Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Passive Transport Movement of water through a semi- permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration. ?????
Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Passive Transport –??? Movement of particles through a cell membrane by means of a transport protein. Down the concentration gradient Does NOT require energy.
Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane ??? –“Cell eating” –A cell takes in macromolecules or other substances when regions of the plasma membrane surround the substance, pinch off, and form a vesicle within the cell.
Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane ?????????????????? –A cell secretes macromolecules –waste, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.
Ch. 4 Cells and Energy Chemical energy and ATP (structure and energy creation) Distinguish between photosynthesis and cellular respiration Lactic acid Fermentation relative to the amount of ATP produced
Respiration and Photosynthesis ??? –C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38ATP –Occurs in ____________
??? Occurs in Cytoplasm Steps 1-3- A glucose molecule is energized, using ATP. Glucose Step Glucose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) PGAL Step 4 A six-carbon intermediate splits into two three-carbon PGAL molecules Step 5 A redox reaction generates NADH. 1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) Step 6-9 Two ATP and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid are produced. 3-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) (2 molecules per glucose molecule) Pyruvic acid Fructose-1,6-diphosphate Energy In: 2 ATP Energy Out: 4 ATP NET 2 ATP
??? Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane Mitochondrial matrix Protein complex Electron carrier Electron flow ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP SYNTHASE For each glucose molecule that enters cellular respiration, this produces up to 32 ATP molecules
Respiration and Photosynthesis ??? –Process of using energy from the sun to produce sugars (glucose) –6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 –Occurs in ____?_______of plants and some algae –Part 1 and Part 2 ?
Respiration and Photosynthesis Where and how are excess sugars stored in plants? Excess sugars are stored as ?????? in the roots. This is a polymer of glucose.
Where and how are excess sugars stored in animals? Excess sugars are stored as glycogen in the liver of animals. Glycogen is a polymer of glucose.
Ch. 5 Cell Growth and Division Define the phases of the cell cycle. What factors regulate the cell cycle? Binary Fission compared to Mitosis Mitosis compared to Meiosis e.g. haploid and diploid
5.4 Asexual Reproduction Multicellular organisms depend on interactions among different cell types. Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems CELLTISSUEORGAN vascular tissue leaf stem lateral roots primary root SYSTEMS root system shoot system 12 3 4
5.4 Asexual Reproduction Some eukaryotes reproduce through mitosis. ??? forms a new organism from a small projection growing on the surface of the parent. bud Hydra Yeast
Cell Division Mitosis –Purpose –Types of Cells –What is produced? Characteristics?
Genetics/ DNA Heredity and Mendelian Genetics –Genetics: The study of heredity (the passing of traits from parents to offspring) –???????: The father of genetics. –DNA: Consists of many ??? –???: Alternate version of a gene
???????? –Make up most of the body’s tissues and organs –2 of each chromosome for a total of 46 ???????? –Sperm cell (male) or egg cell (female) –Only 1 kind of each chromosome; –Half # chromosomes in body cells (23)
Genetics/ DNA Dominant and Recessive Traits ?????? Allele –Gene that is fully expressed. –Masks/ “speaks louder than” a recessive allele. ?????? Allele –Masked/not expressed if dominant allele is present. –Only expressed if dominant allele is absent.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism –??? : having two of the same allele BB bb –??? : having two different alleles. Bb _____ ______: having two dominant alleles BB _____ ______: : having two recessive alleles bb ______ : having one of each allele Bb
????? The physical and physiological traits of an organism How the genes are expressed What you would see in a photograph
Example: In peas, Y is a dominant allele that instructs for yellow seeds; y is a recessive allele that produces green seeds.
DNA/ Genetics A __________ can be used to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring produced by a given genetic cross. Generations –??? (P): The organisms involved in the initial cross –????? (F1): The offspring of the Parental Generation –???(F2): The offspring of First Filial Generation
Example: A chicken and a rooster mate. The chicken has white feathers and the rooster has brown feathers. Brown is dominant, and white is recessive. Assuming the rooster is heterozygous, predict the frequency of each genotype and phenotype in their offspring. What is the cellular process that determines which alleles an offspring will receive from their parents? Meiosis
Practice: 1. A plant that is homozygous dominant for height is crossed with a plant that is homozygous recessive. (T = tall; t = short). Use a Punnett Square to predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the F1 generation.
Practice: 2. Using question number 1, what would be the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of a cross of two F1 individuals?
DNA/ Genetics Determining Sex Human male: ?? Human female: ?? Which parent determines the sex of a human offspring? ???? sex of a human offspring? ???? What is the probability of having a boy? A girl? ???
DNA/ Genetics Sex linked traits Typically carried on the X chromosome Example: hemophilia, color blindness. Disorders occur more often in males than females. Why? Males have one X chromosome, so if one is defective, they do not have a backup copy as do females.
DNA/ Genetics Mutation Definition? A change in DNA can lead to a change in the __?____ coded for by that gene. A change in the protein structure can lead to certain disorders, for example, sickle cell anemia.
Genetic Exceptions to the rules! ??? Both alleles contribute to the phenotype Example: A red cow crossed with a white cow results red cows with white blotches.
Genetic Exceptions to the rules! ??? A gene has more than one allele The result is various expressions of the gene. Example: various hair colors in mice.
Genetic Exceptions to the rules! ??? Traits controlled by more than one gene Ex. Human skin color More than 4 different genes control this trait, which is why we all look so different!
7.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance An ??? gene can interfere with other genes.
Learning Goal: Demonstrate your knowledge on the nature of biology, chemistry of life, cellular division and energy.
Semester Final Exam Ch 1 Biology in the 21 st Century biodiversity scientific method independent variable dependent variable characteristics of life homeostasis Ch 2 Chemistry of Life Describe the properties of water 4 Organic compound that make up life. Enzymes and chemical reactions Ch 3 Cell Structure and Function 3 parts of the cell theory Identify the structure and function of organelles in both plant and animal cells How does the cell membrane maintain homeostasis? Active vs Passive and osmosis vs diffusion Ch 4 Cells and Energy Chemical energy and ATP (structure and process of energy creation) Distinguish between the chemical reaction of photosynthesis and cellular respiration Lactic acid Fermentation relative to the amount of ATP produced. Ch 5 Cell Growth and Division Define the phases and characteristics of the cell cycle. What factors regulate the cell cycle? Binary Fission compared to Mitosis Mitosis compared to Meiosis e.g haploid and diploid