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METAL JOINING Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC.

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1 METAL JOINING Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

2 METAL JOINING Even the simplest object is an assembly of components
Complex ones - greater number of parts- subassemblies joined to perform the function METHODS- WELDING, BRAZING, SOLDERING, ADHESIVE BONDING, MECHANICAL JOINING NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

3 WHY JOINING? IMPOSSIBLE TO MAKE AS ONE PIECE
EASINESS AND ECONOMY IN MANUFACTURE EASY IN REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES DIFFER- e.g.: Carbide tips of tools,corrosion resistant parts, tungsten carbide tip of pens, brake shoes to metal backing etc… TRANSPORTING SITE/ CUSTOMER NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

4 CLASSIFICATION According to the STATE of the materials being joined
Extent of external heating- PRESSURE Use of FILLER materials NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

5 Joining Processes LIQUID Oxy-fuel Thermit NITC CHEMICAL ARC Forge Cold
MECH. JOINING SOLID LIQUID- SOLID CHEMICAL CUTTING ARC RESISTANCE CONSUMABLE NON CONSUMABLE Forge Cold Ultrasonic Friction Explosion Diffusion Brazing Soldering Adhesive Bonding SMAW SAW GMAW FCAW EGW ESW Oxy-fuel Thermit GTAW PAW EBW LBW Spot Seam Projection Flash Stud percussion Fastening Crimping Seaming Stitching Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

6 American Welding Society
History of welding And American Welding Society Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

7 Vulcan – The Roman Fire God Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

8 Welding Heat Exchanger
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

9 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

10 Thermite Welding Patent 729573
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

11 Magnesium is discovered as a chemical element by Sir Humphrey Davy.
Scientists are using the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe as a laboratory tool to examine refractory metals to the extreme temperature of 4468°F. 1800 Alessandra Volta discovers that two dissimilar metals connected by a substance became a conductor when moistened, forming a 'Voltaic Cell'. 1801 Sir Humphrey Davy ( ) of London England, experimented and demonstrated the arc between two carbon electrodes using a battery. This was the forerunner to electric-arc lighting. Vanadium was discovered in Mexico and was thought to be a form of chromium for the next three decades. In 1830, it was rediscovered by N.C. Sefstrom, and in 1887, H.E. Rosco isolated the element from its compounds, mainly vanadite and carnotite. It was named for the Scandinavian love goddess Vanadis. 1808 Magnesium is discovered as a chemical element by Sir Humphrey Davy. Sir Humphrey Davy proved the existence of aluminum. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

12 Andre-Marie Ampere pioneered the field of electromagnetism. 1823
1818 Robert Hare, a professor of Chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania invents the hydrogen blowpipe. 1820 Hans Christian Oersted established connection between electricity and magnetism. Andre-Marie Ampere pioneered the field of electromagnetism. 1823 Charles Macintosh opens a rubber factory in Glasgow Scotland. 1827 Friedrich Wholer discovers aluminum in 1827 1828 Wallaston produced sponge platinum and welded it together by cold-pressing, sintering and then hammering while the metal was hot. 1831 Michael Faraday invents the Dynamo creating electricity from magnets Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

13 Eugene Desbassayrs de Richemont patents a process of fusion welding
English chemist Edmund Davy ( ), a cousin of Sir Humphrey Davy described the properties of acetylene, but was unable to give correct formula. Frenchman Sainte Claire Deville invents the oxygen-hydrogen blowpipe. Used mainly as laboratory equipment for melting platinum and producing enamel. 1838 Charles Goodyear discovers the vulcanization of rubber, giving rise to the development of rubber hoses for welding gases. Eugene Desbassayrs de Richemont patents a process of fusion welding 1839 Michael Faraday discovers the homopolar device that generates voltage. 1840 Frenchman E. Desbassayns de Richemont invents the first air-hydrogen blowpipe. de Richemont coins the phrase "soudure autogène", improperly translated into English as "autogenous welding". Welding implies solid state whereas fusion welding implies a liquid state. 1841 German H. Rossier used the air-hydrogen blowpipe for soldering lead. 1846 James Nasmyth, while investigating the proving of ship chain for the British Admiralty, discovered and gave the reason for the convex forge welding "scarf". By preparing the surfaces to be welded with a slightly convex surface the flux and swarf are squeezed out of the joint. Otherwise they are trapped in the joint weakening it. This was the first improvement in the forge welding process in 3000 years. Prior to this time the shape of the joint was randomly flat concave or convex. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

