Presentation on theme: "CSI315 Lecture 1 WEEK 1. The Internet A world-wide network of millions of computers connected to share information and communication. The interconnected."— Presentation transcript:
The Internet A world-wide network of millions of computers connected to share information and communication. The interconnected computers allow information transfer based on standardized protocols. Internet computers are connected to each other by telecommunications links. Internet is not a single network, but a collection of networks that are connected to each other.
Internet History Late 1960’s, US Defence network. Funded ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) of the DOD. Objectives: To network main computers of ARPA funded projects in universities and research institutes ARPAnet: allow multiple users to communicate simultaneously over the same communication paths Using packet switching technique No centralized Control Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) adopted later TCP/IP Internetworking Protocol
FACTS ABOUT THE INTERNET Developed in 1960’s from just a few to millions of connections today. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. No one is in charge of the Internet There exists organizations which develop technical aspects and set standards for creating applications TCP/IP is an agreed upon standard for computer communication over Internet. The Internet uses the client-server model
Internet Technologies The Internet Backbone Communication protocols Communication Software Telecommunication Hardware
The Backbone Internet Backbone: A major set of computers on the internet Structured hierarchically, comprising three main levels of participants: –End users( bottom) –ISP Internet Service Providers (middle) –IBP Internet Backbone Providers /Network Service Providers (top)
Network Service Providers: Owns and maintain routings at (Network Access Point),NAP a point on the Internet where several connections converge. Own high speed and high capacity networks to provide global access and interconnectivity Sell wholesale internet connectivity services to ISP’s e.g. AT&T, BT. Internet Service Providers: Provide individuals, busiss, organization access to the internet) Re-Sell or add value to and sell new services to customers e.g AOL, UUNET, Mega, Botsnet, BBi (Broadband Botswana), Infotec Botswana End Users: Include Residential, Business, Orgs
Communication Protocols A set of rules that every computer follows to transfer information: Most widely used on the internet: TCP/IP-primary http-movement of info over the web ftp-transfering files btwn computers PPP-for direct connection btwn computers
Communications Software Connectivity Software: helps connect to your ISP, standard in most computers Web Browser Software: Netscape, Intert Ex. BTInert, AOL Email Software: Outlook express,
Telecommunication hardware Direct Network connection. Internet point A telephone modem Digital Subsrciber Line: Cable modem Sattellite modem
How does the Internet Work The following concepts make the Internet work Internet Protocols Client-Server Computing Internet Adressing
Internet Protocols TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A universal language that makes it possible to send information between computers regardless of their location or platform
Client-Server Computing Servers: Computers that provide services by over the internet. They are usually called hosts. Main types Include, Web Server, Mail Server, FTP Server IRC, server, UseNet Server Clients: Computers that request and receive information from the servers
Internet Addressing Every Computer on the Internet has unique address( IP address) IP addresses are translated into a domain name 184.108.40.206 debian.mopipi.bw (IP address)(Domain name)
Intranets and Extranets Intranets: A network inside an organization that uses Internet technologies to provide Internet-like environment for information sharing, communications, collaboration and support of business processes. It is protected by security measures and accessed by authorized users through the internet
Extranets Network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of a business with the intranets of its customers
USES OF THE INTERNET WORLD WIDE WEB E-MAIL TELNET FTP E-MAIL DISCUSSION GROUPS USENET NEWS FAQ, RFC, FYI CHAT & INSTANT MESSAGING
USES OF THE INTERNET WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW OR WEB) A system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Internet protocols are sets of rules that allow for inter-machine communication on the Internet Hypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documents.
Facts about the WWW 1989 : Tim Berners-Lee invented it for internal use at CERN (European Lab for Particle Physics) a protocol (http) for document transfer a language (html) for document layout, including embedded links to other documents, on that server or any other links to other media...graphics, sound..
The WWW vs Internet The web is not synonymous with the internet, though some people may think so. Actually, the web is one way to utilize the infrastructure of the internet. In other words, the web is a subset of the internet.
USES OF THE INTERNET Ctnd Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. To telnet to a computer, you must know its address. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers.
USES OF THE INTERNET E-MAIL DISCUSSION GROUPS: The Internet is home to a large community of individuals who carry out active discussions organized around topic-oriented forums distributed by e-mail. These are administered by software programs. Usenet News is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on a vast range of topics Usenet messages are stored on central computers, and users must connect to these computers to read or download the messages posted to these groups.
USES OF THE INTERNET FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions RFC stands for Request for Comments. FYI stands for For Your Information. CHAT & INSTANT MESSAGING: Allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. They are sometimes included as a feature of a Web site, where users can log into the "chat room" to exchange comments and information about various topics e.g Internet Relay Chat (IRC)