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Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science
What Is Earth Science? A View of Earth Representing Earth’s Surface Earth System Science What Is Scientific Inquiry?

2 Observing: What features can you identify in the photo?
Inferring: Where do you think this photograph came from? Designing Experiments If you were an Earth scientist, how could you use this photograph in your work?

3 Section 1 What Is Earth Science?
Key Concepts What is the study of Earth science? How did Earth and the solar system form?

4 Earth science the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth; It includes _______, ____________, __________, and _________. Geology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Astonomy

5 Geology the science that examines ____, its form and ____________, and the changes it has undergone and is undergoing Earth, composition,

6 What are the two areas of Geology?
Physical Geology Historical Geology

7 Physical geology: The examination of the materials that make up Earth and the possible explanations for the many processes that shape our planet. What are some of the processes which can shape our planet? Earthquakes, volcanoes, erosion by wind, water and ice,

8 Historical geology To establish a timeline of the vast number of physical and biological changes that have occurred in the past.

9 Oceanography The scientific study of the ______ and oceanic phenomena.
Oceanography integrates the sciences of chemistry, physics, geology, and biology. Oceanographers study the composition and movements of seawater, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography, and marine life. oceans

10 _______________ the scientific study of the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomena; the study of weather and climate. Meteorology

11 _______________ the scientific study of the universe; It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena. Astronomy

12 Formation of Earth The nebular hypothesis suggests that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula. It was made up mostly of hydrogen and helium with a small percentage of heavier elements. Why does Earth have little hydrogen and helium but large amounts of heavier elements? Higher Temperature and weaker gravity, The lighter gasses were whisked away by solar winds. Earth held onto some of the heavier gases like water vapor and carbon dioxide.

13 Started as cloud, then rotated & collapsed, generating heat to form sun, cooling created rocks and materials, collisions formed asteroids, which eventually become planets

14 Layers Form on Earth Why does Earth have layers?
Where did the oceans and atmosphere come from? Radioactive decay of elements combined with heat from colliding particles caused melting of the interior and allowed denser elements to sink to the center, in this process gaseous materials escaped from the interior gradually forming the atmosphere and oceans

15 Earth’s Place in the Universe
The milky way is a collection of several hundred billion stars. The oldest being 10 billion years. 1 of 28 galaxies, called the local group that exists in our region of the universe.

16 Section 2 A View of Earth Key Concepts
What are the four major spheres into which Earth is divided?

17 Section 2 A View of Earth Key Concepts What defines the three main parts of the solid Earth? Which model explains the position of continents and the occurrence of volcanoes and earthquakes?

18 Earth’s Major Spheres __________: the water portion of Earth; one of the traditional subdivisions of Earth’s physical environment Hydropshere

19 Earth’s Major Spheres _________: the gaseous portion of a planet; the planet’s envelope of air; one of the traditional subdivisions of Earth’s physical environment Atsmosphere

20 Earth’s Major Spheres ___________: layer of Earth under both the atmosphere and the oceans; It is composed of the core, the mantle, and the crust. Geosphere

21 Because the geosphere is not uniform, it is divided into three main parts based on differences in composition—the ____, the _____, and the ______. Core, mantle and crust


23 Geosphere ______: the innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle; The core is divided into an outer core and an inner core. core

24 Geosphere _________: the 2890-kilometer-thick layer of Earth located below the crust ______: the thin, rocky outer layer of Earth Mantle, crust

25 Earth’s Major Spheres __________: all life on Earth; the parts of the solid Earth, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which living organisms can be found. Biosphere

26 Plate Tectonics the theory that proposes that Earth’s outer shell consists of individual plates that interact in various ways and thereby produce earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the crust itself.


28 Section 3 Representing Earth’s Surface
Key Concepts What lines on a globe are used to indicate location?

29 Section 3 Representing Earth’s Surface
Key Concepts What problems do mapmakers face when making maps? How do topographic maps differ from other maps?

30 Determining Location Global Grid
Latitude: the distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees, circles running around the globe east to west.

31 Determining Location Global Grid
Longitude: the distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees, lines running north and south around the Earth.

32 Global Grid

33 Global Grid Equator – line running around the middle of the globe, at 0 degrees latitude. Prime Meridian – line of longitude that marks 0 degrees longitude.

