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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 15 Understanding Securities and Investments
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–2 Key Topics Primary and secondary securities markets Common and preferred stock Various types of bonds Mutual funds and commodities Buying and selling securities Regulation of securities markets
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–3 Securities: Stocks and Bonds Stocks and bonds represent secured, or asset-based, claims by investors against issuers. Holders of stocks and bonds have a stake in the company that issued them. Stocks: An ownership stake Bonds: A financial stake Primary Securities Market New stocks and bonds are sold by firms and governments “private placements” Investment bank: financial institution that helps issue and resell new securities. Secondary Securities Market Market in which stocks and bonds are traded
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–4 Investment Banks Help Bring New Securities to the Market They advise companies on the timing and financial terms of new issues. They underwrite—or buy—new securities, bearing some of the risks of issuing them. They distribute new securities through banks and brokers to individual investors.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–5 Common Stock: High Risk, High Potential Return Why own common stock? Increase in value (capital gain) and (potential) dividends Par Value The face value of a share of stock at the time it is originally issued Market Value The current price of a share in the stock market Book Value Stockholder’s equity divided by the number of shares
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–6 Blue Chip Stocks : A Changing Perspective? “Old” Economy Established firm Sound financial history Stable pattern of dividends “New” Economy Rapid growth in market value
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–7 Preferred Stock: Lower Risk, Lower Potential Return Fixed dividend First claim on assets No voting rights
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–8 Stock Exchanges: Institutional Settings for Trading Stocks Stock exchange is an organization formed to provide an institutional setting in which stocks can be traded. There are a limited number of memberships on the exchange There is a trading floor Brokers: receive and execute buy and sell orders for other people in return for a commission Full service brokers Discount brokers On-line trading
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–9 The Major Exchanges and the OTC Market NYSE, London, Tokyo, Frankfurt, Shanghai etc. Over-the-counter market (OTC): has no trading floor and simply consists of many people in different locations linked by electronic communications. E.g. NASDAQ
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–10 Bonds Represent a promise by the issuer to pay the buyer a certain amount of money by a specified future date. Government Bonds: long-term or short-term Corporate Bonds: long-term funding for companies Nearly all secondary trading in bonds occurs in the OTC market.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–11 Bond Rating Systems Table 15–1
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–12 Mutual Funds: Company that pools investments from individuals to purchase a portfolio of stocks and bonds goal: diversification, asset allocation, risk reduction Source: Stock Fund Inflows Plunge 90% in 2001, Los Angeles Times, C1, January 31, 2002
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–13 Bull and Bear Markets Figure 15–5
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–14 Market index: summary of price trends in a specific industry or the whole market: E.g., Dow Jones Industrial Average, IMKB -100, S&P 500 etc. Market Indexes
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–15 Investing in the Securities Markets Placing Orders Market Order Limit Order Stop Order Round Lot Odd Lot Financing Choices Margin Trading: borrow money from broker Short Sales: borrow stock from broker High risk alert!
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–16 Securities Market Regulation Self-Regulation Circuit breakers due to heavy program trading. Securities and Exchange Commission Prospectuses Insider trading: illegal practice of using special knowledge about a firm for profit
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.15–17 Chapter Review Explain the difference between primary and secondary securities markets. Discuss common and preferred stock. Distinguish among the various types of bonds. Describe mutual funds and commodities. Explain the buying and selling process for securities. Explain securities market regulation.
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© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–1 Chapter 16 Securities and Investments.
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Key Terms from the World of Finance. Key Terms AMEX – Stands for American Stock Exchange. Located in New York City, this stock exchange sells memberships,
Investing: Taking Risks With Your Savings. Stocks are also known as securities As proof of ownership, you get a stock certificate Stocks What are they?
Investment Vocabulary. Appreciation O An increase in the basic value of an investment.
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