2 Stages of Research Project Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter 2: Literature ReviewChapter 3: MethodologyChapter 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation of FindingsChapter 5: Discussion and conclusion
3 Why do we research? To acquire information/knowledge Research – a particular way of knowingEmphasis on systematic investigationScientific method- collecting observations in a systematic and objective mannerIdentify problemGenerate Objectives/hypotheses/RQCollect dataDetermine whether or not the hypotheses are supported.Researches that use non-scientific methodHistorical, etnography
4 Types of researches (by purpose) Basic research (Fundamental Research)Concerned with fundamental and theoretical questions.A foundation upon which others can develop applications and solutionswhile basic research may not appear to be helpful in the real world, it can direct us toward practical applications in the long run.E.g. A study on job rotation impact (positive and negative impact) on employees.
5 Applied researchconcerned with finding solutions to practical problems and putting these solutions to work in order to help othersE.g. Action Research on Best Job Rotation practices for Academic Institution
6 Chap.1: Introduction Research Introduction and background Problem statementObjectives (main & specific objective)Hypotheses or research questionsTheoretical/conceptual framework (quantitative only)Variables definition (quantitative only)Definition of terms (include operational definition)Contribution/Significance/important of researchLimitation of research
7 Choosing a research topic 2 things to be consideredLevel of interestTopic of interest will motivate one to do research on itChoosing the wrong topic – you might end up or fail to discover some interesting value.FeasibilityYour capability to complete a research conducted – e.g. data collection and analysis, report writingAlways take a research as you want to unveil a mystery
8 Getting ideas for researchers Yourself (observation on a particular phenomena/experiences)Discussion with expert in the fieldJournal articlesAcademic books (based on research work)Proceeding and conference papersThesis, dissertation, final year projectOrganizational Report (e.g statistic)Others (Internet, Newspapers/magazines
9 Preparing a Problem Statement A problem statement is a clear concise description of the issues (or problems) that need to be addressed by a researcher.The primary purpose of a problem statement is to focus the attention of the researcher.A research-worthy problem statement is the description of an active challenge (i.e. problem) faced by a researcher that does not have adequate solutions or theoretical foundation.Should briefly address the question: What is the problem that the research will address?
10 More…Define a problem or a gap that need to be researched to find a solutionJustify the need for a researchThese gaps are discovered through journal articles (refer to limitations or suggestions in journal articles)Sometimes a problem is discovered through:personal experience of a researcher or a research sponsorphenomena that happens around us.
11 Example of a problem statement No known study that has looked into this specific topic. - exploratory researchThere are only few studies that address this issue but most of the studies were done in Western countries especially in the United States(Mueller, 1998; Adruce, 2002; Adam, 2008) – Confirmatory researchThere are several research works in this specific area but the findings are not consistent. Therefore, there is a need to do further research in this area – Confirmatory research
12 Continue …There are several research works that have looked into a direct relationship between smoking habit and cancer; however, no known research has specifically looked into a mediator/moderator effect of a third variable (types of food consumed)This incident (eg. Tsunami) has never happened in Malaysia, therefore, there is a need to study the post Tsunami effects in the affected region of Malaysia.Most of the previous research in this area were done using qualitative method; therefore, there is a need to use quantitative/experimental method to test the preposition/ hypothesis.
13 ContinueMost of the previous research in this area were done using quantitative method; therefore, there is a need to use qualitative/experimental method to validate the findings.
14 How to prepare the Objective for the study Based on the Problem Statement mentioned earlierIt is a statement that explains what the study will focus onThere are two types of objectiveMain (This study is interested in studying the employees behavior related to job rotation amongst support staff)Specific (to study the relation ship between job rotation and job satisfaction)
15 Hypothesis or research question The purpose is to refine the objective of the study and make it easier to understand what we want to studyWhen to use Hypothesis or research questionPhenomena has been studied before and to test the findings we use hypotheses testing (e.g There is a relationship between job rotation and job satisfaction)If no known study has been done in that specific area we should use research question instead (e.g Is there any relationship between job rotation and job satisfaction?When can we use hypothesis even if there is no know research done in a specific area?Experimental research
16 Theoretical/conceptual framework Only to be used in quantitative study.There is no need for theoretical/conceptual framework in a Qualitative study
17 Employees Satisfaction Based on Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Thory Basic Needs(Salary,Benefits)JobSecurityJob SatisfactionPeer Support
18 HypothesisThere is a relationship between Basic Needs and Employees Job SatisfactionBetter Job Security will result in Better Employees Job SatisfactionThere is a relationship between work environment and employees job SatisfactionRQ if there is no hypothesisWhich of the above factors rank the highest contributor to job satisfaction?
