2 The Young The Main Reforms: School Meals 1906 Medical Inspections 1907 Children’s Charter 1908
3 Analysis of main areas tackled What did the Liberals do?How effective was this?CHILD POVERTY1906 Free school mealsBy 1914, 14 million meals were provided in total (1906 = 3 million)However, less than half of all local authorities provided meals in 1912Detected a great deal of medical problems e.g. in Glasgow, 30% of children were found to be “verminous”1907 Compulsory medical inspection of all schoolchildren
4 What did the Liberals do? How effective was this?Although grants were being given to some local authorities by 1912, there was no compulsion to treat the health problems found.1907 Medical Inspections(continued)
5 The OldPensions for the elderly had been discussed for over 20 years with key figures such as Charles Booth supporting the idea.Other countries had already introduced them e.g. Denmark, New Zealand, Germany.Two main obstacles existed –the costthe opposition from Friendly Societies who provided pensions to the ‘thrifty’ working class.
6 What did the Liberals do? How effective was this?By 1914, nearly a million people were receiving it.Amount awarded (5s in 1909) was below Rowntree’s poverty line.Affected a very small proportion of people and could be withheld in ‘undeserving’ cases.OLD AGE1908 Old Age pensions introduced for those over 70.
7 The Unemployed The main measures to help the unemployed were: The Unemployed Workmen’s Act 1905Labour Exchanges 1909National Insurance Act (Part 2) 1911
8 What did the Liberals do? How effective was this?WAGE EARNERS1911 National Insurance ActPart I – Sickness and DisabilityWorkers, employers and the state contributed.Benefits payable for sickness, disablement and maternity.Compulsory for all earning under £160 a year.Did not cover death of the insured worker or hospital treatment.Workers families not eligible for treatment.
9 What did the liberals do? How effective was this?1911 National Insurance ActPart II – UnemploymentWorkers, employers and state contributed7 shillings a week paid to those out of workOnly 2.3 million workers covered.Only compulsory in cyclical trades e.g. shipbuildingBenefit limited to 15 weeks out of every year.
10 What did the Liberals do? How effective was this?1909 Labour Exchanges set up413 set up by 19133000 people found work this way every day by 19141909 Trade Boards ActEmployers in ‘sweated trades’ were prosecuted for paying less than the Boards minimum wage.
11 What did the Liberals do? How effective was this?INDIRECT MEASURES1909 budget drawn up to tax wealthy Conservative landowners and fund social reforms was carried forward.1911 Parliament Act
12 The Employed The main measures to help the employed were: Workmen’s Compensation Act 1906Coal Mines Act 1908Trade Boards Act 1909Shops Act 1911
13 What did the Liberals do? How effective was it?After 1911, The Lords could not interfere with a money bill or bills passed 3 times by the CommonsThis left the Liberals capable of pursuing more reforms e.g. National Insurance1911 Parliament Act (continued)
14 The Effectiveness of the Liberal Reforms – Positive Viewpoints The Liberals tried to tackle the key cause of poverty and provide safeguards against old age, sickness etc.Some historians – C Cross, G Williams, EJ Evan argue they were the beginning of the modern welfare state.By our standards the reforms appear limited but they were radical for the time and the government was accepting responsibility for the welfare of its citizens.
15 The Effectiveness of the Liberal Reforms – Negative Viewpoints The Liberals did nothing to tackle other important social issues e.g. extending education provision, tackling slum housing or providing free medical treatment.Some historians – EJ Evans, ME Rose argued the reforms were too limited e.g. only covered certain people,and benefits were only payable for a fixed amount of time.