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Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile

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1 Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
World History CH 2 Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile

2 The land: Its Geography and its Importance
Egypt Lies in North Africa with the Mediterranean Sea to the North and the Red sea to the East Today Desert covers most of Egypt. In Ancient times, however, the landscape was much different 12,000 years ago the area was covered in swampland, that supported a large variety of animals The most dominate feature of Egypt has been the Nile for more than 5,000 years


4 The world and Africa

5 The Nile River The nile river is the longest river in the world stretching 4,160 and it flows South to North During the ancient times the Nile was “broken” by six great cataracts, or rapids. These Cataracts were difficult if not impossible to navigate and flowed through channels of cut out rock


7 The Nile River Continued
The Ancient Egyptian Civilization was built between the Nile Delta and the First great Cataract {The Flow of the Nile South to North made it possible to move goods upland} The Winds from the north made it possible to move goods up river inland using sails {The Egyptian farmers planed their work around the annual summer flooding of the Nile} They would harvest their crops before the floods came and the floods left fertile soil behind They would dig canals to carry water to their fields and they were able to grow several crops a year


9 Other Natural Advantages
The ability to travel both ways on the Nile was what allowed upper and lower Egypt to unite into one kingdom {The Valleys location also gave the advantage of geographic Isolation} With the Mediterranean to the North and the Red sea to the East and desert to the West they were naturally protected from invasion {The only way into Egypt was through the Isthmus of Suez in the North East} This land bridge allowed for a trade route and exchange of ideas between Africa and Asia


11 Early steps toward civilization
By 12,000 BC the hunter-gatherers had moved into the Nile river valley By 3,800 BC they had started to mine Copper, to make tools and jewelry, and mix with tin to make Bronze They had also learned to glaze pottery By 3,000 BC they had developed a form of writing called Hieroglyphics using 600 signs or symbols {At first they carved these pictures into stone but later developed paper from the Papyrus plant } They sliced the stem of the plant into long thin strips and pressed them together making sheets of paper

12 Continued Hieroglyphics were finally translated when in the 1800s the French Army found the Rosetta Stone the Rosetta stone is a stone with three different languages carved into it Each passage says the same thing once in hieroglyphics, once in Greek and once in an Egyptian writing called demotic {They used the Greek text to decode the hieroglyphics and figure out how to decode all other hieroglyphics}



15 The Egyptian Kingdoms Over the centuries two distinct cultures developed along the Nile river They formed two distinct kingdoms. Lower Egypt in the North and Upper Egypt in the South Sometime after 3200 BC the two kingdoms were united under King Menes King Menes founded a dynasty, or family of rulers Menes and his successors gained new land and improved irrigation and trade, making Egypt wealthier They were considered political and religious leaders and built temples and tombs in their honor



18 cointinued The kings of the Egypt took the title of Pharaoh which means “great house” These Pharaohs held absolute power and were also judges, high priests, and generals of the armies From the time of King Menes to almost 300 BC some 30 dynasties ruled Egypt This time span is divided into three Kingdoms The Old Kingdom The Middle Kingdom The New Kingdom

19 The Old Kingdom This existed from 2600 BC to 2180 BC
Many developments in science and art took place during this time They Egyptians of the old kingdom built the Great Sphinx and the largest of the pyramids The society was split into two classes The Lower classes were peasants and farmers who served in the army and worked on building projects They made the Pyramids (not slaves) and canals for the crops

20 Built in the old kingdom

21 continued The upper class included the Pharaoh, the royal family, priests, scribes, and Govt Officials The upper class gradually became a small but powerful hereditary group of nobles {Toward the end the Pharaohs became weaker and the nobles stronger} For more than 100 years after the fall of the Old Kingdom there were civil wars dividing Egypt Rivals fought for control of the land

22 The Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom began in 2050 BC when a new line of Pharaohs reunited Egypt This new era was the “golden age” for Egypt marked by stability and prosperity However at this time the nobles and the priests were weakening the power of the Pharaoh Around 1780 a people called the {Hyksos came in and were able to take over using the Chariot and compound bow} The Hyksos were able to take over but there is little evidence of how they did and weather or not they were violent, but they did rule for more than 100 years

23 Pyramids of the middle kingdom

24 The Hyksos Little is known about the Hyksos which means outsiders and they remained outsiders Some Historians think that they were brutal and destroyed the cities of Egypt Others think that they were able to take over with their superior technology but were fair to the conquered Egyptians This invasion and 100 year occupation by these outside forces led to the second intermediate period and The New Kingdom

25 The Hyksos, chariot, and bow

26 The New Kingdom Eventually the leaders in upper Egypt drove the Hyksos out of the country and a line of strong pharaohs united Egypt This new ruling group ran Egypt out of Thebes and Pharaohs ruled with absolute power These new Pharaohs used the technology of the Chariot to create a strong army and conquered land in the Eastern Mediterranean Egyptian became an empire which when weaker Pharaohs ruled, the conquered lands tried to break away

27 The New Kingdom Continued
One of the New Kingdom rulers was {Hatshepsut one of the first ever known Female rulers} She reigned as Co-Pharaoh from 1503 BC to 1482 BC with her stepson Thutmose III Hatshepsut was a strong ruler who kept Egypt's borders secure and built trade with other countries She was able to rule due to Thutmose II’s Skin disease leading to his death before Thutmose III was of age to rule allowing Hatshepsut to rule in his stead From 1380 to 1362 BC Amenhotep IV Ruled Egypt and tried to bring Social and Religious changes


29 Hatshepsut’s Temple

30 Amenhotep IV Before Amenhotep the Egyptians were polytheistic meaning that they believed in many different gods {Amenhotep believed in only one god or monotheism} The one god that he believed in was the sun god Aton and in recognition of Aton, Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaton or “he who is pleasing to Aton” This caused struggle with the priests who did not like their decreased role and decreased wealth He was unable to change his peoples religious beliefs and after his death the priests were able to take control back and reestablish polytheism

31 Amenhotep/Akhenaton

32 Egypts Decline After the death of Akhenaton few strong Pharaohs ruled Egypt Ramses II was one of those leaders who kept the empire together and ordered the construction of temples and monuments A series of invasions including the Assyrians and the Nubians led to the downfall of the Egyptian imperial power By the 300’s BC the rule of Egypt by Egyptians came to an end

33 The Great Temple of Ramses II

34 Review What Direction does the Nile river flow?
What made it possible to move goods up river? Why did geographic isolation benefit the Egyptians? Why were we eventually able to read Hieroglyphics? Name the outside invaders that came in and took over Egypt for a while. What was special about Hatshepsut?


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