crops All the crops produced were exported to Europe at prices set by the European countries Few colonies allowed the Africans to grow the cash crops for their own benefit Trade was not allowed between Africans As a result, the Africans became produced of cheap cash crops and minerals for the Europeans

154 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Africans Land and Food Scarcity: Europeans take land, cattle, and food Africans acquired Kumalo said, “All the best land has been taken by the white people. We get hardly any price for our cattle; we find it hard to meet our money obligations. If we have crops to spare, we get very little for them… When we have plenty of grain the prices are very low, but the moment we are short of grain and we have to buy from Europeans at once the price is high”

155 Negative Effects of Imperialism
The colonial powers had no plans to industrialize or aid in the modernization of Africa Africa produced the raw materials, which were exported to Europe, and re-exported to Africa as final products sold at high prices, which the Africans could not afford to pay

156 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Ndansi Kumalo, an African, said, “We were treated like slaves… the treatment we received was intolerable. We said, ‘It is no good living under such conditions; death would be better—let us fight’” King Leopold II of Belgium justified brutality against the Africans by saying, “the natives hardly knew how to get their daily food” Cecil Rhodes wrote in his will in 1877 that African Americans were “the most despicable specimens of human beings.”

157 Negative Effects of Imperialism
British Matabele War: Rhodes gained control of the mineral mines in Matabeleland and with the help of his South Africa Company, exploited the mineral wealth in the area, sparking the rebellion of the Matabeles against the British. The British Matabele War ended with Britain easily slaughtering thousands of Africans with the help of the machine guns.

158 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Civil War in Africa: After the Europeans relinquished control, civil war broke out all over Africa; some of these civil wars are still going on today. In January, representatives at the Pan Africanist Congress said that, "the problems which were being blamed on [President Robert] Mugabe [of Zimbabwe] were created by British colonialism, whose agent Cecil Rhodes used armed force to acquire land for settlers." In Zimbabwe, formerly called Rhodesia, Mugabe called his enemies of all races "colonialists," despite that Rhodesia was renamed Zimbabwe in 1980

159 Positive Effects of Imperialism
Western medicine was introduced and aided in the growth of the African population Formal education was introduced and broaden the African outlook Africa’s infrastructure was based on the European one with roads, railways, water, electricity, and communication systems The introduction of Christianity promoted literacy and health care through the work of missionaries Create a basis for all Africans to come together and assist one another

160 Positive Effects of Imperialism
Christianity made African spirituality simpler in regards of life, death, and salvation There was no need for sacrifices and rituals, which were traditionally required It made individual progress possible because it destroyed the traditional fabric of the African community The boundaries as established by the different colonial powers made state formation easier in the process of independence

161 Positive Effects of Imperialism
Ndansi Kumalo, an African warrior in the British Matabele War said “the Government has arranged for education and through that, when our children grow up, they may rise in status” Kumalo said, “they brought us European implements—plows; we can buy European clothes, which are an advance”

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