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Guided Reading. When I get stuck on a word in a book, When I get stuck on a word in a book, There are lots of things I can do. There are lots of things.

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Presentation on theme: "Guided Reading. When I get stuck on a word in a book, When I get stuck on a word in a book, There are lots of things I can do. There are lots of things."— Presentation transcript:

1 Guided Reading

2 When I get stuck on a word in a book, When I get stuck on a word in a book, There are lots of things I can do. There are lots of things I can do. I can do them all, please, by myself; I can do them all, please, by myself; I don't need help from you. I don't need help from you. I can look at the picture to get a hint. I can look at the picture to get a hint. Or think what the story's about. Or think what the story's about. I can "get my mouth ready" to say the first letter. I can "get my mouth ready" to say the first letter. A kind of "sounding out." A kind of "sounding out." I can chop up the words into smaller parts, I can chop up the words into smaller parts, Like on or ing or ly, Like on or ing or ly, Or find smaller words in compound words Or find smaller words in compound words Like raincoat and bumblebee. Like raincoat and bumblebee. I can think of a word that makes sense in that place, I can think of a word that makes sense in that place, Guess or say "blank" and read on Guess or say "blank" and read on Until the sentence has reached its end, Until the sentence has reached its end, Then go back and try these on: Then go back and try these on: "Does it make sense?" "Does it make sense?" "Can we say it that way?" "Can we say it that way?" "Does it look right to me?" "Does it look right to me?" Chances are the right word will pop out like the sun Chances are the right word will pop out like the sun In my own mind, can't you see? In my own mind, can't you see? If I've thought of and tried out most of these things If I've thought of and tried out most of these things And I still do not know what to do, And I still do not know what to do, Then I may turn around and ask Then I may turn around and ask For some help to get me through. For some help to get me through.

3 What does research say about becoming a successful reader? Research indicates that if children do not become successful readers by the end of third grade, it is very difficult for them to catch up with their peers in later years. Clay (1993) explains that inappropriate reading habits can be a real stumbling block to higher levels of understanding. The probability that a child who is a poor reader at the end of first grade will remain a poor reader at the end of fourth grade is 88% (Juel 1988). This alarming figure is emphasized in the extensive work of Barr and Parret (1995), who stress that all children need to learn to read successfully before the end of third grade. The role of the classroom teacher is a critical factor in ensuring the success of struggling readers. Research indicates that if children do not become successful readers by the end of third grade, it is very difficult for them to catch up with their peers in later years. Clay (1993) explains that inappropriate reading habits can be a real stumbling block to higher levels of understanding. The probability that a child who is a poor reader at the end of first grade will remain a poor reader at the end of fourth grade is 88% (Juel 1988). This alarming figure is emphasized in the extensive work of Barr and Parret (1995), who stress that all children need to learn to read successfully before the end of third grade. The role of the classroom teacher is a critical factor in ensuring the success of struggling readers.

4 What is Guided Reading? What does it look like at your grade level? A teacher works with a small group; A teacher works with a small group; Children in the group are similar in their development of a reading process and are able to read about the same level of text. Children in the group are similar in their development of a reading process and are able to read about the same level of text. Teachers introduce the stories and assist children's reading in ways that help to develop independent reading strategies. Teachers introduce the stories and assist children's reading in ways that help to develop independent reading strategies. Each child reads the whole text. Each child reads the whole text. The goal is for children to read independently and silently. The goal is for children to read independently and silently. The emphasis is on reading increasingly challenging books over time. The emphasis is on reading increasingly challenging books over time. Children are grouped and regrouped in a dynamic process that involves ongoing observation and assessment. Children are grouped and regrouped in a dynamic process that involves ongoing observation and assessment.

5 Kindergarten In kindergarten there is a smooth transition from shared reading to guided reading as children reveal that they are on the verge of reading. Teachers make the decision to move some children into guided reading by observing children's behaviors as they explore books independently and participate in shared reading. After hearing books read aloud, many of the children will begin to try to figure them out themselves. Approximations come closer and closer to the actual text and they notice particular words or details of print. Shared reading demonstrates word-by-word matching and children will begin to emulate this behavior as they read very simple books with natural language and only one or two lines of text per page In kindergarten there is a smooth transition from shared reading to guided reading as children reveal that they are on the verge of reading. Teachers make the decision to move some children into guided reading by observing children's behaviors as they explore books independently and participate in shared reading. After hearing books read aloud, many of the children will begin to try to figure them out themselves. Approximations come closer and closer to the actual text and they notice particular words or details of print. Shared reading demonstrates word-by-word matching and children will begin to emulate this behavior as they read very simple books with natural language and only one or two lines of text per page

6 First Grade In first grade, guided reading is a foundation of the literacy curriculum. To sustain forward progress, children needed to take part in guided reading group between three and five days per week in the early stages, reading a new book just about every time the group meets Beginning books are relatively short (between eight and sixteen pages) so it is possible to build a large collection of books that children have read before, which can be placed in "browsing boxes" for independent reading. In first grade, guided reading is a foundation of the literacy curriculum. To sustain forward progress, children needed to take part in guided reading group between three and five days per week in the early stages, reading a new book just about every time the group meets Beginning books are relatively short (between eight and sixteen pages) so it is possible to build a large collection of books that children have read before, which can be placed in "browsing boxes" for independent reading.

