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Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science

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Presentation on theme: "Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science
Richard Kenway

2 discovery science e-science = searching for the unknown in vast amounts of data

3 electronic ‘needle in a haystack’
to find the Higgs boson and explain where mass comes from and … are not enough you need to build a Grid

4 LHC computing challenge
assumes PC = ~ 25 SpecInt95 ~PByte/sec Online System ~100 MByte/sec Offline Farm ~20,000 PCs one bunch crossing per 25 ns 100 triggers per second each event is ~1 MByte ~100 MByte/sec Tier 0 CERN Computer Centre >20,000 PCs ~ Gbit/sec or Air Freight HPSS Tier 1 US Regional Centre Italian Regional Centre French Regional Centre RAL Regional Centre HPSS HPSS HPSS HPSS Tier 2 ScotGRID++ ~1000 PCs Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs ~Gbit/sec Tier 3 Institute ~200 PCs Institute Institute Institute physicists work on analysis “channels” each institute has ~10 physicists working on one or more channels data for these channels is cached by the institute server Physics data cache Mbit/sec Tier 4 Workstations

5 the web on steroids 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented the web
so physicists around the world could share documents 1999: Grids add to the web computing power data management big instruments (eventually) sensors

6 a new global infrastructure
information on demand - like power from a socket sensor nets data archives computers software colleagues instruments the Grid is an emergent infrastructure to deliver dependable, pervasive and uniform access to globally distributed, dynamic and heterogeneous resources problems of scalability, interoperability, fault tolerance, resource management and security

7 underpinning technology

8 why now? for 50 years, we have been riding the crest of a IT wave and
3.5 million users 22 teraflops for 50 years, we have been riding the crest of a IT wave building vast untapped global resources hundreds of millions of (mostly) idle PCs and big science is facing a data tsunami

9 increase in MIPS per chip
1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 MIPS/chip MIPS - Millions of instructions per second *Pentium, 286, 386 and 486 are registered trademarks of Intel Corp. Year 286* 386* 486* Pentium* Pentium Pro P8 P7 (Merced) P12 microprocessor speeds double every 18 months (Moore’s Law)

10 internet hosts (million) actual and projected network capacity doubles
Jul-95 Jul-96 Jul-97 Jul-98 Jul-99 Jul-00 Jul-01 Jul-02 Jul-03 Source: ITU “Challenges to the Network: Internet for Development, 1999” Internet Software Consortium (, RIPE ( (million) actual and projected 8.2 16.7 26.1 36.7 56.2 85 120 150 180 network capacity doubles every 9 months

11 fixed lines, mobile phones & internet users
millions 1,200 1,000 800 600 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 note: columns show actual and projected users at end of year source: ITU 400 200 2001 2002 2003 fixed-line telephones mobile phones estimated Internet users

12 Quality of Service on the internet
aim to distinguish types of traffic high priority fast lanes low priority slow lanes hard to configure intersim simulation tool detailed model of network understand and validate configurations EPCC + Cisco Systems

13 Grid applications

14 whole-system simulations
braking performance steering capabilities traction dampening capabilities landing gear models lift capabilities drag capabilities responsiveness wing models deflection capabilities stabilizer models airframe models crew capabilities - accuracy - perception - stamina - reaction times - SOP’s human models thrust performance reverse thrust performance fuel consumption engine models NASA Information Power Grid: coupling all sub-system simulations

15 global in-flight engine diagnostics
in-flight data airline maintenance centre ground station global network eg SITA internet, , pager DS&S Engine Health Center data centre Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment: Universities of Leeds, Oxford, Sheffield &York

16 National Airspace Simulation Environment
Virtual National Air Space VNAS GRC engine models LaRC airframe models landing gear models ARC wing models stabilizer models human models FAA ops data weather data airline schedule data digital flight data radar tracks terrain data surface data 22,000 commercial US flights a day 50,000 engine runs 22,000 airframe impact runs 132,000 landing/ take-off gear runs 48,000 human crew runs 66,000 stabilizer runs 44,000 wing runs simulation drivers NASA Information Power Grid: aircraft, flight paths, airport operations and the environment are combined to get a virtual national airspace

