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Introduction to Research Methodology

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Research Methodology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Research Methodology

2 Stages of Research Project
Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Methodology Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings Chapter 5: Discussion and conclusion

3 Why do we research? To acquire information/knowledge
Research – a particular way of knowing Emphasis on systematic investigation Scientific method- collecting observations in a systematic and objective manner Identify problem Generate Objectives/hypotheses/RQ Collect data Determine whether or not the hypotheses are supported. Researches that use non-scientific method Historical, etnography

4 Types of researches (by purpose)
Basic research (Fundamental Research) Concerned with fundamental and theoretical questions. A foundation upon which others can develop applications and solutions while basic research may not appear to be helpful in the real world, it can direct us toward practical applications in the long run. E.g. A study on job rotation impact (positive and negative impact) on employees.

5 Applied research concerned with finding solutions to practical problems and putting these solutions to work in order to help others E.g. Action Research on Best Job Rotation practices for Academic Institution

6 Chap.1: Introduction Research Introduction and background
Problem statement Objectives (main & specific objective) Hypotheses or research questions Theoretical/conceptual framework (quantitative only) Variables definition (quantitative only) Definition of terms (include operational definition) Contribution/Significance/important of research Limitation of research

7 Choosing a research topic
2 things to be considered Level of interest Topic of interest will motivate one to do research on it Choosing the wrong topic – you might end up or fail to discover some interesting value. Feasibility Your capability to complete a research conducted – e.g. data collection and analysis, report writing Always take a research as you want to unveil a mystery

8 Getting ideas for researchers
Yourself (observation on a particular phenomena/experiences) Discussion with expert in the field Journal articles Academic books (based on research work) Proceeding and conference papers Thesis, dissertation, final year project Organizational Report (e.g statistic) Others (Internet, Newspapers/magazines

9 Preparing a Problem Statement
A problem statement is a clear concise description of the issues (or problems) that need to be addressed by a researcher. The primary purpose of a problem statement is to focus the attention of the researcher. A research-worthy problem statement is the description of an active challenge (i.e. problem) faced by a researcher that does not have adequate solutions or theoretical foundation. Should briefly address the question: What is the problem that the research will address?

10 More… Define a problem or a gap that need to be researched to find a solution Justify the need for a research These gaps are discovered through journal articles (refer to limitations or suggestions in journal articles) Sometimes a problem is discovered through: personal experience of a researcher or a research sponsor phenomena that happens around us.

11 Example of a problem statement
No known study that has looked into this specific topic. - exploratory research There are only few studies that address this issue but most of the studies were done in Western countries especially in the United States(Mueller, 1998; Adruce, 2002; Adam, 2008) – Confirmatory research There are several research works in this specific area but the findings are not consistent. Therefore, there is a need to do further research in this area – Confirmatory research

12 Continue … There are several research works that have looked into a direct relationship between smoking habit and cancer; however, no known research has specifically looked into a mediator/moderator effect of a third variable (types of food consumed) This incident (eg. Tsunami) has never happened in Malaysia, therefore, there is a need to study the post Tsunami effects in the affected region of Malaysia. Most of the previous research in this area were done using qualitative method; therefore, there is a need to use quantitative/experimental method to test the preposition/ hypothesis.

13 Continue Most of the previous research in this area were done using quantitative method; therefore, there is a need to use qualitative/experimental method to validate the findings.

14 How to prepare the Objective for the study
Based on the Problem Statement mentioned earlier It is a statement that explains what the study will focus on There are two types of objective Main (This study is interested in studying the employees behavior related to job rotation amongst support staff) Specific (to study the relation ship between job rotation and job satisfaction)

15 Hypothesis or research question
The purpose is to refine the objective of the study and make it easier to understand what we want to study When to use Hypothesis or research question Phenomena has been studied before and to test the findings we use hypotheses testing (e.g There is a relationship between job rotation and job satisfaction) If no known study has been done in that specific area we should use research question instead (e.g Is there any relationship between job rotation and job satisfaction? When can we use hypothesis even if there is no know research done in a specific area? Experimental research

16 Theoretical/conceptual framework
Only to be used in quantitative study. There is no need for theoretical/conceptual framework in a Qualitative study

17 Employees Satisfaction Based on Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Thory
Basic Needs (Salary, Benefits) Job Security Job Satisfaction Peer Support

18 Hypothesis There is a relationship between Basic Needs and Employees Job Satisfaction Better Job Security will result in Better Employees Job Satisfaction There is a relationship between work environment and employees job Satisfaction RQ if there is no hypothesis Which of the above factors rank the highest contributor to job satisfaction?

