Information DATA: facts that are needed to operate a business. INFORMATION: data organized into a form needed by an application. INFORMATION SYSTEM: hardware, software and procedures that maintain data and convert it into usable information.
Information System l An information system (IS) collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose. Like any other system, an information system includes inputs (data, instructions) and outputs (reports, calculations). It processes the inputs by using technology such as PCs and produces outputs that are sent to users or to other systems via electronic networks and a feedback mechanism that controls the operation.
Computer Based Information System l Hardware l Software l Data l Network l Procedures l People Hardware Software People Data Application More than hardware and software
Information System – Primary Purpose l Data »Elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored, but not organized to convey any specific meeting l Information »Data that has been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient l Knowledge »Information that has been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience and expertise as they apply to a current problem or activity Collects data, processes it into information then converts information into knowledge for a specific purpose.
Information System - Classification By Support Function Executive Support System Management Information System Decision Support System Intelligent Support Systems Knowledge Management System Office Automation System Transaction Processing System 5-year sales trend Profit Planning 5-year budget forecasting Product development Sales Management Inventory Control Annual budget Production Scheduling Cost Analysis Pricing Analysis Simulation Pgm coding System support Word Processing Desktop Publishing Order Processing Fulfillment Material Movement A/R, A/P, GL Payroll POS
Functions of an Information System Collect Process Store Retrieve Analyze Disseminate = Type I Type II =
Information Architectures Type I Systems Transaction based systems with many low value operations Type II Systems Decision enhancing system with few high value operations
Fundamental Issues l Impacts of Technology l Hardware and Architectures l System Development »Data »Process »Network l Management of Technology l Strategic Evolution
Systems Approach Components that work together for a common goal. l Fundamental components Objects Relationships BoundariesLevels l IPO Model InputProcess Output
Development Approaches l Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) l Prototyping l Purchasing l Outsourcing
Competitive Environment Global Economy New Economics Complex Environment Business alliances Decreased budgets Constant change
Organization and Management Changes Improvement Programs: Business Process Reengineering Total Quality Management Outsourcing Just in Time Processes Time to Market Reduction Empowerment of Employees & Collaborative Work Customer-Focused Approach Improved Productivity
Trends in Information Technology l Cost-Performance Improvement Moore’s Law l Information Superhighway l Data Warehousing and Data Mining l Networked Computers and Client/Server Architecture l User Friendly Interfaces (GUI, etc.) l Storage and Memories l Multimedia l Object-Oriented Environments l Emerging Technologies l Compactness and Portability
Issues l Avoiding failures l Recognizing IT Opportunities l Placing Ownership of the IT Components