7 Second Grade As children grow in their ability to read longer and more difficult texts, they may have to spend more than one day on a selection. There will also be shifts over time in the focus of guided reading. Throughout the grades guided reading takes on other purposes and forms: analyzing texts for character development and structure, comparing texts by theme, learning to read a variety of genres, or learning how to get information from texts As children grow in their ability to read longer and more difficult texts, they may have to spend more than one day on a selection. There will also be shifts over time in the focus of guided reading. Throughout the grades guided reading takes on other purposes and forms: analyzing texts for character development and structure, comparing texts by theme, learning to read a variety of genres, or learning how to get information from texts

8 Room Environment It is good idea for there to be a particular space for guided reading, preferably in a quieter section of the room. The teacher can sit with the children in a semicircle on the floor or at a table. It is good idea for there to be a particular space for guided reading, preferably in a quieter section of the room. The teacher can sit with the children in a semicircle on the floor or at a table. Wherever guided reading takes place, teachers need to be able to scan the classroom as a while so that they do not have to leave the group to identify children who need some help staying on task independently. There should also be a shelf or table nearby to store baskets of familiar books. Wherever guided reading takes place, teachers need to be able to scan the classroom as a while so that they do not have to leave the group to identify children who need some help staying on task independently. There should also be a shelf or table nearby to store baskets of familiar books. The teachers' materials for this area include: The teachers' materials for this area include: A clipboard with running records and anecdotal forms. A clipboard with running records and anecdotal forms. Sentence Strips. Sentence Strips. Paper and writing materials. Paper and writing materials. Markers or pencils Markers or pencils A whiteboard or easel with chart paper. A whiteboard or easel with chart paper. Magnetic letters Magnetic letters Individual chalkboards or white boards Individual chalkboards or white boards

9 A Checklist For Analyzing the Classroom Environment Are there well-defined areas for large, small, and independent work? Are there well-defined areas for large, small, and independent work? Is the classroom library inviting and well organized? Is the classroom library inviting and well organized? Are books easy to find and return? Are books easy to find and return? Are there books integrated into the work centers? Are there books integrated into the work centers? Are there numerous displays of written language at eye level-print for "reading around the room"? Are there numerous displays of written language at eye level-print for "reading around the room"? Are management tools such as work board, helper's chart, or class rules located within easy view with out usurping areas needed for "reading around the room"? Are management tools such as work board, helper's chart, or class rules located within easy view with out usurping areas needed for "reading around the room"? Are pocket charts being used in several locations? Are pocket charts being used in several locations? Are all materials clearly labeled. Are there some simple, written directions where appropriate? Are all materials clearly labeled. Are there some simple, written directions where appropriate? Are there resources such as poems, charts, big books, and other print materials readily available for children to read? Are there resources such as poems, charts, big books, and other print materials readily available for children to read? Are there materials organized for easy access and return? Are there materials organized for easy access and return? Are furniture and dividers arranged so that the teacher can have full view of the classroom? Are furniture and dividers arranged so that the teacher can have full view of the classroom? Is there a comfortable and well supplied area for independent reading? writing? Is there a comfortable and well supplied area for independent reading? writing? Are noisy and quiet areas separated? Are noisy and quiet areas separated? Are there neat, usable places to store, remove and replace student work? Are there neat, usable places to store, remove and replace student work?

10 Assessment and Evaluation for Placement Letter Identification Letter Identification Word Test Word Test Concepts about Print Concepts about Print Writing Vocabulary Writing Vocabulary Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words Running Record of text Reading Running Record of text Reading Comprehension Comprehension Retelling Retelling Examining oral and written responses Examining oral and written responses Fluency, rate, and phrasing Fluency, rate, and phrasing Observational checklist Observational checklist Anecdotal records Anecdotal records Record of text level progress Record of text level progress

11 Writing Vocabulary The child is asked to write all of the words he knows how to write, beginning with his name. Prompts can be used as a support but the child writes the words independently. The child is asked to write all of the words he knows how to write, beginning with his name. Prompts can be used as a support but the child writes the words independently. An inventory of words and parts of words that children know how to write is an indication of what the child controls. An inventory of words and parts of words that children know how to write is an indication of what the child controls. Of course, a child may write a word and not be able to recognize it when he encounters it embedded in text; but every word he encounters has potential for later use. Of course, a child may write a word and not be able to recognize it when he encounters it embedded in text; but every word he encounters has potential for later use.

12 Running Records Running records are a standardized too for coding and scoring children's reading of text, and for analyzing children's reading behavior. Running records are a standardized too for coding and scoring children's reading of text, and for analyzing children's reading behavior. As we use running records we are looking at children's solving of words as part of a process rather that simply counting the words read correctly. From children's attempts at word solving, we can get an idea about what they know about words and how they use their knowledge to solve them. Their attempts reveal understandings and strengths that we want to use a springboards for further learning. As we use running records we are looking at children's solving of words as part of a process rather that simply counting the words read correctly. From children's attempts at word solving, we can get an idea about what they know about words and how they use their knowledge to solve them. Their attempts reveal understandings and strengths that we want to use a springboards for further learning. A young reader who is encountering a just right text is engaged in the kind of problem solving that keeps on building the reading process. A young reader who is encountering a just right text is engaged in the kind of problem solving that keeps on building the reading process. Th child is behaving like a reader- "reading for meaning with divided attention" (solving words while maintaining the meaning of a story or message.) Th child is behaving like a reader- "reading for meaning with divided attention" (solving words while maintaining the meaning of a story or message.)

13 Uses for Running Records Finding the appropriate level of text for the children to read. Finding the appropriate level of text for the children to read. Grouping students for reading instruction. Grouping students for reading instruction. Checking on text selection and on teaching. Checking on text selection and on teaching. Documenting progress in reading. Documenting progress in reading. Adding to the teachers knowledge of the reading process. Adding to the teachers knowledge of the reading process. Suggested ways to teach children who are having difficulty reading. Suggested ways to teach children who are having difficulty reading. Summarizing results of the guided reading program in the classroom or the school. Providing insights as to the child use of meaning to guide his reading. Summarizing results of the guided reading program in the classroom or the school. Providing insights as to the child use of meaning to guide his reading.