19 Successful Organization Based on Systems Theory
Employees Performance External Environment Management Capability Organization Performance Services Provided

20 Definition of Terms used in your study
Dictionary definition Defined by dictionary Operational definition An operational definition defines something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity.

21 Continue… Theoretical Definition
A theoretical definition relies on the acceptance of theories and so it does not simply reduce to a set of observationsLike the theories that build them, theoretical definitions also improve as scientific understanding grows

22 Research Contribution
Contributions theory/concept/model/hypothesis/proposition or knowledge in the field Methodology Research Framework (statement of problem, objective, hypothesis, research question) Instrument (questionnaire, interview guide, observation guide etc.) Data Collected Data Analysis Framework Practitioner and community

23 Contribution toward theory and knowledge
This study is expected to contribute toward a theory (e.g. diffusion of innovation) related to the use of technology in organization because findings from previous studies implicate lack of consistencies either in supporting or refuting the theory. Use of ICT in organization is a developing area and not many studies have really studied Malaysian organizations pertaining to their employees usage of ICT

24 Contribution toward Methodology
Since not many research were done in this area before, the Research Framework (statement of problem, objective, Hypothesis and Research Questions) use in this study could be use by future researcher who wanted to replicate this study. The Instrument (questionnaire, interview guide, observation guide etc.) used in this research could be used for future research in the same area.

25 Contribution toward Practitioner and community
Findings from this research especially on the office and environmental factors that ensure success in job rotation should be a good guide to Human Resource Managers. Finding from this research should also inform the community of employees in the organization on the important of office and environmental factors to ensure success in job rotation practices.

26 Limitation of the Study
Topical/subject/field limitation (limited to study of HRD and not on Psychology or management aspect of human resource) Methodological limitation (Data collection method) Population and Sample Time Frame Area/place of research Resources Limitation (for example Literature Review is limited to Emerald online database)

27 Chap. 2:Literature Review
Gather all related and relevant findings from previous studies. Introduction to the Chapter Discussion on Theories, models, concepts and philosophy related to the research Discussion on previous studies related to the topics. Guided by the specific objectives in the study. Summary of the chapter

28 What is a Lit Review What it is not What it is Not an essay
Not just a mere summary or annotated bibliography or abstract What it is Reflection of previous studies Improve understanding on topic of interest Status of works done in similar area Updating you on what have been done in the past

29 How to do a Literature Review
Locate all related Previous Works on same topic to update you on what have been done. Highlight the status of Previous research and finding Gaps or opportunities (availability, strength, weaknesses) Uncertainties and doubts in previous findings Limitations of previous studies that need to be dealt with Methodological limitation Geographical location Time factor

30 Chap. 3:Methodology Research Framework (Qualitative, Quantitative or Experimental) Place and time of study Population under study Unit of analysis Sample/respondent/informant (qualitative) Sampling method and sampling framework Method of Data Collection Survey using Questionnaire (quantitative) Interview (qualitative) Document Analysis Observation Technique Determining method of data collection for each objective/research question/hypothesis

31 Methodology… continue
Research Instrument Pre-Test and pilot test (quantitative) Validity and reliability issues Equipments (video, audio recorder etc.) to be used during data collections Consent Form Research Schedules and Timelines

32 Research Framework Quantitative (mostly using Deductive Reasoning) - Confirmatory to research questions that are best answered by collecting and analyzing numerical data (using statistical) Qualitative (mostly using inductive Reasoning) – Exploratory Mixed Method – Qualitative and Quantitative To research questions that are best answered by giving descriptions on how one understand and interpret various aspects in their surroundings Experimental (mostly using Deductive Reasoning) – Looking at Cause & Effect

33 Place and Time of Study To be determined – provide justification
Determined also time to conduct the study because both place and time could determine the outcome of the study

34 Population and Sample Determine the population where the study will be conducted Identify the unit of analysis (individual or group) Determine the sampling method (simple random method, cluster, stratified, systematic, purposeful/convenient, snow balling etc.) to be used and design the sampling framework

35 Main types of research methodologies
Survey - Quantitative Experimental – Quantitative, Qualitative Correlation - Quantitative Case study – Quantitative, Qualitative Historical - Qualitative Ethnography – Qualitative

36 Chap. 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation
Present your analysis of data – summarize the relevant findings that are crucial to your study.

37 Chap. 5 Discussion Interpret your data to meaningful information that is understandable. Discussion and comparison with previous studies (focusing on similarities or differences in term of result)

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