14 1856 James Joule, an Englishman, first experimented with a bundle of wire in charcoal and welded the wires by heating with an electric current. This was the first example of heating by internal resistance to produce a weld. Years later, Elihu Thomson perfected the process into what will then be known as resistance welding. 1860s An Englishman named Wilde successfully used the theories of Volta and Davy and the primitive electric sources of the time to make "Joins" and received a patent for the earliest form of the art now known as "electric welding". 1860 French chemist Berthelot ( ) accurately gave the correct formula of C2H2 to acetylene. Also found it to be unstable (1863) under certain pressure and temperature. 1862 A German, Friedrich Wohler (Woehler), produces acetylene gas from calcium carbide. 1863 The first successful oil pipeline was built by Samuel Van Sickel at Titusville, Pennsylvania where 2-1/2 miles of 2 inch diameter cast Pipeline was laid for the transfer of 800 barrels of crude oil. The pipe was screw coupled and hammered since welding was not yet invented for pipe joining. The Dresser coupling, invented in 1891 was the first time a mechanical joint could be assembled without excessive leaking. This method was the standard for pipelining until the mid-1930s, when welding overtook the assembly process. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

15 1865 John Motley Morehead, a graduate of North Carolina State University in 1891, was working as a chemist for Willson Aluminum Company determined that when heating slacked lime mixed with coal tar and immersed in water would produce acetylene gas. Acetylene is formed when bicarburet of H2 and ground carbon produces a solid of calcium carbide when immersed in water. This was originally discovered 56 years earlier by Edmund Davy. 1876 Otto Bernz of Newark New Jersey founded the Otto Bernz Company selling plumber's tools and the gasoline torch "Alway's Reliable". Development of gas welding and cutting, carbon arc and metal arc welding. Elihu Thomson invents a low-pressure resistance welding machine which was accomplished by causing internal resistance enough to reach the plastic stage of a metal. Later, it was referred to as Incandescent Welding. 1877 During a lecture at the Franklin Institute (Philia), E. Thomson reversed the process of (...) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

16 1881 Auguste DeMeritens working at an associated laboratory founded by the periodical "l'Electricien" - Cabot Laboratory (Cabat), France was using arc heat to join lead plates for storage battery. French Patent Number was issued. 1885 Nikolai N. Benardos (Bernados) and Stanislav Olszewaski (Olszewaski) secured a British patent with carbon arc welding. Both men were working under the direction of A. DeMeritens with the arc lighting industry at the Cabot Laboratory (Cabat) in France. Carbon was oxidized at the carbon tip and created CO2 at the arc for shielding. Both men had to generate their electricity using a steam-engine (prime-mover) to turn the generator and produce electricity. The alternative was to use batteries which did not last long because of the short-circuiting involved. Patents applied for and received besides Britain: Belgium, Germany, Sweden, and France. 1886 N. N. Benardos obtained Russian Patent (No ) electric arc welding with carbon electrode called ""Elecktrogefest" or "Electrohephaestus".  The methods of cutting and welding metals by the arc was termed "Electrohefest" in memory(sic) of Hephaestus, the ancient Greek god of Fire and Blacksmith work. (The Romans renamed Hephaestus to Vulcan and which is shown on the title page, giving instruction to the craftsmen forging metal.) Benardos receives permission from the Russian Government to organize production in 1885 for "The production of this plant is based on welding and brazing by electricity and also producing devices for electrical illumination" (Note:  emphasis mine) Electric furnace installed for production of aluminum alloys. An important step in early development of the Aluminum industry. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

17 Benardos/Olczewski granted patent 12984 for Carbon Arc Welding. 1889
1887 N.N. Benardos and S. Olszewaski secured an American Patent for the welding apparatus. (U.S. Patent No , May 17) The "blowpipe" or "torch", using the gases acetylene and liquefied air or oxygen, was developed. Thomas Fletcher develops blowpipe that could be used with either hydrogen or coal gas and oxygen An English shop began making tanks, casks, and iron garden furniture with the electric arc process. 1888 Benardos/Olczewski granted patent for Carbon Arc Welding. 1889 Hans Zerner is issued German Patent for the Twin Carbon Arc welding process?. C. Coffin is issued patent , 'Process of Electric Welding'. The US Commissioner to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition upon seeing the arc welding process demonstrated wrote in a report "...As the metal is burnt and brittle where it is welded, the process is not a success." Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