14 Comprehension Comprehension is difficult to assess formally, yet teachers know every day whether or not children are understanding what they read. Comprehension is difficult to assess formally, yet teachers know every day whether or not children are understanding what they read. Some informal ways of knowing whether comprehension is taking place are: Some informal ways of knowing whether comprehension is taking place are: Asking children if they understand a story or an informational piece. Asking children if they understand a story or an informational piece. Having conversations with the children about the material they read. Having conversations with the children about the material they read. Observing children as they respond to the text both verbally and nonverbally. Observing children as they respond to the text both verbally and nonverbally. Observing children's behavior for evidence of using cues while reading. Observing children's behavior for evidence of using cues while reading. Observing children's responses to the text in art and writing. Observing children's responses to the text in art and writing. Having a child retell a story or asking "comprehension questions" does not teach comprehension. It is a fairly primitive way of gathering evidence of comprehension. Having a child retell a story or asking "comprehension questions" does not teach comprehension. It is a fairly primitive way of gathering evidence of comprehension. Comprehension can be analyzed using retelling and questioning following reading Comprehension can be analyzed using retelling and questioning following reading

15 Retelling The retelling is analyzed for: The retelling is analyzed for: Knowledge of the gist of the story and main idea. Knowledge of the gist of the story and main idea. Events accurately reported. Events accurately reported. Degree to which the sequence matches the text. Degree to which the sequence matches the text. Degree to which the reader uses his own words and phrases. Degree to which the reader uses his own words and phrases. Ability to relate the information to personal knowledge. Ability to relate the information to personal knowledge. Presence of structures such as beginning, middle, and end. Presence of structures such as beginning, middle, and end. Use of precise vocabulary. Use of precise vocabulary. Presence of elements such as characters and setting. Presence of elements such as characters and setting. Use of detail. Use of detail. The information gained from a retelling is controversial. When children have been taught about story structure and have practiced retellings, their scores generally go up. Retelling may be a learned skill. The information gained from a retelling is controversial. When children have been taught about story structure and have practiced retellings, their scores generally go up. Retelling may be a learned skill.

16 Questioning Following Reading Asking "comprehension questions" following reading has limited value in helping teachers learn about children's understanding or in developing children's ability to comprehend. Asking "comprehension questions" following reading has limited value in helping teachers learn about children's understanding or in developing children's ability to comprehend. If questioning is used, it is recommended that: If questioning is used, it is recommended that: The questioning period be brief. The questioning period be brief. The questions be more like discussion and conversation than like a test. The questions be more like discussion and conversation than like a test. The questions require children to make inferences rather than personal response to the material. The questions require children to make inferences rather than personal response to the material. The questions invite personal response to the material. The questions invite personal response to the material. The questions extend children's ability to make connections or texts they have read. The questions extend children's ability to make connections or texts they have read.

17 Fluency, rate, and phrasing It is easy to assess fluency, rate and phrasing informally through observation and anecdotal notes. Assessing them formally is time- consuming and should be done perhaps once or twice per child per year. It is easy to assess fluency, rate and phrasing informally through observation and anecdotal notes. Assessing them formally is time- consuming and should be done perhaps once or twice per child per year. Here is a suggested technique that you can adapt for your own use. Ask children to read aloud a selection they have read twice before and can read with above a 90% accuracy. Tape record the readings. later calculate the number of words per minute. Here is a suggested technique that you can adapt for your own use. Ask children to read aloud a selection they have read twice before and can read with above a 90% accuracy. Tape record the readings. later calculate the number of words per minute. Fluency, phrasing and rate of reading care related to performance on tests of reading comprehension. Some students make low scores on formal comprehension tests because they read slowly, attending to too much to working our words and taking long pauses. Students who read accurately, quickly, and in phrased units usually do better on all assessments of reading. Fluency, phrasing and rate of reading care related to performance on tests of reading comprehension. Some students make low scores on formal comprehension tests because they read slowly, attending to too much to working our words and taking long pauses. Students who read accurately, quickly, and in phrased units usually do better on all assessments of reading.

18 Record of text level progress this is the use of simple charts to graph reading progress over time along a gradient of text difficulty. this is the use of simple charts to graph reading progress over time along a gradient of text difficulty.

19 When do I begin guided reading in my classroom? Although there isn't a pat answer to this question, there are observable characteristics that indicate children are ready to participate in these more formal groupings: Although there isn't a pat answer to this question, there are observable characteristics that indicate children are ready to participate in these more formal groupings: Do they have have many of the early concepts of print almost under control (i.e., can they distinguish between text and illustration)? Do they have have many of the early concepts of print almost under control (i.e., can they distinguish between text and illustration)? Do they have some understanding of directionality? Do they have some understanding of directionality? Do they have some knowledge of one-to-one matching? Do they have some knowledge of one-to-one matching? Do they know the difference between letters and words? Do they know the difference between letters and words? Do they know the letters of the alphabet and a few frequently encountered words (e.g., I, the, a)? [Note; Remember the child does not need to know all his letters!] Do they know the letters of the alphabet and a few frequently encountered words (e.g., I, the, a)? [Note; Remember the child does not need to know all his letters!] Do they actively participate in shared reading by predicting events and language structures that show an awareness of comprehension, rhythm, and rhyme? Do they actively participate in shared reading by predicting events and language structures that show an awareness of comprehension, rhythm, and rhyme? Do they spend their time reading and noticing a few details of print? Do they spend their time reading and noticing a few details of print? Do they explore the print on the walls? Do they explore the print on the walls? Do they notice that the same words appear in many different contexts? Do they notice that the same words appear in many different contexts? Do they link sounds with symbols when they write? Do they link sounds with symbols when they write? Do they articulate words slowly as they write? Do they articulate words slowly as they write?

20 If the answer to some of these is yes, chances are children are ready to learn more about how printed language works. Some children are ready to begin guided reading in kindergarten, while others need many more opportunities and experiences with print before reading a book in a small group. If the answer to some of these is yes, chances are children are ready to learn more about how printed language works. Some children are ready to begin guided reading in kindergarten, while others need many more opportunities and experiences with print before reading a book in a small group. It is a mistake to think that because children know the names of letters. They will be successful readers. As teachers we encounter children every day who can identify all the letters but are unable to read even the most simple text. Phonemic awareness, not letter knowledge, is a strong predictor for children's ability to read. (Adams 1966). Yet, knowing the names of letters is valuable, because the names are labels for associating specific letters with their sounds. However, children do not have to know all the letters or sounds before they can begin to read. (Clay 1992; Smith 1994). It is a mistake to think that because children know the names of letters. They will be successful readers. As teachers we encounter children every day who can identify all the letters but are unable to read even the most simple text. Phonemic awareness, not letter knowledge, is a strong predictor for children's ability to read. (Adams 1966). Yet, knowing the names of letters is valuable, because the names are labels for associating specific letters with their sounds. However, children do not have to know all the letters or sounds before they can begin to read. (Clay 1992; Smith 1994).

