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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE STAFF

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Presentation on theme: "INDUSTRIAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE STAFF"— Presentation transcript:

1 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE STAFF
SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL INDUSTRIAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE STAFF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 3 1 1

2 WELCOME SAFETY TRAINING SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
OSHA 29 CFR EPA 40 CFR , 264, WELCOME 2

3 YOUR INSTRUCTOR 3

4 ABOUT THIS COURSE This Course is Intended to Provide Training in Basic Techniques and Control Measures for Relatively Small Spills Containing Materials That do not Require Respiratory Protection or Extensive Skin Protection. Requiring Personal Protective Equipment Such as the Following: 1. Coveralls. 2. Gloves. (Optional, as applicable) 3. Boots/Shoes, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank. 4. Boot outer, chemical resistant (disposable) 5. Safety glasses or chemical splash goggles. 6. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable) 7. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable) 8. Escape mask. (Optional, as applicable) 4

5 STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
Understand the Effects of Exposure to Hazardous Materials Understand the Basics of Industrial Pollution Prevention Understand the Basics of Spill Control and Containment Understand the Basics of Development a Spill Response Plan 29 and 40 CFR Requires: Establishment of a “Spill Control” Program Training be Conducted Hazards be Assessed Hazards and Precautions be Explained Emergency Response Capability be Established 5

6 COURSE OBJECTIVES Provide Training to the Emergency Response Staff.
Introduce Pollution Prevention and Discuss Its Role in Today’s Industry. Introduce Spill Control and Discuss Its Role in Today’s Industry. Introduce Skills Required for Spill Control of Industrial Materials. Introduce Spill Control Techniques. Discuss Physical and Health Hazards. Discuss the North American Emergency Response Guidebook NOTES: _________________________________________________________ 6

7 BASIS FOR THIS COURSE 32,000,000 Workers Exposed to Chemicals on a Daily Basis. 575,000 Existing Chemical Products. Bhopal India Tragedy, December 1984. OSHA Requirements for Safe Chemical Handling. OSHA Requirements Emergency Spill Control. EPA Requirements for Pollution Prevention. 7

8 REGULATORY STANDARD THE GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE FEDERAL - 29 CFR 1903.1
EMPLOYERS MUST: Furnish a place of employment free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. Employers must comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. 8

9 REGULATORY STANDARD FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
29CFR 29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL INDUSTRY 106 - FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 9

10 REGULATORY STANDARD 29CFR - 1910 - 120
HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS & EMERGENCY RESPONSE 29CFR 29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL INDUSTRY 120 - HAZWOPER STANDARD 10

11 REGULATORY STANDARD HAZARD COMMUNICATION 29CFR - 1910 - 1200
29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL INDUSTRY HAZCOM STANDARD 11

12 REGULATORY STANDARD HAZARD COMMUNICATION 40CFR - 112, 264
40CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS 112 - SPILL PREVENTION, CONTROL, AND COUNTERMEASURES PLAN 264 - PREPAREDNESS, PREVENTION AND CONTINGENCY PLAN 12

13 OSHA CIVIL PENALTIES POLICY
BEFORE MARCH 1, 1991: VIOLATION NARRATIVE: TEN (10) EMPLOYEES WERE NOTED NOT WEARING EYE PROTECTION IN AREAS WHERE A REASONABLE PROBABILITY OF EYE INJURY COULD OCCUR. PENALTY: $500 13

14 OSHA CIVIL PENALTIES POLICY
AS OF MARCH 1, 1991: CHANGES IN PENALTY COMPUTATION: 1. PENALTIES BROKEN OUT INDIVIDUALLY. 2. PENALTIES INCREASED SEVEN FOLD. 14

15 OSHA CIVIL PENALTIES POLICY
AS OF MARCH 1, 1991: VIOLATION NARRATIVE: TEN (10) EMPLOYEES WERE NOTED NOT WEARING EYE PROTECTION IN AREAS WHERE A REASONABLE PROBABILITY OF EYE INJURY COULD OCCUR. 10 VIOLATIONS TIMES $500 = $5000 5000 TIMES SEVEN = $35,000 PENALTY: $ BEFORE MARCH, 1991: $500 AS OF MARCH, 1991: $35,000 15

16 POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
POLLUTION PREVENTION ACT OF 1990: Established a national hierarchy for managing wastes. The environmental hierarchy included provisions for: PREVENTION RECYCLING TREATMENT DISPOSAL OR RELEASE POLLUTION ACT OF 1990 16

17 POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
POLLUTION PREVENTION DEFINED: Source reduction and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through the increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water or other resources, or the protection of natural resources by conservation. 17

18 POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
SOURCE REDUCTION: 1. Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant or contaminant entering any waste streams otherwise released into the environment prior to recycling, treatment or disposal. 2. Reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants or contaminants. 18

19 POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
WASTE MINIMIZATION DEFINED: The reduction, to the extent feasible, of hazardous waste that is generated or subsequently treated, sorted or disposed of. Waste minimization includes any source reduction or recycling activity under taken by a generator that results in either: 1. Reduction of total volume/quantity of hazwaste 2. Reduction of toxicity of hazwaste 19