34 Global Grid Hemispheres – the equator divides the Earth into to halves the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. The Prime Meridian and the 180 degree meridian divide Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

35 Global Grid

36 Maps & Mapping No matter what kind of map is made, some portion of the surface will always look either too small, to big, or out of place. Mapmakers have, however, found ways to limit the distortion of shape, size, distance, and direction.

37 Maps and Mapping The Mercator Projection Sizes & distances distorted
Directions shown accurately

38 Maps and Mapping Robinson Projection Map Most widely used
Show distances, sizes and shapes accurately Distortions around edges

39 Maps and Mapping Conic Projection Map
Accurate along the line of latitude Distortion away from this latitude

40 Maps and Mapping Gnomonic Projection Map
Accurately show the shortest distance between two points Distances and directions are distorted

41 Topographic Maps a map that represents Earth’s surface in three dimensions; It shows elevation, distance, directions, and slope angles.

42 Topographic Map

43 Topographic Maps Contour Line: line on a topographic map that indicates an elevation; Every point along a contour line has the same elevation. Contour Interval: on a topographic map, tells the distance in elevation between adjacent contour lines.

44 Geologic Maps Map that shows the type and age of the rocks that are exposed, or crop out, at the surface.

45 Advanced Technology Today’s technology provides us with the ability to more precisely analyze Earth’s physical properties. Remote sensing - using satellites and computers to send and receive data from a distance Examples: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) for directions, identifying location, speed, direction, elevation

46 1.4 Earth System Science What Is a System?
 A system is any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.  Closed systems are self contained, energy may be exchanged but matter doesn’t enter or leave. (jar of tea, ocean submersible).  Open systems allow both energy and matter to flow in and out of the system (open jar of tea, a river system, island).

47 1.4 Earth System Science Earth as a System
 Earth is a dynamic body with many separate but highly interacting parts or spheres. Earth system science studies Earth as a system that is composed of numerous parts, or subsystems. Earth is considered a closed system, but not entirely. Earth exchanges energy, but its mass changes very little. Meteors can add little mass. Hydrogen atoms can escape from the atmosphere. Our resources will eventually run out.

48 1.4 Earth System Science Earth as a System  Sources of Energy
• Sun—drives external processes such as weather, ocean circulation and erosional processes • Earth’s interior—drives internal processes including volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building

49 1.4 Earth System Science Earth as a System
 Consists of a nearly endless array of subsystems (e.g., hydrologic cycle) Humans are part of the Earth system. Our actions produce changes in all of the other parts of the Earth system.

50 1.4 Earth System Science People and the Environment  Environment
• Surrounds and influences organisms Physical environment encompasses water, air, soil, and rock The term environmental is usually reserved for those aspects that focus on the relationships between people and the natural environment.

51 1.4 Earth System Science People and the Environment  Resources
• Include water, soil, minerals, and energy • Two broad categories 1. Renewable—can be replenished (e.g., plants, energy from water and wind) 2. Nonrenewable—cannot be replenished in the near future (e.g., metals, fuels)

52 1.4 Earth System Science People and the Environment  Population
• Population of the planet is growing rapidly • Use of minerals/energy has climbed more rapidly than the overall growth of population

53 Growth of World Population
Plague of the Potato famine of 1800’s. Flu epidemic of AIDS epidemic. Resources when will they run out? How do we keep going? What should we do?

54 1.4 Earth System Science Environmental Problems
 Local, regional, and global  Caused by people and societies • Urban air pollution • Acid rain • Ozone depletion Loss of soil to erosion. Disposal of toxic wastes. Contamination and depletion of our water supplies. • Global warming  Caused by natural hazards • Earthquakes • Landslides

55 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?
Science 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?  Science assumes the natural world is • consistent • predictable  Goals of science are • to discover patterns in nature • to use the knowledge to predict

56 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?
Hypothesis and Theory 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?  An idea can become a ____________:tentative or untested explanation ________:tested, confirmed, supported hypothesis  Scientific Method Gather facts through observation Formulate hypotheses Test hypotheses to formulate theories

57 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?
Science Methods 1.5 What Is Scientific Inquiry?  Scientific knowledge is gained through • following systematic steps 1. Identify the problem 2. Collecting facts 3. Developing a hypothesis 4. Conducting experiments 5. Reexamining the hypothesis and accepting, modifying, or rejecting it • theories that withstand examination totally unexpected occurrences

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