21 How many reading groups should we form? Three groups for twenty-six children would give us too many students in each group and a range with in groups that might be difficult to cope with. Based on the wide range of scores on the class list, we could form five, six, or seven groups: however, we have to weigh our need to match children's reading levels against the time we have. Too many groups means the teacher spends too much time on guided reading to the detriment of other important areas of the curriculum (process writing, art, mathematics, etc.), cuts down the time spent with each group, or meets less frequently. Whichever alternative is chosen, teaching opportunities are limited. Three groups for twenty-six children would give us too many students in each group and a range with in groups that might be difficult to cope with. Based on the wide range of scores on the class list, we could form five, six, or seven groups: however, we have to weigh our need to match children's reading levels against the time we have. Too many groups means the teacher spends too much time on guided reading to the detriment of other important areas of the curriculum (process writing, art, mathematics, etc.), cuts down the time spent with each group, or meets less frequently. Whichever alternative is chosen, teaching opportunities are limited. Individual children make progress at different rates; thus we need to group (and regroup) them for guided reading based on careful observations of how they are apply their skills, and knowledge, and strategies while they are reading and writing. Individual children make progress at different rates; thus we need to group (and regroup) them for guided reading based on careful observations of how they are apply their skills, and knowledge, and strategies while they are reading and writing.

22 How to Choose a Title ? Our rule of thumb is that if the reader, with an introduction and support, cannot read about 90 percent of the words accurately, the text is too difficult. The accuracy here is not a test of the reader but a test of the teachers's selection and introduction of the text. A hard text does not provide an opportunity for smooth problem solving, and meaning to guide the process. The process may break down into individual word calling (or frantic random guessing) that does not make sense and is not productive. Our rule of thumb is that if the reader, with an introduction and support, cannot read about 90 percent of the words accurately, the text is too difficult. The accuracy here is not a test of the reader but a test of the teachers's selection and introduction of the text. A hard text does not provide an opportunity for smooth problem solving, and meaning to guide the process. The process may break down into individual word calling (or frantic random guessing) that does not make sense and is not productive. When children solve words using visual information, they need to be able to verify their success using meaning and structure cues. At the same time, they make predictions from language structures and meaning (what the text is likely to say) while checking trier predictions against the makeup of the word, asking implicitly, Does it look right? Accuracy of reading is not as important as learning the process of using different sources of information, self-monitoring, and cross-checking; the process is too difficult if the text is too hard When children solve words using visual information, they need to be able to verify their success using meaning and structure cues. At the same time, they make predictions from language structures and meaning (what the text is likely to say) while checking trier predictions against the makeup of the word, asking implicitly, Does it look right? Accuracy of reading is not as important as learning the process of using different sources of information, self-monitoring, and cross-checking; the process is too difficult if the text is too hard

23 If the texts are extremely difficult, the situation is even more disastrous for the young reader. This can happen when the more inexperienced children are forced into "whole class" reading or into reading basals that contain almost no texts a given group of children can read. In this case, the process completely breaks down and there may be bizarre responses such as "mumble reading." Children may also attempt to read along without looking at the print trying to remember the entire text, or just read along one step behind all the other children with almost no independent processing. The situation for the child would be something like preforming in a choir with out knowing the words or music. If the texts are extremely difficult, the situation is even more disastrous for the young reader. This can happen when the more inexperienced children are forced into "whole class" reading or into reading basals that contain almost no texts a given group of children can read. In this case, the process completely breaks down and there may be bizarre responses such as "mumble reading." Children may also attempt to read along without looking at the print trying to remember the entire text, or just read along one step behind all the other children with almost no independent processing. The situation for the child would be something like preforming in a choir with out knowing the words or music. The answer is not to eliminate while class experiences but to use them for activities like shared reading and interactive writing, which are designed for the class community or small group. Nor is it practical or even desirable to teach search child individually. Guided reading takes advantage of social support and allows the teacher to operate efficiently, to work with the tension between ease and challenge that is necessary to support readers' moving forward in their learning. The answer is not to eliminate while class experiences but to use them for activities like shared reading and interactive writing, which are designed for the class community or small group. Nor is it practical or even desirable to teach search child individually. Guided reading takes advantage of social support and allows the teacher to operate efficiently, to work with the tension between ease and challenge that is necessary to support readers' moving forward in their learning.

24 For a child to be able to read a book effectively, the book needs to contain more supportive features than challenging ones. Answering the following questions should help you select an appropriate book for guided reading. Does the book allow the child to construct meaning? Does the book allow the child to construct meaning? Does the book contain structural patterns that are within the child's language control? Does the book contain structural patterns that are within the child's language control? Does the book include letters and some words that the child can use to monitor his or her reading? Does the book include letters and some words that the child can use to monitor his or her reading? Does the book allow the child to use his or her current strategies and skills to problem-solve? Does the book allow the child to use his or her current strategies and skills to problem-solve? Does the book promote fluency? Does the book promote fluency? What are the supportive features of the book? What are the supportive features of the book? What are the challenging features of the book? What are the challenging features of the book?

25 Guided Reading Lesson Outline Reading of familiar text Reading of familiar text New Selection New Selection Mini-lesson Mini-lesson Notes Notes

26 Familiar Book Procedure As children read familiar materials, they learn how to become successful readers. The familiar context of the story provides opportunities to apply stratifies in an integrated process With each rereading, the child is able to anticipate the textual response more quickly, simultaneously freeing the brain to focus on attention on constructing higher-level understanding about the story. As children read familiar materials, they learn how to become successful readers. The familiar context of the story provides opportunities to apply stratifies in an integrated process With each rereading, the child is able to anticipate the textual response more quickly, simultaneously freeing the brain to focus on attention on constructing higher-level understanding about the story.