20 POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM: 1. Top Management Support 2. Characterization of Waste Generation Costs 3. Characterization of Waste Management Costs 4. Periodic Waste Minimization Assessments 5. Appropriate Cost Allocation 6. Encouragement of Technology Transfer 20

21 COMPLIANCE POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 1. Planning and Organization Phase 2. Facility Assessment Phase 3. Feasibility Analysis Phase 4. Implementation Phase COMPLIANCE 21

22 COMPLIANCE POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 1. Planning and Organization Phase Management Commitment Waste Minimization Goals Organizing an Assessment Task Force COMPLIANCE 22

23 COMPLIANCE POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 2. Facility Assessment Phase Collect Process and Facility Data Prioritize and Select Assessment Targets Prioritize or Rank Waste Handling Procedures Identify Wastes to be Targeted Identify In-House Resources for Program COMPLIANCE 23

24 COMPLIANCE POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 2. Facility Assessment Phase (Continued) Select Assessment Team Review Data and Inspect Site Generate Options for Pollution Prevention Screen and Select Options for Feasibility Study COMPLIANCE 24

25 COMPLIANCE POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 3. Feasibility Analysis Phase An option must be shown to be technically and economically feasible in order to merit serious consideration for adoption at a facility. A technical evaluation determines whether a proposed option will work in a specific application. Both process and equipment changes need to be assessed for their overall effects on waste quantity and product quality. COMPLIANCE 25

26 COMPLIANCE POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
ELEMENTS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 4. Implementation Phase Any option that passes both technical and economic feasibility reviews should then be implemented at a facility. The process should then be continued to track waste and identify opportunities for pollution prevention throughout a facility by way of periodic reassessments. COMPLIANCE 26

27 POLLUTION PREVENTION OVERVIEW
BENEFITS TO A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM: 1. Environmental Benefits 2. Health Benefits 3. Economic Benefits 4. Regulatory Benefits 5. Liability Benefits 6. Public Image Benefits 27

28 SPECIFIC GRAVITY CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Specific Gravity is a dimensionless number that compares the mass of any material to the mass of an equal volume of water. Weight (mass) of 1 gallon of Water is 8.33 lbs. Weight (mass) of 1 gallon of Sulfuric Acid is lbs. Specific Gravity = = 1.84 15.33 lb/gal (Sulfuric) 8.33 lbs/gal (Water) 28

29 CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Many chemicals are soluble in water, but when the liquid does not appreciably dissolve in water, the term immiscible is used. IMMISCIBLE IN WATER SOLUBLE IN WATER Float on top if the SG less than 1.0 Sink to the bottom if the SG greater than 1.0 WATER WATER 29

30 VAPOR DENSITY CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
The mass of gases and vapors as it is compared to the mass of an equal volume of air or other reference gas. Air’s density is 1.29 g/L or lb/gallon. VD greater than 1.0, the vapors are heavier than air and lay in low areas. VD less than 1.0, the vapors are lighter than air and will rise. 30

31 pH CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
- pH. THE pH OF A LIQUID IS THE NUMERICAL MEASURE OF ITS RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY. THE RANGE IS FROM WITH A NEUTRAL LEVEL EXPRESSED AS A pH OF ABOVE 7.0 THE LIQUID IS MORE ALKALINE OR BASIC. BELOW 7.0 THE LIQUID IS MORE ACIDIC. COMMON ACIDS (pH 0-6) COMMON BASES (pH 8-14) - HYDROCHLORIC ACID - SODIUM HYDROXIDE (LYE) - HYDROFLUORIC ACID - SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE (BLEACH) - NITRIC ACID - AQUEOUS AMMONIA - PHOSPHORIC ACID - POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (POTASH) - CHROMIC ACID - AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE 31

32 pH CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES COMMON HOUSEHOLD LIQUIDS 12
11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ACID NEUTRAL BASE Limewater Household ammonia Milk of magnesia Blood Pure Water Tap Water Coffee Wine Vinegar Lemon juice Gastric juice pH COMMON HOUSEHOLD LIQUIDS 32

33 ACID BASE CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY!
HIGH pH BASE ACID LOW pH 33

34 STATES OF MATTER CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SOLID LIQUID GAS
CHANGE OF STATE CAN OCCUR DUE TO: HEAT COLD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE INTERACTION WITH OTHER CHEMICALS 34

35 STATES OF MATTER CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS:
FUME DUST MIST VAPOR GAS SMOKE 35

36 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY
EVERYTHING IS TOXIC; IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE DOSE HOW WELL THE BODY ACCEPTS A SUBSTANCE DEPENDS ON: THE TYPE OF SUBSTANCE THE AMOUNT (DOSE) ABSORBED THE PERIOD OF TIME OVER WHICH IT IS ABSORBED THE SUSCEPTIBILITY/SENSITIVITY OF THE PERSON EXPOSED 36

37 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY
ROUTES OF ENTRY INHALATION ABSORPTION INGESTION INJECTION 37

38 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY
EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY LOCAL EFFECT. DAMAGE TO BODY PARTS THAT ACTUALLY CONTACT THE HARMFUL SUBSTANCE (ACID ON A HAND). SYSTEMIC EFFECT. DAMAGE TO AN AREA OF THE BODY AFTER THE SUBSTANCE IS ABSORBED (LIVER DAMAGE). INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY. SOME PEOPLE ARE NATURALLY SENSITIVE OR CAN DEVELOP SENSITIVITY TO A SUBSTANCE. DOSE. COMBINATION OF CONCENTRATION AND LENGTH OF BODILY EXPOSURE TO A SPECIFIC MATERIAL. 38

