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Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science Richard Kenway.

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Presentation on theme: "Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science Richard Kenway."— Presentation transcript:

1 Edinburgh - at the Frontiers of e-Science Richard Kenway

2 e-science = searching for the unknown discovery science in vast amounts of data

3 electronic needle in a haystack to find the Higgs boson –and explain where mass comes from to find the Higgs boson –and explain where mass comes from you need to build a Grid and … are not enough

4 LHC computing challenge Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs Online System Offline Farm ~20,000 PCs CERN Computer Centre >20,000 PCs RAL Regional Centre US Regional Centre French Regional Centre Italian Regional Centre Institute Institute ~200 PCs Workstations ~100 MByte/sec 100 - 1000 Mbit/sec one bunch crossing per 25 ns 100 triggers per second each event is ~1 MByte physicists work on analysis channels each institute has ~10 physicists working on one or more channels data for these channels is cached by the institute server Physics data cache ~PByte/sec ~ Gbit/sec or Air Freight Tier2 Centre ~1000 PCs ~Gbit/sec Tier 0 Tier 1 Tier 3 Tier 4 assumes PC = ~ 25 SpecInt95 ScotGRID++ ~1000 PCs Tier 2

5 the web on steroids 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented the web –so physicists around the world could share documents 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented the web –so physicists around the world could share documents 1999: Grids add to the web –computing power –data management –big instruments –(eventually) sensors 1999: Grids add to the web –computing power –data management –big instruments –(eventually) sensors

6 a new global infrastructure the Grid is an emergent infrastructure to deliver dependable, pervasive and uniform access to globally distributed, dynamic and heterogeneous resources problems of scalability, interoperability, fault tolerance, resource management and security the Grid is an emergent infrastructure to deliver dependable, pervasive and uniform access to globally distributed, dynamic and heterogeneous resources problems of scalability, interoperability, fault tolerance, resource management and security sensor nets data archives computers software colleagues instruments information on demand - like power from a socket

7 underpinning technology

8 why now? for 50 years, we have been riding the crest of a IT wave –building vast untapped global resources –hundreds of millions of (mostly) idle PCs for 50 years, we have been riding the crest of a IT wave –building vast untapped global resources –hundreds of millions of (mostly) idle PCs big science is facing a data tsunami and 3.5 million users 22 teraflops

9 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 1 0 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 MIPS/chip MIPS - Millions of instructions per second *Pentium, 286, 386 and 486 are registered trademarks of Intel Corp. MIPS - Millions of instructions per second *Pentium, 286, 386 and 486 are registered trademarks of Intel Corp. Year increase in MIPS per chip 286* 386* 486* Pentium* Pentium Pro P8 P7 (Merced) P12 microprocessor speeds double every 18 months (Moores Law)

10 Jul-95 Jul-96 Jul-97 Jul-98 Jul-99 Jul-00 Jul-01 Jul-02 Jul-03 Source: ITU Challenges to the Network: Internet for Development, 1999 Internet Software Consortium (www.isc.org), RIPE (www.ripe.net) Source: ITU Challenges to the Network: Internet for Development, 1999 Internet Software Consortium (www.isc.org), RIPE (www.ripe.net) (million) actual and projected internet hosts 8.2 16.7 26.1 36.7 56.2 85 120 150 180 network capacity doubles every 9 months

11 1,200 1,000 800 600 0 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 note: columns show actual and projected users at end of year source: ITU note: columns show actual and projected users at end of year source: ITU 400 200 2001 2002 2003 fixed lines, mobile phones & internet users fixed-line telephones estimated Internet users mobile phones millions

12 Quality of Service on the internet aim to distinguish types of traffic –high priority fast lanes –low priority slow lanes hard to configure intersim simulation tool –detailed model of network –understand and validate configurations aim to distinguish types of traffic –high priority fast lanes –low priority slow lanes hard to configure intersim simulation tool –detailed model of network –understand and validate configurations EPCC + Cisco Systems

13 Grid applications

14 whole-system simulations braking performance steering capabilities traction dampening capabilities landing gear models lift capabilities drag capabilities responsiveness wing models deflection capabilities responsiveness stabilizer models airframe models crew capabilities - accuracy - perception - stamina - reaction times - SOPs human models thrust performance reverse thrust performance responsiveness fuel consumption engine models NASA Information Power Grid: coupling all sub-system simulations

15 global in-flight engine diagnostics in-flight data airline maintenance centre ground station global network eg SITA internet, e-mail, pager DS&S Engine Health Center data centre Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment: Universities of Leeds, Oxford, Sheffield &York

16 National Airspace Simulation Environment NASA Information Power Grid: aircraft, flight paths, airport operations and the environment are combined to get a virtual national airspace Virtual National Air Space VNAS GRC engine models LaRC airframe models landing gear models ARC wing models stabilizer models human models FAA ops data weather data airline schedule data digital flight data radar tracks terrain data surface data 22,000 commercial US flights a day 50,000 engine runs 22,000 airframe impact runs 132,000 landing/ take-off gear runs 48,000 human crew runs 66,000 stabilizer runs 44,000 wing runs simulation drivers

17 from genome to function gene expression as an embryo develops EPCC MouseGrid: optical tomography image reconstruction in real time

18 digital radiology on the Grid 28 petabytes/year for 2000 hospitals must satisfy privacy laws 28 petabytes/year for 2000 hospitals must satisfy privacy laws University of Pennsylvania

