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Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Synergies between Nuclear Safety and Security DG Joint Research Centre.

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Presentation on theme: "Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Synergies between Nuclear Safety and Security DG Joint Research Centre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Synergies between Nuclear Safety and Security DG Joint Research Centre (JRC) Zdenka Palajova A.8 Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination Unit

2 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Content Mission of the JRC Structure of the JRC JRC activities Nuclear activities at the JRC Synergies between Safety and Security Generation IV nuclear energy systems Emergency preparedness Measurement systems and particle analysis techniques

3 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Mission of the JRC … is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. As a service of the European Commission, the JRC functions as a reference centre of science and technology for the Union. Close to the policy-making process, it serves the common interest of the Member States, while being independent of special interests, whether private or national.

4 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Structure of the JRC IET – Petten Netherlands - Institute for Energy and Transport IRMM - Geel Belgium - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements ITU - Karlsruhe Germany and Ispra Italy - Institute for Transuranium elements IPSC - IES - IHCP - Ispra Italy - Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen - Institute for Environment and Sustainability - Institute for Health and Consumer Protection IPTS - Seville Spain - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies tttttt Staff: 3000 (about 25% nuclear)

5 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston JRC activities Helping to fix pollution emission standards Harmonising measurements of GMOs Validating new methods alternative to animal testing Preventing nuclear trafficking Developing safe, secure and ecofriendly building standards Improving testing for safer food and feed Testing the safety of nano-materials Responding to crises and natural disasters Ensuring the safety and security of the nuclear fuel cycle Providing econometric indicators Monitoring business R&D spending Supporting enlargement

6 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Nuclear activities at the JRC The nuclear activities of the JRC aim at reflecting the R&D obligations of the Euratom Treaty and supporting both Commission and Member States in the fields of: safeguards and non-proliferation safety of nuclear installations safety of fuel cycle radioactivity in the environment waste management radiation protection The JRC has a role as a European reference for dissemination of information, training and education

7 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Nuclear Safety: The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards. Nuclear Security: The prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. Synergies between Safety and Security at technical level: -Technologies and design architecture (GIF) -Emergency preparedness -Measurement systems and particle analysis Synergies between Safety and Security

8 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston New Design Concepts - GIF - Collaborative efforts to develop next generation of nuclear energy systems (NES) - Advanced and new reactor systems (2030 and beyond) - JRC coordinates EURATOM contribution to GIF 4 Goal areas for Generation IV NES: - Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) - Safety and Reliability - Sustainability - Economics Proliferation Resistance is that characteristic of an NES that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material or misuse of technology by the Host State seeking to acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Physical Protection (robustness) is that characteristic of an NES that impedes the theft of materials suitable for nuclear explosives or radiation dispersal devices (RDDs) and the sabotage of facilities and transportation by sub-national entities and other non-Host State adversaries. New Design Concepts-GIF

9 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Safety and Reliability -1 Generation IV nuclear energy systems operations will excel in safety and reliability. Safety and Reliability -2 Generation IV nuclear energy systems will have a very low likelihood and degree of reactor core damage. Safety and Reliability -3 Generation IV nuclear energy systems will eliminate the need for offsite emergency response. PR&PP Generation IV nuclear energy systems will increase the assurance that they are a very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against acts of terrorism. GIF technology goals New Design Concepts-GIF

10 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Coupling between PR&PP and safety goals: -Passive systems and structures -Protection of nuclear material -Human performance programs Potential conflicts: -Emergency response (multiple access) -Dissemination of knowledge on protection system operation Need for integrated consideration of safety, reliability, PR and PP PR&PP and safety evaluation methodologies share a common paradigm. PR&PP evaluation approach: THREATS SYSTEM RESPONSE OUTCOMES The safety and reliability assessment paradigm can be defined in a similar way: ACCIDENT SYSTEM INITIATORS RESPONSE CONSEQUENCES New Design Concepts-GIF

11 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Technical implementation of the Council Decision 87/600/Euratom on early notification and exchange of information in event of a radiological or nuclear emergency MS promptly notify the EC and all the MS potentially affected when they intend to take counter measures in order to protect their population against the effects of a radiological or nuclear accident ECURIE agreement - EU27 + HR and CH Data-formats of WebECURIE and ENATOM (IAEA's notification system) harmonized and automatic exchange of relevant notifications WebECURIE European Community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange Information exchange for emergency purposes

12 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston -Internationally recognized standard format for radiological data -Network (33 European countries with > 4400 stations participating) -Daily and hourly transmissions/ routine and emergency operation -Currently mostly γ-dose rates -Web-site to view and download data -IAEA is implementing the EURDEP for its purposes at world-wide level (IRMIS) EURDEP European Radiological Data Exchange Platform Information exchange for emergency purposes

13 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston JRC activities in data and information exchange for emergency purposes WebECURIE, EURDEP - exchange of information to facilitate decision making process - originally designed and developed for major accidents - also for smaller scale events (accidental or malevolent) – depends on sensitivity of the device, sampling density Atmospheric dispersion modelling tools JRC project for EU CBRN Action Plan -assessment and validation of existing modelling tools that are or can be used in decision support systems following RN incidents Synergies between Safety and Security

14 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Measurement systems ITRAP+10 (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program+10) - JRC, US Department of Homeland Security (DHS –DNDO), IAEA - evaluation of available radiation detection equipment relevant to nuclear security - 8 different families of equipment tested (RPM, SRPM, PRD, SPRD, RID, GSD, NSD, PRS) – approx. 100 instruments in total - reference for regulatory and other MS authorities Radiation Portal Monitors – for trucks, containers, wagons - operated by EU Customs in mega ports - security (to prevent import of radioactive material by terrorist) - safety (to detect contaminated containers from Japan after Fukushima event) Synergies between Safety and Security

15 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Particle analysis techniques Dounreay particles – radioactive particles about 1 mm in size - Al/U matrix fuel + K, Ca, Fe, Mg, Nd, Si, P, S, Cl (EDX) - Isotopic composition of U, Pu - Particles discharged years ago SEM picture of the U/Al particle Synergies between Safety and Security Contaminated material scrap metal contaminated with enriched U (the Netherlands) - SIMS of powdered material – mixture of particles of LEU and HEU (up to 96 mass%) (used e.g. TOPAZ) + 2 Russian fission chambers - results communicated to MS authority and IAEA 236 U vs. 235 U isotope abundances in single particles

16 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Conclusions EU – highest standards of safety and security for peaceful use of nuclear energy JRC – R&D Euratom Program – safety, security, safeguards, and non-proliferation Technical synergies between safety and security - Generation IV nuclear energy systems - Emergency preparedness - Measurement systems and particle analysis techniques Synergies between Safety and Security

17 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power 12 June 2013, Preston Thank you for your attention!


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