39 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY
EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY ACUTE EXPOSURE: USUALLY MINUTES, HOURS OR SEVERAL DAYS. CHRONIC EXPOSURE: REGULAR EXPOSURE OVER MONTHS, YEARS, OR A LIFETIME. 39

40 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY
DEGREE OF HARM TO BODY DEPENDENT ON: CONDITIONS OF USE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICAL ROUTES OF EXPOSURE DURATION OF THE EXPOSURE CONCENTRATION OF THE CONTAMINANT IN AIR INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE EXPOSED PERSON TOXICITY OF THE CHEMICAL 40

41 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY
EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGY HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. A MATERIAL THAT FALLS INTO ONE OR MORE OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES. IGNITABILITY (FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE) REACTIVITY (REACTS WITH ITSELF OR OTHER MATERIALS) CORROSIVITY (DETERIORATES ANOTHER SUBSTANCE) TOXICITY (IN A NORMAL STATE IS HARMFUL TO LIVING THINGS) 41

42 HAZARD RATING SYSTEMS FIVE HAZARD LEVELS HMIS NFPA 4 SEVERE 4 EXTREME
3 SERIOUS 3 HIGH 2 MODERATE 2 MODERATE 1 SLIGHT 1 SLIGHT 0 MINIMAL 0 INSIGNIFICANT 42

43 HAZARD RATING SYSTEMS FOUR HAZARD PARAMETERS HEALTH (Blue)
FLAMMABILITY (Red) REACTIVITY (Yellow) SPECIFIC HAZARD (NFPA) (White) 43

44 4 2 1 W NFPA LABEL HAZARD RATING SYSTEMS FIVE NFPA HAZARD LEVELS
FIRE HAZARD REACTIVITY SPECIFIC HAZARD (WATER REACTIVE) HEALTH HAZARD FIVE NFPA HAZARD LEVELS - 4 EXTREME - 3 HIGH - 2 MODERATE - 1 SLIGHT - 0 INSIGNIFICANT RED BLUE YELLOW WHITE NFPA LABEL 44

45 HAZARD RATING SYSTEMS REVIEW THE CONTAINER LABEL FOR:
HEALTH HAZARD LEVEL REACTIVITY INFORMATION FIRE HAZARD LEVEL SPECIFIC HAZARDS SUCH AS “WATER REACTIVITY” 45

46 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS ACID BASE ACIDS AND BASES COMMON ACIDS (pH 0-6)
HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROFLUORIC ACID NITRIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID CHROMIC ACID COMMON BASES (pH 8-14) SODIUM HYDROXIDE (LYE) SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE (BLEACH) AQUEOUS AMMONIA POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (POTASH) AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE 46

47 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY! ACID BASE LOW pH HIGH pH 47

48 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS ACIDS BASES OXIDIZERS
AFFECT OTHER MATERIALS BY CONTACT: ACIDS AND BASES AFFECT MATERIAL BY CONTACT ACIDS AND BASES AFFECT EACH OTHER OXIDIZERS INCREASE HAZARD DURING FIRES 48

49 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS DOT DEFINITION OXIDIZER
A MATERIAL SUCH AS A CHLORATE, PERMANGANATE, OR INORGANIC PEROXIDE THAT WILL GIVE OFF OXYGEN READILY TO STIMULATE THE COMBUSTION OF ORGANIC MATERIAL. OXIDIZER DANGER 49

50 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS OXIDIZERS PROVIDE OXYGEN FOR COMBUSTION
REACT VIOLENTLY WITH FLAMMABLES AND COMBUSTIBLES MUST BE KEPT SEPARATE FROM ALL OTHER CLASSES OF MATERIALS OXIDIZERS OXIDIZER DANGER 50

51 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS DOT DEFINITION CORROSIVE
A LIQUID OR SOLID THAT CAUSES VISIBLE DESTRUCTION OR IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE TO SKIN TISSUE AT THE POINT OF CONTACT, OR THAT HAS A SEVERE CORROSION RATE ON STEEL. CORROSIVE MATERIALS DANGER 51

52 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS OSHA DEFINITION CORROSIVE ACID
A CHEMICAL THAT CAUSES VISIBLE DESTRUCTION OF, OR IRREVERSIBLE ALTERATIONS IN LIVING TISSUE BY CHEMICAL ACTION AT THE SITE OF CONTACT. ACID 52

53 CORROSIVE LIQUIDS - pH. THE pH OF A LIQUID IS THE NUMERICAL MEASURE
ACIDS AND BASES - pH. THE pH OF A LIQUID IS THE NUMERICAL MEASURE OF ITS RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY. THE RANGE IS FROM WITH A NEUTRAL LEVEL EXPRESSED AS A pH OF 7.0. ABOVE THE LIQUID IS MORE ALKALINE OR BASIC. BELOW THE LIQUID IS MORE ACIDIC. 53