19 emergency response teams bring sensors, data, simulations and experts together –wildfire: predict movement of fire & direct fire-fighters –also earthquakes, peacekeeping forces, battlefields,… bring sensors, data, simulations and experts together –wildfire: predict movement of fire & direct fire-fighters –also earthquakes, peacekeeping forces, battlefields,… Los Alamos National Laboratory: wildfireNational Earthquake Simulation Grid

20 Earth observation ENVISAT – 3.5 billion –400 terabytes/year –700 users ENVISAT – 3.5 billion –400 terabytes/year –700 users ground deformation prior to a volcano

21 Grid development

22 data, information and knowledge virtual data …from the grid –from a database somewhere –computed on request –measured on request automated knowledge …from computer science –data: un-interpreted bits and bytes –information: data equipped with meaning –knowledge: information applied to solve a problem virtual data …from the grid –from a database somewhere –computed on request –measured on request automated knowledge …from computer science –data: un-interpreted bits and bytes –information: data equipped with meaning –knowledge: information applied to solve a problem

23 three layer Grid abstraction Information Grid Knowledge Grid Computation/ Data Grid Computation/ Data Grid Data to Knowledge Data to Knowledge Control

24 the Grid as an evolving concept enabler for transient virtual organisations anatomy: a software infrastructure that enables flexible, secure, co-ordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions and resources –Foster, Kesselman & Tuecke (2001) evolution of and integration with web services physiology: everything is a Grid service ie a service that conforms to a set of conventions for management and exchanging messages –Foster, Kesselman, Nick & Tuecke (2002) Global Grid Forum: define a standard Grid architecture –big business and big science working together enabler for transient virtual organisations anatomy: a software infrastructure that enables flexible, secure, co-ordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions and resources –Foster, Kesselman & Tuecke (2001) evolution of and integration with web services physiology: everything is a Grid service ie a service that conforms to a set of conventions for management and exchanging messages –Foster, Kesselman, Nick & Tuecke (2002) Global Grid Forum: define a standard Grid architecture –big business and big science working together

25 e-science in Scotland

26 UK e-Science programme e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it. e-Science will change the dynamic of the way science is undertaken. John Taylor Director General of Research Councils Office of Science and Technology e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it. e-Science will change the dynamic of the way science is undertaken. John Taylor Director General of Research Councils Office of Science and Technology

27 £80m Collaborative projects E-Science Steering Committee DG Research Councils Director Directors Management Role Directors Awareness and Co-ordination Role Generic Challenges EPSRC (£15m), DTI (£15m) Industrial Collaboration (£40m) Academic Application Support Programme Research Councils (£74m), DTI (£5m) PPARC (£26m) BBSRC (£8m) MRC (£8m) NERC (£7m) ESRC (£3m) EPSRC (£17m) CLRC (£5m) Grid TAG UK e-Science funding

28 Cambridge Newcastle Edinburgh Oxford Glasgow Manchester Cardiff Soton London Belfast DL RAL Hinxton UK e-science centres AccessGrid always-on video walls

29 National e-Science Centre Edinburgh + Glasgow Universities –Physics & Astronomy 2 –Informatics, Computing Science –EPCC £6M EPSRC/DTI + £2M SHEFC over 3 years Edinburgh + Glasgow Universities –Physics & Astronomy 2 –Informatics, Computing Science –EPCC £6M EPSRC/DTI + £2M SHEFC over 3 years www.nesc.ac.uk e-Science Institute –visitors, workshops, co-ordination, outreach middleware development –50 : 50 industry : academia last-mile networking e-Science Institute –visitors, workshops, co-ordination, outreach middleware development –50 : 50 industry : academia last-mile networking

30 data, data everywhere… Scottish e-Data Information & Knowledge Transformation Centre (eDIKT) –proposal to SHEFC for a centre to develop scalable database tools –astronomy, bioinformatics, geophysics, particle physics & commerce Scottish e-Data Information & Knowledge Transformation Centre (eDIKT) –proposal to SHEFC for a centre to develop scalable database tools –astronomy, bioinformatics, geophysics, particle physics & commerce globally distributed heterogeneous databases are growing very fast –science is at the frontier –commerce, healthcare, entertainment are not far behind globally distributed heterogeneous databases are growing very fast –science is at the frontier –commerce, healthcare, entertainment are not far behind

31 Scotland at the frontier… leading UK AstroGrid –virtual observatory –linked to EU AVO UK AstroGrid –virtual observatory –linked to EU AVO UK GridPP + ScotGrid –particle physics data analysis –linked to EU DataGrid UK GridPP + ScotGrid –particle physics data analysis –linked to EU DataGrid UK core e-science –data integration –linked to US Globus UK core e-science –data integration –linked to US Globus EU enacts + GRIDSTART –supercomputer centres –EU grid projects EU enacts + GRIDSTART –supercomputer centres –EU grid projects

32 Scotland at the frontier… participating EU DataGrid: particle physics, biology & medical imaging, Earth observation over 100 scientists engaged in grid development by the end of 2002 US DARPA Control of Agent- Based Systems Grid: multinational military operations UK RealityGrid: interactively couple experiments, simulations and visualisation DARPA

33 imagine a political party reception…

34 the leader enters…

35 a rumour is started…

36 and propagates across the room

37 from little acorns… … a billion people interacting with a million e-businesses with a trillion intelligent devices interconnected Lou Gerstner, IBM (2000) … a billion people interacting with a million e-businesses with a trillion intelligent devices interconnected Lou Gerstner, IBM (2000) It is worth noting that an essential feature of the type of theory which has been described in this note is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of scalar and vector bosons. Peter Higgs (1964) It is worth noting that an essential feature of the type of theory which has been described in this note is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of scalar and vector bosons. Peter Higgs (1964) another technological revolution is underway


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