27 Book Introduction While the purpose of the introduction is to support the meaning of the text as a whole, you may also draw attention to specific words and letters within words in order to make unfamiliar words accessible to students using their present strategies. This is not the same as "pre- teaching" new words: the purpose of drawing attention to word features is not simply to get the word right. It is to help children learn a process for figuring out a word maintaining their reading momentum While the purpose of the introduction is to support the meaning of the text as a whole, you may also draw attention to specific words and letters within words in order to make unfamiliar words accessible to students using their present strategies. This is not the same as "pre- teaching" new words: the purpose of drawing attention to word features is not simply to get the word right. It is to help children learn a process for figuring out a word maintaining their reading momentum

28 It is the first word of the text and therefore critical to getting started. It is the first word of the text and therefore critical to getting started. It cannot be predicted from the pictures and although it fits with syntax, the structure might be difficult for many children; therefore, some visual information must be used. It cannot be predicted from the pictures and although it fits with syntax, the structure might be difficult for many children; therefore, some visual information must be used. It is a good opportunity to use a know word to help figure out a new word: "In this story, there were three little pigs. The word there starts like a word you know, the. Look on this page to find the word there. It starts like the. Put your finger under it." It is a good opportunity to use a know word to help figure out a new word: "In this story, there were three little pigs. The word there starts like a word you know, the. Look on this page to find the word there. It starts like the. Put your finger under it." Another word you might single out is Along, because it is the first word on a new page and the language structure on this page is more literary and less like natural talk. Being able to figure out the word will help the children keep the reading going. Another word you might single out is Along, because it is the first word on a new page and the language structure on this page is more literary and less like natural talk. Being able to figure out the word will help the children keep the reading going.

29 Predict and Locate As the children gain more control, she can ask them to predict letters in ending and medial positions as well. As the children become more competent readers, the introductory discussion can include conversation about the content, characters, setting, plot, and writing style. As the children gain more control, she can ask them to predict letters in ending and medial positions as well. As the children become more competent readers, the introductory discussion can include conversation about the content, characters, setting, plot, and writing style. Chose a few new words and direct the child to locate a word based upon the beginning letter of each word-it must be a word that has a beginning letter that the children would know -- for example: do not ask the students to predict and locate a word that begins with 'th' (that) (there) if they are not yet familiar with the 'th' sound/letter association Chose a few new words and direct the child to locate a word based upon the beginning letter of each word-it must be a word that has a beginning letter that the children would know -- for example: do not ask the students to predict and locate a word that begins with 'th' (that) (there) if they are not yet familiar with the 'th' sound/letter association

30 Planted Language Concepts Vocabulary is integral to reading. If children do not understand the meaning of the words they read, the process becomes meaningless decoding. No student should ever have to struggle along producing nonsense. As teachers, we want students to understand a wide range of words. An important part of comprehending is quick, fluent access to word meanings Vocabulary is integral to reading. If children do not understand the meaning of the words they read, the process becomes meaningless decoding. No student should ever have to struggle along producing nonsense. As teachers, we want students to understand a wide range of words. An important part of comprehending is quick, fluent access to word meanings

31 Students Read Selection They read softly to themselves rather than in unison or in a chorus, so each reader is processing the whole text. They read softly to themselves rather than in unison or in a chorus, so each reader is processing the whole text. The reader knows that their job is to keep going, reading as much as they can and solving any problems they have along the way. The reader knows that their job is to keep going, reading as much as they can and solving any problems they have along the way. The teacher is there to assist if necessary, but a good text selection and a skillful story introduction make it possible for children to read the text with only a few words to solve. The teacher is there to assist if necessary, but a good text selection and a skillful story introduction make it possible for children to read the text with only a few words to solve. For the teacher, watching the children as they read the text provides a critical source of information. You can observe children's behavior, scan the group, and "listen in" to several readers for a few moments at a time. If older readers are reading silently most of the time you can ask them to read aloud for a few minutes to provide information. For the teacher, watching the children as they read the text provides a critical source of information. You can observe children's behavior, scan the group, and "listen in" to several readers for a few moments at a time. If older readers are reading silently most of the time you can ask them to read aloud for a few minutes to provide information. At times it may be necessary to assist children in a bit of problem solving or to reinforce some behavior that indicates children are taking on new strategies. Power interactions you have can take place in the brief interactions you have with individual children or two or three children during a guided reading lesson At times it may be necessary to assist children in a bit of problem solving or to reinforce some behavior that indicates children are taking on new strategies. Power interactions you have can take place in the brief interactions you have with individual children or two or three children during a guided reading lesson

32 Teaching Point When you observe that one or more readers in the group have a difficulty taking words apart to solve a problem while reading, you may want to spend a few minutes after the reading taking a careful look at how a word works. You can use magnetic letters on an easel, write on a chalkboard or white board, Use a magnadoodle, or simply draw children's attention to a word in the text using a card or mask. The degree of explicitness will depend on children's familiarity with print and the nature of the demonstration. When you observe that one or more readers in the group have a difficulty taking words apart to solve a problem while reading, you may want to spend a few minutes after the reading taking a careful look at how a word works. You can use magnetic letters on an easel, write on a chalkboard or white board, Use a magnadoodle, or simply draw children's attention to a word in the text using a card or mask. The degree of explicitness will depend on children's familiarity with print and the nature of the demonstration.

33 Mini-Lessons For emergent readers, you might want to demonstrate concepts about print and letters, such as: For emergent readers, you might want to demonstrate concepts about print and letters, such as: A group of letters make a word (cat). A group of letters make a word (cat). Words can be made from one or more letters (I, to, can) Words can be made from one or more letters (I, to, can) A word is the came in reading and writing. A word is the came in reading and writing. A word with a capital letter is the same as its lowercase form (He, he). A word with a capital letter is the same as its lowercase form (He, he). Sounds in words are related to the letters in them (m-a- n). Sounds in words are related to the letters in them (m-a- n). The letters in words represent sounds. The letters in words represent sounds. Words can be short or long. Words can be short or long.