54 STORING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS
STORAGE AND SPILL CONTROL INSPECT BEFORE PLACING IN STORAGE SEPARATE ACIDS FROM BASES SEPARATE ACIDS & BASES FROM OTHER MATERIALS USE DRIP PANS UNDER CONTAINERS USE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) USE CORRECT DILUTIONS SEQUENCES USE APPROVED STORAGE CONTAINERS CORROSIVE MATERIALS DANGER 54

55 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS TYPES AND DEFINITIONS:
FLASHPOINT - MINIMUM TEMP. FOR IGNITABLE VAPOR FLAMMABLE - FLASHPOINT BELOW 100 DEG. (F.) COMBUSTIBLE - FLASHPOINT AT OR ABOVE 100 DEG. (F.) PYROPHORIC - CAN IGNITE SPONTANEOUSLY FLAMMABLE RANGE - VAPOR /AIR RATIO THAT WILL BURN VOLATILITY - TENDENCY TO CHANGE TO VAPOR STATE 55

56 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY! SOLVENT OXIDIZER 56

57 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS STORING FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS:
LEVELS OF STORAGE: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE FACILITY IN-PLANT STORAGE CABINETS TOTES, DRUMS/BARRELS PORTABLE CONTAINERS FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS DANGER 57

58 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE FACILITY
DEDICATED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM MAKE-UP AIR EXHAUST VENTILATION EXPLOSION-PROOF LIGHTING AND HEATING FLOOR DRAINS 2-HOUR FIRE RATING ON STRUCTURE PROPER SIGNAGE AND SAFETY PROCEDURES FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS DANGER 58

59 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS TOTES, DRUMS AND BARRELS
SHOULD BE MOVED TO STORAGE ASAP MAKE BEST USE OF JUST-IN-TIME SYSTEM BONDING WIRES MUST BE USED LOCAL FIRE CODES MUST BE CONSIDERED BONDING - CONTAINER TO CONTAINER GROUNDING - CONTAINER TO STRUCTURAL GROUND NO IGNITION SOURCES WITHIN 25 FEET FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS DANGER 59

60 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS PORTABLE CONTAINERS
BOND FROM DRUM TO CONTAINER DURING TRANSFER STORE IN SAFETY CABINETS WHEN NOT IN USE CHECK FOR LEAK-TIGHTNESS CHECK FOR SERVICEABLE VENT MECHANISM DO NOT REMOVE FLAME ARRESTER SCREENS DO NOT OVERFILL (HIGH TEMPS WILL CAUSE OVERFLOW) FOLLOW WARNINGS AND SAFETY PROCEDURES FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS DANGER 60

61 IGNITABLE LIQUIDS GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
REMOVE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT USE SPARK RESISTANT TOOLS USE SAFE TECHNIQUES TO MOVE CONTAINERS USE PROPER DISPENSING FAUCETS FOLLOW WARNINGS AND USE LABELS PROPERLY DISPOSE OF EMPTY CONTAINERS FOLLOW PROPER INSPECTION PROCEDURES FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS DANGER 61

62 HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS HANDLING ALL ROUTES OF ENTRY CAN BE AT RISK
MATERIAL MUST BE CHARACTERIZED KNOW THE EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH EFFECTS RESTRICT ACCESS TO THESE MATERIALS CAREFULLY REVIEW STORAGE REQUIREMENTS ENSURE SUFFICIENT TRAINING LEVELS ACHIEVED USE ADEQUATE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT USE APPROVED STORAGE CONTAINERS DANGER HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIALS 62

63 HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY! ACID CYANIDE 63

64 HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS STORING INSPECT BEFORE PLACING IN STORAGE
RESTRICT ACCESS TO THESE MATERIALS SEPARATE FROM INCOMPATIBLES USE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) USE APPROVED STORAGE CONTAINERS STORING DANGER HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIALS 64

65 REACTIVE LIQUIDS HANDLING KNOW THE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS
KNOW THE REACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIAL SEPARATE FROM INCOMPATIBLES RESTRICT ACCESS TO THESE MATERIALS CAREFULLY REVIEW STORAGE REQUIREMENTS ENSURE SUFFICIENT TRAINING LEVELS ACHIEVED USE ADEQUATE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT USE APPROVED STORAGE CONTAINERS REACTIVE MATERIALS DANGER 65

66 REACTIVE LIQUIDS CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY! MAGNESIUM WATER 66

67 REACTIVE LIQUIDS STORING INSPECT BEFORE PLACING IN STORAGE
SEPARATE FROM INCOMPATIBLES USE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) USE APPROVED STORAGE CONTAINERS STORING REACTIVE MATERIALS DANGER 67

68 SOLID MATERIALS HANDLING - PORTABLE CONTAINERS HANDLING - BULK STORAGE
DRUMS/BARRELS TOTES BAGS HANDLING - PORTABLE CONTAINERS TANKS HOPPERS SILOS HANDLING - BULK STORAGE HIGHLY TOX IC MATERIALS DANGER 68

69 SOLID MATERIALS TRANSFER HAZARDS MANUAL METHOD MECHANICAL METHOD
FOLLOW SAFETY PROCEDURES AVOID SUSPENDING PARTICLES USE DUST CONTROL TECHNIQUES TRANSFER DUST PRIMARY HAZARD HAZARDS RESPIRATORY HAZARD DANGER 69