18 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

19 1890 C. L. Coffin in Detroit Michigan awarded first U.S. Patent (No , Jan 1) for metal electrodes. This was the first record of metal melted from an electrode and actually carried across the arc to deposit filler metal in the joint to make the weld. One electrode was carbon and the other electrode was filler material. Coffin also described the GTAW beginnings when a weld was made in non-oxidizing atmospheres. A bank robber in Great Britain used the newly developed "blowtorch" to gain access to bank vaults. 1892 Canadien Thomas 'Carbide' Willson and American James Turner Moorhead begin to commercially produce acetylene as a product from calcium carbide in Spray, North Carolina. Slavianoff suggests that a bare metallic electrode could be substituted for the carbon electrodes of the Benardos process. Concurrently, C. L. Coffin is also credited with introducing the bare metallic electrode in the US Baldwin Locomotive Works was using Carbon Arc Welding (CAW) for locomotive maintenance. The weld joints were hard and brittle because of the carbon flaking off into the weld puddle. Elihu Thompson of the Thompson Welding Co. invented Resistance Welding (RW). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

20 Machine for liquid air generation placed in operation
1895 The combustion of Oxygen and Acetylene was discovered by Henri LeChatelier in his home country of France. Describes combustion of acetylene with equal volume of oxygen proceeds in two stages: Step 1: CO + 2O2 = 4CO2 Step 2: H2 + O2 = 2H2O Machine for liquid air generation placed in operation Lord Reyleigh and Sir William Ramsey discover Argon (Ar). Konrad Roentgen (Bavaria) observed the effects of x-radiation while passing electric current through a vacuum tube. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

21 E. Fouch and F. Picard develops oxyacetylene torch in France. 1901
During a 10 year period in the U.S. and at a rate of one accident per day, boilers were exploding with the loss of life from the accidents at twice that rate. 1900 E. Fouch and F. Picard develops oxyacetylene torch in France. 1901 Menne invented the Oxygen Lance in Germany. Soon after Charles Picards invention of the oxyacetylene blowpipe in Paris France, this invention was called upon to repair a cast iron part on an acetylene pump. Quite by accident, the filler metal had enough silicon present to prevent the formation of the excessively hard white iron. 1902 President Teddy Roosevelt took over the Panama Canal project from the French. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

22 Oxyacetylene is applied commercially. 1904
1903 Hans Goldschmidt of Essen, Germany invented Thermit Welding (TW), an exothermic reaction between aluminum powder and a metal oxide.. Used to weld railroad rails together. Oxyacetylene is applied commercially. 1904 Concentrated Acetylene Company invents the portable cylinder for the auto headlights. 1905 L. W. Chubb of Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing, East Pittsburg, PA, experiments with electrolytic condensers and rectifiers and found that wires could be connected to aluminum plates. Also found that copper could be joined in a like manner. When the cells discharged, sparks were formed. 1907 Two German welders came to the U.S. and formed Siemund-Wienzell Electric Welding Co. and patented a metal arc welding method. Another German formed company, Enderlein Electric Welding Co. also started up. This was the beginning of the arc welding industry in the U.S. Lincoln Electric Company of Cleveland Ohio began by manufacturing electric motors in By 1907, Lincoln Electric were manufacturing the first variable voltage DC welding machine. Oscar Kjellberg (pronounced 'Shellberg') of Sweden and the ESAB (Elektriska Svetsnings-AtkieBolaget) Company invented the covered or coated electrode by dipping bare iron wire in thick mixtures of carbonates and silicates.  The purpose of the coating was to protect the molten metal from oxygen and nitrogen. His pioneering of covered electrode development paved the road during the next twenty years in the research of reliable flux coated electrodes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

23 N. N. Benardos develops electroslag welding process. 1909
1908 Oscar Kjellberg received Patent No for the coated welding electrode. N. N. Benardos develops electroslag welding process. 1909 Strohmenger developed the Quasi-arc electrode which was wrapped in asbestos yarn. The keel of the H.M.S. TITANIC was laid on March 31 at Harland and Wolff shipyard. Schonner, a physicist with BASF (Badischen Anilen und SodaFabrik) invents the plasma arc system using a gas vortex stabilized arc. First industrial application of plasma at BASF (Badische Anilin und Sodafabrik) by a physicist manufacturing nitrogen dioxide (NO2). 1910 Charles Hyde of Great Britain is issued a patent for brazing steel tubes. By clamping two pieces into position, copper is placed in the joints as metallic strips, plating or powder mixed in a paste. Heated in a hydrogen furnace (oxygen-free atmosphere) and by capillary attraction flows copper into the joint 1911 H.M.S. TITANIC is launched on May 31. First attempt to lay 11 miles of pipeline using oxy-acetylene welding near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. American physicist (Matters) developed a plasma arc torch for heating a metal fusing furnace. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