34 You may need to show the readers how to : You may need to show the readers how to : Add letters to the beginning of a word to make a new word (h + and = hand). Add letters to the beginning of a word to make a new word (h + and = hand). Add letters to the end of a word to make a new word (sea + t = seat). Add letters to the end of a word to make a new word (sea + t = seat). Change the first letter of a word to make a new word (car, far). Change the first letter of a word to make a new word (car, far). Change the last letter of a word to make a new word (had, has). Change the last letter of a word to make a new word (had, has). Add endings to make new words (book, books; read, reading). Add endings to make new words (book, books; read, reading). Use a word they know to solve a new word (my, by). Use a word they know to solve a new word (my, by). Change the middle letter to letters to solve new words (cat, cut; chair, cheer). Change the middle letter to letters to solve new words (cat, cut; chair, cheer). Add letters or letter clusters to solve new words (it, pit, pitch, pitcher). Add letters or letter clusters to solve new words (it, pit, pitch, pitcher). Use parts or words they know to figure out words they don't know (tree + play = tray; she + make = shake). Use parts or words they know to figure out words they don't know (tree + play = tray; she + make = shake). Some words sound the same and look different (sail, sale). Some words sound the same and look different (sail, sale). Some words look the same and sound different (read, read; present, present) Some words look the same and sound different (read, read; present, present)

35 Follow-up Activities Occasionally, the teacher may want to engage the children in follow-up activities that help them use the print in different ways. Occasionally, the teacher may want to engage the children in follow-up activities that help them use the print in different ways. Examples of extended activities after guided reading include: Examples of extended activities after guided reading include: Children who read the little book Food to Eat (Peters 1995) cut pictures out of magazines and on each page write a sentence saying This is a... Children who read the little book Food to Eat (Peters 1995) cut pictures out of magazines and on each page write a sentence saying This is a... Children who read Rosie's Tea Party and Rosie's Pool wrote in their journals about how the giants behaved the same in the two stories. Children who read Rosie's Tea Party and Rosie's Pool wrote in their journals about how the giants behaved the same in the two stories. In interactive writing, children created a three sentence summary of Peaches the Pig. The children contributed the initial and final consonants, some high-frequency words, and the word pig. In interactive writing, children created a three sentence summary of Peaches the Pig. The children contributed the initial and final consonants, some high-frequency words, and the word pig. A group of children who read Amelia Bedelia made a list of all the words that Amelia confused. A group of children who read Amelia Bedelia made a list of all the words that Amelia confused. The books read by the groups lead to additional activities, but place the greater value on the children's having the opportunity to read many new texts and to reread familiar ones. Extending every book through art, writing,or drama is impractical and could interfere with time needed to read widely, enjoying and practicing the process. The books read by the groups lead to additional activities, but place the greater value on the children's having the opportunity to read many new texts and to reread familiar ones. Extending every book through art, writing,or drama is impractical and could interfere with time needed to read widely, enjoying and practicing the process.

36 Assessment After Guided Reading Assessment after guided reading is a combination of checklists, anecdotal records, and running records. Assessment after guided reading is a combination of checklists, anecdotal records, and running records.

37 Running Records The accuracy rate lets the teacher know whether she is selecting the right books. The text should be neither too easy nor too hard. A good guideline is that the children should be reading with more that 90% accuracy. The point is not accuracy per se but whether the teacher has selected a text in a range that provides opportunities fro effective processing. Stretches of accurate reading mean there are appropriate cues that allow the child to problem solve unfamiliar aspects of the text. The accuracy rate lets the teacher know whether she is selecting the right books. The text should be neither too easy nor too hard. A good guideline is that the children should be reading with more that 90% accuracy. The point is not accuracy per se but whether the teacher has selected a text in a range that provides opportunities fro effective processing. Stretches of accurate reading mean there are appropriate cues that allow the child to problem solve unfamiliar aspects of the text. When the text is too hard, children cannot use what they know; the process becomes a struggle and may break down to using only one source of information. The child may stop attending to visual features of print and invent text, or the child may rely on labored sounding that makes it difficult to read for meaning. We all have observed children produce nonsense words when struggling with hard text. When the text is too hard, children cannot use what they know; the process becomes a struggle and may break down to using only one source of information. The child may stop attending to visual features of print and invent text, or the child may rely on labored sounding that makes it difficult to read for meaning. We all have observed children produce nonsense words when struggling with hard text. When a text is too hard, it is nonproductive in helping the child become a strategic reader. To become a good reader, the child must sustain effective behavior over long stretches of meaningful text. When a text is too hard, it is nonproductive in helping the child become a strategic reader. To become a good reader, the child must sustain effective behavior over long stretches of meaningful text. Accuracy rate also helps the teacher group children effectively. For example, if a particular text is right for six children, they can work effectively together even though they have differences in the ways they process text. Accuracy rate also helps the teacher group children effectively. For example, if a particular text is right for six children, they can work effectively together even though they have differences in the ways they process text. Finally, the accuracy rate lets the teacher know whether his book introduction and other kinds of support he offered during the first reading were effective. The introduction is especially important in helping children read text independently. High accuracy and self-correction rates indicate that the teaching was helpful to the child's developing independence in reading. Finally, the accuracy rate lets the teacher know whether his book introduction and other kinds of support he offered during the first reading were effective. The introduction is especially important in helping children read text independently. High accuracy and self-correction rates indicate that the teaching was helpful to the child's developing independence in reading.

38 Running Records Qualitative analysis involves looking at the reading behavior. The teacher looks for behavior evidence of cue use and evidence of the use of strategies such as cross-checking information and searching for cues. She examines each incorrect attempt and self-correction and hypothesizes about the cues or information sources the child might have been using. In Clay's analysis, cues refer to the sources of information. There are three major categories: Qualitative analysis involves looking at the reading behavior. The teacher looks for behavior evidence of cue use and evidence of the use of strategies such as cross-checking information and searching for cues. She examines each incorrect attempt and self-correction and hypothesizes about the cues or information sources the child might have been using. In Clay's analysis, cues refer to the sources of information. There are three major categories: Meaning- The teacher thinks about whether the child's attempt makes sense up to the point of error. She might think about the story background, information, from the picture, and meaning in the sentence in deciding whether the child was probably using meaning as a source. Meaning- The teacher thinks about whether the child's attempt makes sense up to the point of error. She might think about the story background, information, from the picture, and meaning in the sentence in deciding whether the child was probably using meaning as a source. Structure-Structure refers to the way language works. Some refer to this information source as syntax because unconscious knowledge of the rules of the grammar of the language the reader speaks allows him to eliminate alternatives. Using this implicates knowledge, the reader checks whether the sentence "sounds right." Structure-Structure refers to the way language works. Some refer to this information source as syntax because unconscious knowledge of the rules of the grammar of the language the reader speaks allows him to eliminate alternatives. Using this implicates knowledge, the reader checks whether the sentence "sounds right." Visual information- Visual information includes the way the letters and words look. Readers use their knowledge of visual features of words and letters and connect these features to their knowledge of the way words and letters sound when spoken. If the letters in the child's attempt are visually similar to the letters in the word in the text (for example, if it begins with the same letter or has a similar cluster of letters), it is likely that the reader has used visual information. Visual information- Visual information includes the way the letters and words look. Readers use their knowledge of visual features of words and letters and connect these features to their knowledge of the way words and letters sound when spoken. If the letters in the child's attempt are visually similar to the letters in the word in the text (for example, if it begins with the same letter or has a similar cluster of letters), it is likely that the reader has used visual information. Readers use all these information sources in an integrated way while reading for meaning. Readers use all these information sources in an integrated way while reading for meaning.