70 SOLID MATERIALS 0.25 1.00 5.00 590.0 MINUTES 54.0 MINUTES 2.5 MINUTES
TIME TO FALL 1 FOOT* PARTICLE SIZE 0.25 1.00 5.00 590.0 MINUTES 54.0 MINUTES 2.5 MINUTES = MICRON RESPIRATORY HAZARD DANGER * = SHAPE IS A FACTOR 70

71 SOLID MATERIALS STORING INSPECT CONTAINER BEFORE PLACING IN STORAGE
SEPARATE FROM INCOMPATIBLES USE MECHANICAL DEVICES TO LIFT HEAVY BAGS USE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) PROTECT FROM CONTAMINATION IN STORAGE USE EXHAUST VENTILATION EMPTY BAGS HAVE RESIDUAL PRODUCT INSIDE USE APPROVED STORAGE CONTAINERS STORING 71

72 EMPTY CONTAINER MANAGEMENT
HANDLING AND DISPOSAL INSPECT CONTAINER FOR PRODUCT RESIDUALS DO NOT USE EMPTY CONTAINERS AS TRASH CANS CHECK WITH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TRIPLE RINSE REUSABLE CONTAINERS REMEMBER - RESIDUAL PRODUCT IS HAZARDOUS TOO FOLLOW LOCAL PROCEDURES CHECK WITH SUPERVISOR IF POLICY IS UNCLEAR 72

73 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS PROTECTIVE GLOVES Butyl Latex - Vinyl Neoprene PVA PVC PVC/Nitrile The actual properties of the hazard must be known to determine the specific type of equipment to be used! 73

74 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS PROTECTIVE GLOVES Natural Rubber - Alcohol's, diluted acids and bases Neoprene - Bases, peroxides, fuels, oils Aliphatic hydrocarbons, glycol, phenols, alcohol Nitrile Rubber - Phenols, PCB, oil and fuels, amines, bases, peroxides Polyvinyl Alcohol - Most organics 74

75 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS PROTECTIVE BOOTS Butyl Natural Rubber Neoprene Nitrile PVC PVC/Nitrile The actual properties of the hazard must be known to determine the specific type of equipment to be used! 75

76 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS EQUIPMENT INSPECTION Inspect for weak seams Inspect for tears and cracks Inspect for signs of swelling Inspect for signs of stiffness Inspect for signs of deterioration Inspect for signs of discoloration Inspect for non-uniform coatings Inspect for pinholes (hold to light) Inspect for malfunctioning closures Check clothing for compatibility with material 76

77 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS PERMEATION To pass through the protective clothing through a period of time. This passing through may not be noticeable without a microscope. 77

78 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS BREAK THROUGH TIME The amount of time it takes to “Break Through” the PPE Garment. 78

79 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS DEGRADATION The changing of the physical properties of the protective equipment due to the chemicals being introduced. 79

80 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS PENETRATION The large flow of any chemical through the protective clothing and/or material. ACID 80

81 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS KEYS TO SELECTING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 1. PPE must be compatible with spilled product! 2. Evaluate the task and then select protective clothing. 3. Know the types of exposures that are likely to occur. 4. Know the effects when contact is made with a chemical. 5. Know the physical resistance. 6. Know the chemical resistance. 7. Consider Human factors. 8. Evaluate the cost associated with the equipment. 81

82 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS PPE SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Design Comfort Visibility Flexibility Durability Disposability Communication Chemical Resistance Age of the Equipment Temperature Resistance The actual properties of the product must be known to make a decision on the specific type of equipment to be used! 82

83 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS 4 LEVELS OR TYPES OF PROTECTION LEVEL - A LEVEL - B LEVEL - C LEVEL - D 83

84 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS LEVEL - A PROTECTION Level A is used when the highest level of skin, respiratory and eye protection is required. The hazardous substance has been identified and requires the highest level of protection for skin, eyes and the respiratory system based on either the measured (or potential for) high concentration of atmospheric vapors, gases, or particulate; or the site operations and work functions involve a high potential for splash, immersion, or exposure to unexpected vapors, gases, or particulate of materials that are harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin. 84

85 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - A 1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA, approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 2. Totally-encapsulating airtight, vapor tight chemical protective suit. 3. Coveralls. (Nomex & Nomex Hood). 4. Long underwear. (Optional, as applicable) 85

86 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - A 5. Gloves, outer, chemical resistant. 6. Gloves, inner, chemical resistant. 7. Boots, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank. 8. Hard hat, bike helmet, hockey helmet, (under suit). (Optional, as applicable). 9. Disposable protective suit, gloves and boots (depending on suit construction, may be worn over totally-encapsulating suit.) 86

87 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS LEVEL - B PROTECTION Level B is used when the highest level of respiratory protection is necessary (IDLH) but a lesser level of skin protection is needed. The type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been identified and require a high level of respiratory protection but less skin protection. The atmosphere contains less than 19.5 percent oxygen. The presence of incompletely identified vapors or gases is indicated by a direct reading organic vapor detection instrument, but vapors and gases are not suspected of containing high levels of chemicals harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin. 87

88 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - B 1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA, approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 2. Hooded chemical resistant clothing (overalls and long-sleeved jacket; coveralls; one or two piece chemical splash suit; disposable chemical resistant overalls. 88

