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© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Part IV Control Processes in Police Management Chapter 13 Planning, Programming, and Budgeting
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Learning Objectives 1.Understand the nature of the planning process. 2.Describe several methods of planning. 3.Discuss the limitations associated with planning. 4.Understand how crime analysis and intelligence-led policing assist in planning. 5.Discuss the decision-making process and variables affecting the process. 6.Understand the importance and uses of crime analysis and mapping. 7.Appreciate the budgeting process, including types and functions of budgets. 8.Know the budget development and approval process.
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Planning and Programming Planning –Deciding what the police agency should be doing –Linking current activities to future conditions –Decision making regarding operational activities based on anticipated contingencies Programming –Translates planning into “action-oriented” strategies –Planning serves no purpose unless it is interpreted into programs
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Overview of the Planning Process 1.Identify objectives. 2.Identify current arrangements. 3.Understand the premises or determinants regarding future conditions that may affect the achievement of the objectives. 4.Identify alternatives and select the most viable one. 5.Implement the plan and measure the results.
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Overview of Programming In planning the implementation of a potential program, three aspects must be considered: 1.Suitability 2.Feasibility 3.Acceptability
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Budgeting The acquiring and managing of resources –Money provided to the department in its budget –All personnel and equipment Resources must be managed in a way that maximizes every dollar and every available person within the department. Planning, programming, and budgeting are intertwined.
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Benefits of Police Planning Improved analysis of problems Improved cooperation and coordination Clear goals, objectives, and priorities More effective allocation of resources Improved programs and services Improved capacity and quality of personnel
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Nature of the Planning Process Concern for the System –Purpose: how well the planner attends to the goals of the department in the planning process –Stability: the sequential arrangement of departmental activities –Entirety: planning must consider the department as a whole Risk –The manager’s attitude toward innovation and opportunity –Risk is reduced when change is carefully planned
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Planning Approaches Purposeful –Managers are concerned with the system and want to take advantage of opportunities and thus are willing to take risks. Traditional –Managers don’t want to take risks out of fear. Crisis –Managers show little concern for the system and avoid risk. Entrepreneurial –Managers show little consideration for the system, but embrace risk.
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Forecasting The research and analysis of societal trends to assess the future environmental picture as it relates to the police An effort to reduce uncertainty about the future by predicting environmental conditions so they can be addressed through departmental programming An effort to maintain stability while reducing risk to the department
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Policy Planning The first step in using information acquired through forecasting The department’s efforts to determine its future role Managers examine departmental strengths and weaknesses, social data, and crime rates Establish goals and objectives based on information
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Strategic Planning Determines how the department should achieve its policy goals and objectives Produces two types of plans: –Program plans: implemented by department on a continuous basis to achieve a policy goal –Contingency plans: developed for implementation when a “critical incident” occurs Four-stage planning process: 1.Problem identification 2.Identification of alternative strategies 3.Evaluation of alternative strategies 4.Selection of the strategy to be implemented
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Operational Planning Specifying of unit work assignments Performed by unit commanders and supervisors Enables administrators to assert some operational control
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Decision-Making Process in Police Organizations Programmed decisions –Solutions are available from past experience and apply to routine or reoccurring problems Non-programmed decisions –Made when a new problem arises –Decision maker must acquire information, consider alternatives, and make a decision
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Variables Affecting Decision Making Outside pressures Sunk costs Personality characteristics Influence of outside reference groups
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Common Errors in Decision Making Cognitive near-sightedness Assuming the future will repeat the past Oversimplification Overreliance on one’s experience Preconceived notions Unwillingness to experiment General reluctance to make decisions
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Group Decision-Making Model For the most part, multiple input contributes to better decisions Group dynamics should be controlled to avoid “groupthink” –Occurs when members concentrate on ensuring acceptance of their decision instead of realistically appraising alternative actions
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Crime Analysis Process 1.Data collection 2.Collation 3.Analysis 4.Dissemination 5.Feedback and evaluation
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Crime Mapping Specific types of crime or calls across the jurisdiction or within a specific area of a given period Activities for a particular shift or watch Activities for a particular beat of police district Activities in and around a “hot spot,” or concentration of crime and disorder Concentrations of activities in an area over time Police activities in relation to social and ecological characteristics
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning CompStat Computer comparison statistics First implemented in NYC to introduce accountability to police operations Administrators hold commanders and their units accountable for what occurs or doesn’t occur Forces commanders to be more attentive to the units’ operations and hold supervisors accountable Gives commanders latitude to plan and implement innovative tactics and strategies
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Intelligence-Led Policing The enhancement of police intelligence-gathering capability Dictates that departments not only begin collecting information about possible terrorists and targets, but that they should expand intelligence gathering skills Departments must reduce intelligence to a usable form and use it to drive decision making
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Questions That Guide the Intelligence Process 1.Who poses threats? 2.What are the relationships among possible actors? 3.What is the modus operandi of the threat? 4.What is needed to catch the offenders and prevent the incident?
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Intelligence Process 1.Collecting information from a variety of sources 2.Collating and analyzing the information 3.Disseminating the information 4.Using intelligence and other information
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Budget Process The budget is the financial plan for the department. Describes what the organization does Provides a rationale for why the organization does what it does Establishes priorities by allocating resources to organizational areas and activities
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Budget Types and Functions Control –Holds agencies accountable for how they expend resources Management –Monitors and evaluates the cost of the department’s activities Planning –Planning, programming, and budgeting systems (PPBS) Combines the planning process, program development, and budgeting process into one systematic product Ties objectives to a budget –Zero-base budgets (ZBB) Based on previous expenditure requests Managers only need to justify new or increased expenditures
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Budget Cycle 1.Preparation and submission 2.Approval 3.Execution 4.Audit
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