39 Running Records For each incorrect attempt and self-corrected error, the letters M S V are indicated in the Error column and the SC column, as appropriate. If the child probably used meaning, M is circled; if structure (syntax), S is circled; if visual information, V is circled. A complete running record includes these analyses of each error and self- correction. For each incorrect attempt and self-corrected error, the letters M S V are indicated in the Error column and the SC column, as appropriate. If the child probably used meaning, M is circled; if structure (syntax), S is circled; if visual information, V is circled. A complete running record includes these analyses of each error and self- correction. The value of this activity is to look for patterns in the child's responses. You should not spend a great deal of time trying to figure out each miscue, searching for the "right" analysis. The idea is to reflect on the child's behavior, make your best hypothesis, and then look at data through the whole reading and over time. The value of this activity is to look for patterns in the child's responses. You should not spend a great deal of time trying to figure out each miscue, searching for the "right" analysis. The idea is to reflect on the child's behavior, make your best hypothesis, and then look at data through the whole reading and over time. What you are really looking for is an indication of the kinds of strategies the child is using. An important thing to remember about errors is that they are partially correct. They indicate strategic action and provide a window through which the teacher can observe whether the child is activity relating one source of information while reading. The teacher can observe whether the child is actively relating one source of information to another, a behavior that Clay (1991a) calls cross checking, because the child is checking one clue against another. At the top of the form, the teacher notes cues used, cues neglected, and evidence of cross-checking behavior. She summarizes how the child used cues and the pattern of behaviors that is evident. What you are really looking for is an indication of the kinds of strategies the child is using. An important thing to remember about errors is that they are partially correct. They indicate strategic action and provide a window through which the teacher can observe whether the child is activity relating one source of information while reading. The teacher can observe whether the child is actively relating one source of information to another, a behavior that Clay (1991a) calls cross checking, because the child is checking one clue against another. At the top of the form, the teacher notes cues used, cues neglected, and evidence of cross-checking behavior. She summarizes how the child used cues and the pattern of behaviors that is evident.

40 Running Records Once cues are analyzed, the teacher might think about questions like these: Once cues are analyzed, the teacher might think about questions like these: Does the reader use cues in relation to each other? Does the reader use cues in relation to each other? Does the reader check information sources against one another? Does the reader check information sources against one another? Does the reader use several sources of cues in an integrated way or rely on only one kind of information? Does the reader use several sources of cues in an integrated way or rely on only one kind of information? Does the reader repeat what has been read as if to confirm his reading thus far? Does the reader repeat what has been read as if to confirm his reading thus far? Does the reader reread to search for more information from the sentence or text? Does the reader reread to search for more information from the sentence or text? Does the reader make meaningful attempts before appealing to the teacher for help? Does the reader make meaningful attempts before appealing to the teacher for help? Does the reader request help after making an attempt or several attempts? Does the reader request help after making an attempt or several attempts? Does the reader notice when cues do not match? Does the reader notice when cues do not match? Does the reader stop at unknown words without actively searching? Does the reader stop at unknown words without actively searching? Does the reader appeal to the teacher in a dependent way or appeal when appropriate (that is, when the reader has done what he can)? Does the reader appeal to the teacher in a dependent way or appeal when appropriate (that is, when the reader has done what he can)? Does the reader read with phrasing and fluency? Does the reader read with phrasing and fluency? Does the reader make comments or responses in ways that indicate comprehension of the story? Does the reader make comments or responses in ways that indicate comprehension of the story?

41 Running Records These kinds of behavior (the list above is not exhaustive) provide a description of the child's reading processing system. They will reveal whether the child is using internal strategies, which include: These kinds of behavior (the list above is not exhaustive) provide a description of the child's reading processing system. They will reveal whether the child is using internal strategies, which include: Self-monitoring. These strategies allow the reader to confirm whether he is reading the story accurately. Readers who are reading accurately are consistently using using meaning, structure, and visual information for confirm their reading. This is not a conscious process, but the internal system tells them whether the reading makes sense, sounds right, and looks right. Self-monitoring. These strategies allow the reader to confirm whether he is reading the story accurately. Readers who are reading accurately are consistently using using meaning, structure, and visual information for confirm their reading. This is not a conscious process, but the internal system tells them whether the reading makes sense, sounds right, and looks right. Searching. Searching is an active process in which the reader looks for information that will assist problem solving in some way. Readers search for and use all kinds of information sources, including meaning, visual information, and their knowledge of syntax of language. Searching. Searching is an active process in which the reader looks for information that will assist problem solving in some way. Readers search for and use all kinds of information sources, including meaning, visual information, and their knowledge of syntax of language. Self-correcting. This is the reader's ability to notice mismatches, search for further accomplishes a precise fit with the information already known Self-correcting. This is the reader's ability to notice mismatches, search for further accomplishes a precise fit with the information already known

42 Teaching for Strategies Strategies are cognitive actions initiated by the reader to construct meaning from the text. We cannot observe (i.e., in-the-head processes), but we can collect evidence of reading behavior that indicates a child is engaging in mental problem-solving, Children who are employing strategies as they read are engaged in what Clay (1991) refers to as "reading work." From Clay's research with young readers, we know that effective readers are constantly Strategies are cognitive actions initiated by the reader to construct meaning from the text. We cannot observe (i.e., in-the-head processes), but we can collect evidence of reading behavior that indicates a child is engaging in mental problem-solving, Children who are employing strategies as they read are engaged in what Clay (1991) refers to as "reading work." From Clay's research with young readers, we know that effective readers are constantly Predicting upcoming actions. Predicting upcoming actions. Using pictures to support meaning. Using pictures to support meaning. Anticipating language structures. Anticipating language structures. Making links to their own personal knowledge. Making links to their own personal knowledge. Monitoring by rereading. Monitoring by rereading. Cross-checking one source of information with another. Cross-checking one source of information with another. Searching to extract further information with another. Searching to extract further information with another. Correcting themselves when cues do not match. Correcting themselves when cues do not match. Reading fluently and expressively. Reading fluently and expressively. Problem-solving flexibility according to different purposes and changing contexts Problem-solving flexibility according to different purposes and changing contexts