89 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - B 3. Coveralls. (Optional, as applicable). 4. Gloves, outer, chemical resistant. 5. Gloves, inner, chemical resistant. 6. Boots, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank. 7. Boot covers, outer, chemical resistant (disposable). 8. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable). 9. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable). 89

90 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS LEVEL - C PROTECTION Level C is used when the concentration(s) and type(s) of airborne substance(s) is known and the criteria for using air purifying respirators are met. The atmospheric contaminants, liquid splashes, or other direct contact will not adversely affect or be absorbed through any exposed skin. The types of air contaminants have been identified, concentrations measured, and an air purifying respirator is available that can remove the contaminants. All criteria for the use of air purifying respirators are met. 90

91 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - C 1. Full face or half mask, air purifying respirators, approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 2. Hooded chemical resistant clothing (overalls, two piece chemical splash suit; disposable chemical resistant overalls. 91

92 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - C 3. Coveralls. (Optional, as applicable) 4. Gloves, outer, chemical resistant. 5. Gloves, inner, chemical resistant. 6. Boots (outer), chemical resistant, steel toe and shank. 7. Boot covers, outer, chemical resistant (disposable). 8. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable) 9. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable) 10. Escape mask. (Optional, as applicable) 92

93 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS LEVEL - D PROTECTION Level D is used for nuisance contamination only. A work uniform affording minimal protection. The atmosphere contains no known hazards. Work functions preclude splashes, immersion, or the potential for unexpected inhalation of or contact with hazardous levels of any chemicals or materials. 93

94 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
CONSIDERATIONS COMPONENTS OF LEVEL - D 1. Coveralls. 2. Gloves. (Optional, as applicable) 3. Boots/Shoes, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank. 4. Boot outer, chemical resistant (disposable) 5. Safety glasses or chemical splash goggles. 6. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable) 7. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable) 8. Escape mask. (Optional, as applicable) 94

95 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
ELEMENTS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL: 1. Identification of Potential Spill Areas 2. Risk Reduction Techniques in Potential Spill Areas 3. Identification of Spill Procedures and Equipment 4. Development of a Spill Control Plan 95

96 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL SPILL AREAS: Tank Farms Warehouses Parking Lots Process Activities Containment Areas Manufacturing Areas Food Processing Areas Power Generating Facilities Waste Accumulation Points Loading and Unloading Areas Waste and or Materials Storage Areas Chemical Processing or Blending Areas 96

97 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
RISK REDUCTION IN POTENTIAL SPILL AREAS: Adopt Effective Housekeeping Practices Adopt or Improve Internal Material Flow Plans Ensure Appropriate Security Measures are in Place Install Leak Detection, Overflow Devices and Controls Recycle, Reclaim and or Reduce the Volume in the Facility Substitute Less or Non-Toxic Materials for Toxic Materials Perform Regular Visual Inspections on Storage Containers Develop Spill Minimization Procedures for Material Transfers Remove Easily Punctured Containers from High Traffic Areas Perform Regular Preventive Maintenance on Storage Systems 97

98 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
IDENTIFICATION OF SPILL PROCEDURES & EQUIPMENT: Timely Implementation of Procedures is the Key Element Maintenance of Procedures is Also Critical Develop Spill Response Plans Based on Spill Potential Consider Potential Magnitude and Frequency of Spills Review Past History and Instances of Spills Review Previous Locations of Spills Review Pertinent Material Safety Data Sheets for Spill Control 98

99 Spill Control SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The control of any inadvertent release of hazardous materials can be as simple as turning off a valve, turning a drum on its side, to performing a complete day of clean-up in a totally encapsulating suit such as that required at hazardous waste remediation sites. 99

100 CONTAINMENT SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Any procedures taken to keep the material in its original container, Contaminate activities can require many hours of training and practice. Your imagination is a good place to begin to develop containment methods. Super glue, and fast setting materials for casts are just some of the simple examples. 100

101 CONFINEMENT SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL Blocking Diking
Any procedures taken to keep all the material in a defined area. These activities will vary from plant to plant and will be determined by the company emergency response plan. Spills or releases can be confined by our A, B, C, D materials. Absorption Collection Blocking Diking 101

102 A B S O R P T I N SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Materials like dirt, sand, soda ash, saw dust, vermiculite, or even kitty litter can absorb the spill. The absorption material should be placed in front of the material with consideration of any slope or grade. A key note to remember, the absorption materials MUST be COMPATIBLE with the spilled material. 102

103 A B S O R P T I N SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL EXAMPLES OF ABSORBENTS:
Absorbent Paper for Work Benches Sorbent Pillows Sorbent Booms Sorbent Drum Collars Loose Sorbent Material (like vermiculite) 103

104 B L O C K I N G SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Means the protection of drains, ditches, or storm sewers from run-off of any spilled material. These items should be blocked by dams, rubber covers, pillows, booms. 104

105 B L O C K I N G SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL EXAMPLES OF BLOCKING:
Portable Rubber (or like material) Dams Rubber Floor Drain Covers Sorbent Pillows Sorbent Booms Loose Sorbent Material (like vermiculite) 105

106 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The collection of solid or liquid materials can be done by placing them in approved DOT containers, or other types of approved containment for proper disposal. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 1 3 106