17 from genome to function
gene expression as an embryo develops EPCC MouseGrid: optical tomography image reconstruction in real time

18 digital radiology on the Grid
28 petabytes/year for 2000 hospitals must satisfy privacy laws University of Pennsylvania

19 emergency response teams
bring sensors, data, simulations and experts together wildfire: predict movement of fire & direct fire-fighters also earthquakes, peacekeeping forces, battlefields,… National Earthquake Simulation Grid Los Alamos National Laboratory: wildfire

20 Earth observation ENVISAT ground deformation prior to a volcano
€ 3.5 billion 400 terabytes/year 700 users ground deformation prior to a volcano

21 Grid development

22 data, information and knowledge
virtual data …from the grid from a database somewhere computed on request measured on request automated knowledge …from computer science data: un-interpreted bits and bytes information: data equipped with meaning knowledge: information applied to solve a problem

23 three layer Grid abstraction
Knowledge Grid Data to Knowledge Control Information Grid Computation/ Data Grid

24 the Grid as an evolving concept
enabler for transient ‘virtual organisations’ anatomy: a software infrastructure that enables flexible, secure, co-ordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions and resources Foster, Kesselman & Tuecke (2001) evolution of and integration with web services physiology: everything is a Grid service ie a service that conforms to a set of conventions for management and exchanging messages Foster, Kesselman, Nick & Tuecke (2002) Global Grid Forum: define a standard Grid architecture big business and big science working together

25 e-science in Scotland

26 UK e-Science programme
‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.’ ‘e-Science will change the dynamic of the way science is undertaken.’ John Taylor Director General of Research Councils Office of Science and Technology

27 Academic Application Support £80m Collaborative projects
UK e-Science funding DG Research Councils Grid TAG E-Science Steering Committee Director Director’s Awareness and Co-ordination Role Director’s Management Role Generic Challenges EPSRC (£15m), DTI (£15m) Academic Application Support Programme Research Councils (£74m), DTI (£5m) PPARC (£26m) BBSRC (£8m) MRC (£8m) NERC (£7m) ESRC (£3m) EPSRC (£17m) CLRC (£5m) £80m Collaborative projects Industrial Collaboration (£40m)

28 UK e-science centres AccessGrid always-on video walls Edinburgh
Glasgow DL Newcastle AccessGrid always-on video walls Belfast Manchester Cambridge Oxford RAL Hinxton Cardiff London Soton

29 National e-Science Centre
Edinburgh + Glasgow Universities Physics & Astronomy  2 Informatics, Computing Science EPCC £6M EPSRC/DTI + £2M SHEFC over 3 years e-Science Institute visitors, workshops, co-ordination, outreach middleware development 50 : 50 industry : academia ‘last-mile’ networking

30 data, data everywhere… globally distributed heterogeneous databases are growing very fast science is at the frontier commerce, healthcare, entertainment are not far behind Scottish e-Data Information & Knowledge Transformation Centre (eDIKT) proposal to SHEFC for a centre to develop scalable database tools astronomy, bioinformatics, geophysics, particle physics & commerce

31 Scotland at the frontier… leading
UK core e-science data integration linked to US Globus UK GridPP + ScotGrid particle physics data analysis linked to EU DataGrid UK AstroGrid virtual observatory linked to EU AVO EU enacts + GRIDSTART supercomputer centres EU grid projects

32 Scotland at the frontier… participating
EU DataGrid: particle physics, biology & medical imaging, Earth observation DARPA US DARPA Control of Agent-Based Systems Grid: multinational military operations UK RealityGrid: interactively couple experiments, simulations and visualisation over 100 scientists engaged in grid development by the end of 2002

33 imagine a political party reception…

34 the leader enters…

35 a rumour is started…

36 and propagates across the room

37 another technological revolution is underway
from little acorns… “ It is worth noting that an essential feature of the type of theory which has been described in this note is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of scalar and vector bosons. ” Peter Higgs (1964) “ … a billion people interacting with a million e-businesses with a trillion intelligent devices interconnected ” Lou Gerstner, IBM (2000) another technological revolution is underway

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