19 Successful Organization Based on Systems Theory EmployeesPerformanceExternalEnvironmentManagementCapabilityOrganizationPerformanceServicesProvided
20 Definition of Terms used in your study Dictionary definitionDefined by dictionaryOperational definitionAn operational definition defines something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity.
21 Continue… Theoretical Definition A theoretical definition relies on the acceptance of theories and so it does not simply reduce to a set of observationsLike the theories that build them, theoretical definitions also improve as scientific understanding grows
22 Research Contribution Contributionstheory/concept/model/hypothesis/proposition or knowledge in the fieldMethodologyResearch Framework (statement of problem, objective, hypothesis, research question)Instrument (questionnaire, interview guide, observation guide etc.)Data CollectedData Analysis FrameworkPractitioner and community
23 Contribution toward theory and knowledge This study is expected to contribute toward a theory (e.g. diffusion of innovation) related to the use of technology in organization because findings from previous studies implicate lack of consistencies either in supporting or refuting the theory.Use of ICT in organization is a developing area and not many studies have really studied Malaysian organizations pertaining to their employees usage of ICT
24 Contribution toward Methodology Since not many research were done in this area before, the Research Framework (statement of problem, objective, Hypothesis and Research Questions) use in this study could be use by future researcher who wanted to replicate this study.The Instrument (questionnaire, interview guide, observation guide etc.) used in this research could be used for future research in the same area.
25 Contribution toward Practitioner and community Findings from this research especially on the office and environmental factors that ensure success in job rotation should be a good guide to Human Resource Managers.Finding from this research should also inform the community of employees in the organization on the important of office and environmental factors to ensure success in job rotation practices.
26 Limitation of the Study Topical/subject/field limitation (limited to study of HRD and not on Psychology or management aspect of human resource)Methodological limitation (Data collection method)Population and SampleTime FrameArea/place of researchResources Limitation (for example Literature Review is limited to Emerald online database)
27 Chap. 2:Literature Review Gather all related and relevant findings from previous studies.Introduction to the ChapterDiscussion on Theories, models, concepts and philosophy related to the researchDiscussion on previous studies related to the topics. Guided by the specific objectives in the study.Summary of the chapter
28 What is a Lit Review What it is not What it is Not an essay Not just a mere summary or annotated bibliography or abstractWhat it isReflection of previous studiesImprove understanding on topic of interestStatus of works done in similar areaUpdating you on what have been done in the past
29 How to do a Literature Review Locate all related Previous Works on same topic to update you on what have been done.Highlight the status of Previous research and finding Gaps or opportunities (availability, strength, weaknesses)Uncertainties and doubts in previous findingsLimitations of previous studies that need to be dealt withMethodological limitationGeographical locationTime factor
30 Chap. 3:MethodologyResearch Framework (Qualitative, Quantitative or Experimental)Place and time of studyPopulation under studyUnit of analysisSample/respondent/informant (qualitative)Sampling method and sampling frameworkMethod of Data CollectionSurvey using Questionnaire (quantitative)Interview (qualitative)Document AnalysisObservation TechniqueDetermining method of data collection for each objective/research question/hypothesis
31 Methodology… continue Research InstrumentPre-Test and pilot test (quantitative)Validity and reliability issuesEquipments (video, audio recorder etc.) to be used during data collectionsConsent FormResearch Schedules and Timelines
32 Research FrameworkQuantitative (mostly using Deductive Reasoning) - Confirmatoryto research questions that are best answered by collecting and analyzing numerical data (using statistical)Qualitative (mostly using inductive Reasoning) – ExploratoryMixed Method – Qualitative and QuantitativeTo research questions that are best answered by giving descriptions on how one understand and interpret various aspects in their surroundingsExperimental (mostly using Deductive Reasoning) – Looking at Cause & Effect
33 Place and Time of Study To be determined – provide justification Determined also time to conduct the study because both place and time could determine the outcome of the study
34 Population and SampleDetermine the population where the study will be conductedIdentify the unit of analysis (individual or group)Determine the sampling method (simple random method, cluster, stratified, systematic, purposeful/convenient, snow balling etc.) to be used and design the sampling framework
35 Main types of research methodologies Survey - QuantitativeExperimental – Quantitative, QualitativeCorrelation - QuantitativeCase study – Quantitative, QualitativeHistorical - QualitativeEthnography – Qualitative
36 Chap. 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation Present your analysis of data – summarize the relevant findings that are crucial to your study.
37 Chap. 5 DiscussionInterpret your data to meaningful information that is understandable.Discussion and comparison with previous studies (focusing on similarities or differences in term of result)