107 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The collection of ASBESTOS PARTICLES, DUSTS or POWDERS (such as lead dust) can be accomplished through the use of HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) vacuums. Once collected these materials can be placed in approved DOT containers, or other types of approved containment for proper disposal. HEPA VACUUM 107

108 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
EXAMPLES OF COLLECTION: Absorbent Paper for Work Benches Containment Pallets Secondary Containment Platforms HEPA Vacuums for Powders and Dusts Approved DOT Containers HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 1 3 HEPA VACUUM 108

109 D I K N G SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Diking materials like sand, earth, or other similar materials can be used to contain the perimeter of the leak. The material used for diking MUST also be COMPATIBLE with the spilled material. D I K N G 109

110 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
AREA SPILL CONTROL KITS: (Know the Quantities Expected) Pre-Assessment of the Area Spill Requirements is Critical Absorbent Socks, Mats, and Pillows Waste Disposal Bags and Ties Labels for Drum Identification Eye and Face Protection Tyvek Outergarment (or similar) Gloves Compatible with Area Hazards Boots Compatible with Area Hazards Checklists, Pens, Paper, ect. SPILL CONTROL KIT REFER TO MSDS AND MANUFACTURER 110

111 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
AREA SPILL CONTROL KITS: (Know the Quantities Expected) Non-Sparking Tools (bung wrenches, shovels etc.) Various Types of Tapes Container Specific Patch Kits Barrier Tape to Isolate the Spill Area Wet/Dry Shop Vac (Non HEPA) Broom and Dust Pan (Non-Sparking) Scrapers and Scoops and Mop (Non-Sparking) SPILL CONTROL KIT REFER TO MSDS AND MANUFACTURER 111

112 SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
LABORATORY SPILL CONTROL: Pre-Assessment of the Area Spill Requirements is Critical Identify Spills Before Applying Neutralizers Incompatible Neutralizers May Exaggerate the Situation Most Acid Spills - Neutralized with Baking Soda Most Bases or Caustic Spills - Neutralized with a weak Acid Such as Citric Acid Absorbents are Effective On Most Types of Liquid Spills Absorbents Must Be Inert to the Spilled Material HEPA Vacuums are Effective on Powders, Dusts, ect. REFER TO MSDS AND MANUFACTURER 112

113 WHEN NOT TO FIGHT A SPILL
WHEN TO CALL FOR HELP!: 911! If you have no escape route. If the spill begins to significantly spread. If there is a choice between life and property. If you’re unsure if you can handle the situation. If you are injured and it will impede your escape. If the spill control method proves to be ineffective. If any drums, gases, and like materials are engulfed. If toxic vapors or skin hazards exceed PPE Limitations. 113

114 DECONTAMINATION SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Contamination at spill sites can occur to people, vehicles, equipment, buildings and to the environment, both plants and animals. By avoiding contamination through proper positioning of people, apparatus and equipment, you may be able to eliminate the need to decontaminate. 114

115 GOAL OF DECONTAMINATION
SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL GOAL OF DECONTAMINATION To minimize the potential harm to people and the environment by eliminating or reducing the hazards of the contaminant. 115

116 METHODS OF DECONTAMINATION
SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL METHODS OF DECONTAMINATION DILUTION ABSORPTION DEGRADATION ISOLATION NEUTRALIZATION DISPOSAL 116

117 DILUTION SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
THE THINNING OUT OR WEAKENING OF A SUBSTANCE BY ADDING ANOTHER MATERIAL, CALLED A DILUTENT. DILUTION IS A VALID STEP IN DECONTAMINATION, BUT THE END MATERIAL WILL STILL HAVE TO BE DISPOSED OF. 117

118 ABSORPTION SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
THE PROCESS WHERE ONE SUBSTANCE COMBINES WITH ANOTHER BY MOVING INTO IT OR ENTERING THE INTERIOR OF THE OTHER SUBSTANCE. WHEN ABSORBENTS ARE USED IN THE DECONTAMINATION PROCESS, THE COMBINED MATERIAL MUST BE CONSIDERED AND HANDLED AS CONTAMINATED. 118

119 DEGRADATION SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
THE MOLECULAR BREAKDOWN OF A MATERIAL. THE TIME REQUIRED FOR THE PROCESS IS A CRITICAL CONSIDERATION. IN THE CASE OF A CONTAMINANT IT CAN RENDER THE MATERIAL LESS HAZARDOUS. THE PROCESS CAN BE USED IN DECONTAMINATION, BUT THE EXTENT OF DEGRADATION MUST BE MONITORED AND VERIFIED. 119

120 ISOLATION SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BOUNDARY OR PERIMETER WHERE A MATERIAL IS LOCATED OR PLACED, AND WHERE ENTRY IS RESTRICTED TO UNAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL. ISOLATION IS NOT ALWAYS ACHIEVABLE OVER THE LONG TERM, BUT IT DOES PROVIDE A TEMPORARY METHOD OF DEALING WITH A CONTAMINATED SUBSTANCE. 120

121 NEUTRALIZATION SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
THE PROCESS THAT OCCURS WHEN ACID AND BASES NEUTRALIZE EACH OTHER; I.E. THE CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF BOTH ACID AND BASES DISAPPEAR OR HAVE A NEUTRAL VALUE. NEUTRALIZATION IS AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE IN DECONTAMINATION. 121

