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Introduction to Earth and Space Science

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Earth and Space Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Earth and Space Science
What is Earth Science?

2 Today’s Objectives Explain the significance of Earth and Space Science, including: Identify the spheres of the Earth Identify the major branches of Earth and space science and show how each branch relates to everyday life (e.g., mineral exploration providing raw materials for consumer goods) Identify careers related to both local and regional Earth and space science (e.g., exploration or petroleum geologists)

3 What is Earth Science? Mind Map

4 What is Earth Science? Welcome to Earth Science 11!
Earth Science is actually a collection of sciences that study various aspects of our natural environment Earth Science incorporates many other sciences that you are familiar with, such as biology, chemistry, and physics Today, we will look at: The Earth and it’s four spheres Major branches of Earth Science Careers in Earth Science How Earth Science relates to your everyday life

5 Scale of Earth and Space Science
Earth Science involves investigations of phenomena that cover a vast range in scale From atoms, to minerals and rocks, to entire planets, to solar systems and galaxies


7 The Earth’s Four Spheres
When we view the Earth from space, we notice that it is mostly covered by water We also notice there are continents, clouds, and vegetation All of these features are representative of the Earth’s four spheres: The Hydrosphere The Atmosphere The Geosphere The Biosphere

8 The Hydrosphere Our planet, our home: Earth
Sometimes called the Blue Planet because it’s surface is over 70% water


10 The Hydrosphere The Hydrosphere includes not only all of the water on the surface of the Earth, but also the water underground, in the atmosphere, and frozen in glaciers and ice caps The Hydrosphere provides us with water essential for life, and habitat for a plethora of plants and animals

11 The Atmosphere

12 The Atmosphere The Earth is surrounded by a life-giving gaseous envelope called the Atmosphere The atmosphere extends from the Earth’s surface to an altitude of a few hundred kilometers The Atmosphere provides us with the air that we breath as well as protection from the Sun’s dangerous radiation The atmosphere is also responsible for our weather and our climate

13 Atmosphere Our atmosphere is not just made of oxygen!
Atmospheric composition:

14 The Geosphere

15 The Geosphere The solid part of the Earth is known as the geosphere (sometimes called lithosphere*) The Geosphere extends from the core of the Earth all the way to the Earth’s surface With a depth of 6,400 kilometers, it is by far the largest of the four spheres The Geosphere provides us with important minerals and resources, and provides habitat for the plants that grow on our planet, and even some animals Soil, the uppermost part of the Geosphere can be thought of as part of all four spheres

16 The Biosphere

17 The Biosphere (or Ecosphere)
The Biosphere includes all life on Earth: Ocean life is concentrated in the sunlit surface waters of the sea Terrestrial life is concentrated on or near the surface, extending below a few meters with tree roots, and burrowing animals in the soil Some terrestrial animals such as birds and some flying insects can be found up to a kilometer into the Atmosphere With some exceptions, these can be thought of as the boundaries of the Biosphere

18 The Earth’s Spheres

19 Branches of Earth Science
Geology: The study of the solid earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the process by which they change Geomorphology: The study of landforms and the processes that shape them Seismology: The study of earthquakes and the formation of elastic waves that are produced by them Volcanology: The study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related processes Astronomy: The study of celestial objects, and phenomena in space Oceanography: The study of the deep sea, and shallow coastal oceans Meteorology: The study of the atmosphere

20 Why do we care? Weather forecasting Environmental concerns
Resources/Conservation Energy supply Food supply Water supply/quality Construction ??

21 Are there careers involved in Earth Science?
What careers can you think of? Mineral extraction/mining Oil industry/Petroleum Geologists Water quality technicians Forestry/Forest Scientists Engineering Astronaut Seismologists Conservation officers Environmental consultants Fisheries Weather forecaster

22 Review Quiz! What are the four spheres of the Earth called?
Biosphere, Geosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere What are their boundaries? Biosphere: all four spheres from a few meters in the soil to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere Geosphere: Earth’s core to the surface Atmosphere: Earth’s surface to hundreds of kms altitude above Hydrosphere: Surface water, glaciers, ice caps, groundwater, atmospheric water What are the major branches of Earth Science? Astronomy, Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography What are the foci of these branches? Astronomy: space, Geology: solid earth, Meteorology: atmosphere, Oceanography: oceans/hydrosphere

23 Homework Create a poster diorama or box diorama representing all four of the Earth’s spheres (with labels) Due: Friday, September 13

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