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Critical Thinking -Introduction -The Elements of Thought - The Standards.

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1 Critical Thinking -Introduction -The Elements of Thought - The Standards

2 “ He had learned how to pass examinations by ‘ cramming ’ ; that is, in three or four days and nights he could get into his head enough of a selected fragment of some scientific or philosophical or literary or linguistic subject to reply plausibly to six questions out of ten. He could retain the information necessary for such a feat just long enough to give a successful performance; then it would evaporate utterly from his brain, and leave him undisturbed. ” From the Magnificent Ambersons by Booth Tarkington (1918)


4 Critical Thinking 1. Can you give me an example? 2. Do you have any evidence of..? 3. Can you be more specific about or clarify … ? 4. How does this relate to your point? 5. Is there another way you can look at that? 6. Does that really make sense?

5 THE STANDARDS ClarityPrecision AccuracySignificance RelevanceCompleteness LogicFairness BreadthDepth THE ELEMENTS PurposeQuestion Points of ViewInferences ConceptsImplications AssumptionsInformation INTELLECTUAL TRAITS Intellectual HumilityIntellectual Perseverance Intellectual AutonomyConfidence in Reason Intellectual IntegrityIntellectual Empathy Intellectual CourageFairmindedness Must be applied to As we learn to develop

6 Information -observations -experiences -data,facts Elements of Thought Purpose -goal -objective Question -problem -issue Interpretation & Inference -conclusions -solutions Point of View -frame of reference -perspective Implications & Consequences Assumptions -presuppositions -taking for granted Concepts -theories -definitions -laws -principles -models

7 Intellectual Standards Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Understandable, meaning can be grasped Free from errors or distortions Consistent, exact to the necessary detail Relating to the matter at hand Containing complexities and inter-relationships

8 Intellectual Standards Breadth Logic Significance Fairness Encompassing multiple viewpoints The parts make sense together with no contradictions Focusing on the important, not the trivial Justifiable, not self-serving

9 Elements of Thought -clarity -significance -precision -clarity -precision -significance -relevance -logic -relevance -fairness -clarity -breadth -relevance -significance -logic -precision - clarity -logic -significance -fairness -clarity -relevance -depth -accuracy -clarity -accuracy -relevance -fairness Interpretation & Inference Information Question Purpose Point of View Implications & Consequences Assumptions Concepts

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