122 DISPOSAL SPILL PREVENTION AND CONTROL
THE FINAL STEP IN A PROCESS WHEREBY A SUBSTANCE IS TRANSFERRED TO AN AUTHORIZED PARTY, OR TO A FINAL RESTING PLACE. 122

123 FOR FIRST RESPONDERS DURING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS/DANGEROUS GOODS
EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION NAERG North American Emergency Response Guidebook 1996 NORTH AMERICAN EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK A GUIDEBOOK FOR FIRST RESPONDERS DURING THE INITIAL PHASE OF A HAZARDOUS MATERIALS/DANGEROUS GOODS INCIDENT Developed Jointly by: - U.S. DOT - Transport Canada (TC) - SCT Mexico One of Several Sources of Response Information! All Available Sources should be considered! 123

124 YELLOW PAGES EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK Numerical Chronology of
Name of Material Acetylene Acetylene, dissolved Air, compressed Air, refrigerated liquid (Cryogenic liquid) Ammonia Ammonia, Anhydrous liquefied Ammonia, Solutions with more than 50% ammonia Anhydrous Ammonia Argon, compressed Boron Trifluoride Bromotrifluoromethane Butadienes, inhibited Butanes or Butane Mixtures Butylene Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Mixtures Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous oxide mixtures Carbon Monoxide Chlorine Chlorodifluoromethane Chloropentafluoro- Ethane Chlorotetrafluoro- Chlorotrifluoromethane Trifluorochloromethane Coal Gas Cyanogen Cyanogen, liquefied Numerical Chronology of DOT Identification Numbers Lists materials by DOT ID number Not in alphabetical order Not all materials listed 124

125 BLUE PAGES EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK Alphabetical arrangement of
No. Guide Name of Material Acetic Acid Solution, more than 80% acid Acetic Anhydride Acetone, and solutions Acetone Cyanohydrin, stabilized Acetone Oils Acetonitrile Acetyl Acetone Peroxide Acety Benzoyl Acetylene Acetylene, dissolved Acetylene Tetrabromide Acridine Acrolein, inhibited Acrolein Dimer, Acrylamide Acrylic Acid, Inhibited Acrylonitrile, inhibited Activated Carbon Adhesive Adhesives, containing flammable liquid Adiponitrile Aerosols Air, Compressed Alphabetical arrangement of hazardous material names Alphabetical order Also lists by DOT ID number Not all materials listed 125

126 EMERGENCY ACTION GUIDES
EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK ORANGE PAGES GUIDE 11 POTENTIAL HAZARDS FIRE OR EXPLOSION Flammable/combustible material, may be ignited by heat, sparks or flames May ignite other combustible materials (wood, paper, oil, etc..) Container May explode in heat of fire. Reaction with fuels may be violent. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. HEALTH HAZARDS May be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. EMERGENCY ACTION Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay up wind; keep out of low areas. Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and structural firefighter's protective clothing will provide limited protection. CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number on Shipping Paper first. If Shipping Paper not available or no answer. CALL CHEMTREC AT FIRE Small Fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam. Large Fires: Water Spray, fog or regular foam. SPILL OR LEAK Shut off ignition sources, no flares, smoking or flames in hazard area. Keep combustible (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. FIRST AID Move victim to fresh air and call emergency medical are, if not breathing, give artificial respiration, if breathing is difficult, give oxygen. EMERGENCY ACTION GUIDES Numerical index of emergency action guides as referenced from the yellow and blue pages Fire or explosion data Potential health hazards Protective clothing requirements Evacuation considerations Spill or leak considerations First aid considerations 126

127 GREEN PAGES EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK
TABLE OF INITIAL ISOLATION AND PROTECTIVE ACTION DISTANCES 1005 Ammonia 1005 Ammonia, Anhydrous, liquefied 1005 Ammonia Solutions, with more than 50% ammonia 1005 Anhydrous Ammonia 1008 Boron Trifluoride 1016 Carbon Monoxide 1017 Chlorine 1023 Coal Gas 1026 Cyanogen 1026 Cyanogen, liquefied ID# NAME OF MATERIAL First ISOLATE in all Direction (feet) Then, PROTECT persons DOWNWIND DAY NIGHT (Miles) (Miles) SMALL SPILLS LARGE SPILLS Table of initial isolation and protective action distances Large and small spills - Initial isolation in meters - Initial isolation in feet - Protection in kilometers - Protection in miles - Day criteria - Night criteria 127

128 OF A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM
OSHA'S PERCEPTION OF A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM 1. DETAILED WRITTEN SPILL CONTROL PROCEDURES. 2. EXTENSIVE EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAMS. 3. PERIODIC REINFORCEMENT OF SAFETY TRAINING. 4. SUFFICIENT DISCIPLINE REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION. 5. PERIODIC FOLLOW-UP. 128

129 WORK AT WORKING SAFELY Training is the key to success in managing safety in the work environment. Attitude is also a key factor in maintaining a safe workplace. Safety is, and always will be a team effort, safety starts with each individual employee and concludes with everyone leaving at the end of the day to rejoin their families. The person most able to influence your safety environment is you. Patricia A. Ice Industrial Hygienist 129


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