43 All of these processes are brought into play efficiently and automatically by the strategic reader. However, the low-process reader has developed a processing system that is either ineffective or inefficient. In planning the child's literacy program it is critical that the teacher observe and take notice of which strategic operations the child is initiating and which ones she or he is neglecting. All of these processes are brought into play efficiently and automatically by the strategic reader. However, the low-process reader has developed a processing system that is either ineffective or inefficient. In planning the child's literacy program it is critical that the teacher observe and take notice of which strategic operations the child is initiating and which ones she or he is neglecting. To examine strategic use, the teacher will analyze the running record and look closely at cues that were used or ignored by the reader (see Clay's [1993] Observational Survey for how to use running records; also Johnston 1992). The teacher must determine whether the child employed a strategy to help her actively make predictions based on other information. To that end the teacher examines the running record for evidence of what the child did at the point of difficulty: To examine strategic use, the teacher will analyze the running record and look closely at cues that were used or ignored by the reader (see Clay's [1993] Observational Survey for how to use running records; also Johnston 1992). The teacher must determine whether the child employed a strategy to help her actively make predictions based on other information. To that end the teacher examines the running record for evidence of what the child did at the point of difficulty: Did the child stop at an unknown word and make no attempt? Did the child stop at an unknown word and make no attempt? Did the child appeal for help? Did the child appeal for help? Did the child reread to gather more information? Did the child reread to gather more information? Did the child articulate the first letter of the problem word? Did the child articulate the first letter of the problem word? Was the child using meaning cues (semantics), structural cues (syntax), visual cues (graphophonics), or some combination of these? Was the child using meaning cues (semantics), structural cues (syntax), visual cues (graphophonics), or some combination of these?

44 Important Reading Strategies for Beginning Readers Early Strategies Directional movement Directional movement One-to-one matching One-to-one matching Locating known words in text Locating known words in text Locating unknown words in text Locating unknown words in text Higher level strategies Use or multiple cue system Meaning (semantic) Meaning (semantic) Structure (syntactic) Structure (syntactic) Visual (graphophonic) Visual (graphophonic) Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring Self-Correcting Self-Correcting

45 Prompts to Support the Use of Strategies To support the control of early reading behaviors: To support the control of early reading behaviors: Read it with your finger. Read it with your finger. Did you have enough (or too many) words? Did you have enough (or too many) words? Did it match? Did it match? Were there enough words? Were there enough words? Did you run out of words? Did you run out of words? Try ___. Would that make sense? Try ___. Would that make sense? Try ___. Would that sound right? Try ___. Would that sound right? Do you think it looks like ___? Do you think it looks like ___? Can you find ___? (a known or new word) Can you find ___? (a known or new word) Read that again and start the word. Read that again and start the word.

46 Prompts to Support the Use of Strategies To support the reader's use of all sources of information: To support the reader's use of all sources of information: Check the picture. Check the picture. Does that makes sense? Does that look right? Does that makes sense? Does that look right? Does that sound right? Does that sound right? You said (....). Can we say it that way? You said (....). Can we say it that way? You said (....). Does that make sense? You said (....). Does that make sense? What's wrong with this? (repeat what the child said) What's wrong with this? (repeat what the child said) Try that again and try to think what would make sense. Try that again and try to think what would make sense. Try that again and think what would sound right. Try that again and think what would sound right. Do you know a word like that? Do you know a word like that? Do you know a word that starts with those letters? Do you know a word that starts with those letters? What could you try? What could you try? Do you know that might help? Do you know that might help? What can you do to help yourself? What can you do to help yourself?

47 Prompts to Support the Use of Strategies To support the reader's self-correction behavior: To support the reader's self-correction behavior: Something wasn't quite right. Something wasn't quite right. Try that again. Try that again. I liked the way you worked that out. I liked the way you worked that out. You made a mistake. Can you find it? You made a mistake. Can you find it? You're nearly right. Try that again. You're nearly right. Try that again.

48 Prompts to Support the Use of Strategies To support phrased, fluent reading: To support phrased, fluent reading: Can you read this quickly? Can you read this quickly? Put your words together so it sounds like talking. Put your words together so it sounds like talking.

49 The goal is for children eventually to consider these questions themselves as they use all sources of information in an integrated way to read with phrasing and fluency. The teacher needs to learn to prompt with just the right amount of support. As the child gains more strategic control, the teacher's level of support will lessen. This change over time will enable the child to take over the processing for himself. The goal is for children eventually to consider these questions themselves as they use all sources of information in an integrated way to read with phrasing and fluency. The teacher needs to learn to prompt with just the right amount of support. As the child gains more strategic control, the teacher's level of support will lessen. This change over time will enable the child to take over the processing for himself.

50 Prompts to Support the Use of Strategies To support the reader's use of self-monitoring or checking behavior: To support the reader's use of self-monitoring or checking behavior: Were you right? Were you right? Where's the tricky word? (after an error) Where's the tricky word? (after an error) What did you notice? (after a hesitation or stop) What did you notice? (after a hesitation or stop) What's wrong? What's wrong? Why did you stop? Why did you stop? What letter would you expect to see at the beginning? at the end? What letter would you expect to see at the beginning? at the end? Would ___ fit there? Would ___ fit there? Would ___ make sense? Would ___ make sense? Do you think it looks like ___? Do you think it looks like ___? Could it be ___? Could it be ___? It could be ___, but look at ___. It could be ___, but look at ___. Check it. Does it look right and sound right to you? Check it. Does it look right and sound right to you? You almost got that. See if you can find out what is wrong. You almost got that. See if you can find out what is wrong. Try that again. Try that again.


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