24 1912 Lincoln Electric Co. introduced the first welding machines after experimentation started in 1907. E. G. Budd Spot Welds (SW) the first automobile body in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Langmuir gives the "plasma" to a gas or gas mixture brought to such a high temperature that all diatomic molecules are dissociated and the atoms partially ionized and where all monotomic gases are fully ionized. Firecracker welding technique, a version of shielded metal arc welding is patented in Germany. Strohmenger introduced coated metal electrodes in Great Britain. The electrodes had a thin wash coating of lime or clay resulting in a stable arc. Strohmenger obtained US patent covering an electrode coated with a blue asbestos with a binder of Sodium Silicate (NAXX). This was the first electrode which produced weld metal free of impurities. 1913 Avery and Fisher develop the acetylene cylinder in Indianapolis, Indiana. 1914 A 34 mile pipeline was laid near Enid, Oklahoma using oxy-aceylene welding for the oil industry. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

25 Underwater cutting was carried out but interest did not come about until 1926. 1916 Companies licensed resistance welding equipment, mostly spot welding was the intended use. 1917 Because of a gas shortage in England during World War I, the use electric arc welding to manufacture bombs, mines, and torpedoes became the primary fabrication method. 1918 Admiralty testing of metal-arc welding on Barge Ac 1320 leads Lloyd's Register to permit metal-arc welding in main structures on an experimental basis. During World War I, a Dutchman, Anthony Fokker, began using welding in the production of Fuselages in German fighter planes. HMS Fulagar (Fullagar) was first all welded hull vessel - Great Britain. The repair of sabotaged German ships in New York Harbor highlighted the first important use welding because the German merchant marines tried to destroy the ships boilers on 109 ships. A team of engineers from a railroad company (possibly the Rock Island Line) was tasked to the repair. Later, 500,000 troops were delivered to the European War in France using these repaired ships. The success of the weld repairs catapulted welding to the arena for manufacturing and repair and dashed it sordid past as a controversial operation. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

26 The AWS Constitution of the January meeting was approved on March 27.
1919 President Woodrow Wilson established The United States Wartime Welding Committee of the Emergency Fleet Corporation under the leadership of Dr. Comfort Avery Adams.  Dr. Comfort Avery Adams, held a meeting on January 3rd to form the "American Welding Society ". The Constitution of this meeting was approved on March 27. C. J. Holslag used Alternating Current (AC) for welding, but this was not popular until 1930. The AWS Constitution of the January meeting was approved on March 27. Reuben Smith developed and patented the paper-coated electrode. The weld did not leave a slag and produced an acceptable weld. 1920s Various welding electrodes were developed: Mild steels electrodes for welding steels of less than 0.20% carbon; Higher carbon and alloy electrodes; and Copper alloy rods. Researchers found that Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) when in contact with molten metal caused brittle and porous welds. Alexandre and Langmuir, from General Electric Co., used Hydrogen in chambers to weld. Began with two carbon electrodes and later switched to Tungsten. Bundy-Weld of Bundy Company, Detroit Michigan uses sheetmetal coated with a copper paste and is rolled tightly around itself and placed in a furnace. The brazed joint is formed into one piece tubing. The automotive industry began using Automatic Welding with a bare wire fed to the workpiece to the production of differential housings. Poughkeepsie Socony (1235 tons), the first all-welded tanker was launched in the USA. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

27 1920 P.O. Nobel of General Electric Company developed automatic welding, using Direct Current (DC) using the arc voltage to regulate feed rate. Primary use was to repair worn motor shafts and crane wheels. The British ship "Fulagar" was constructed by the Cammell-Lairds and launched. In 1924, the ship grounded. A report in the British "Journal of Commerce" (July 17, 1924) reported that she held steadfast and if rivets were used in the construction, the ship would surely have opened up and not be able to get off the bank. After WW I, the Treaty of Versailles limited the Germans from designing and building ships in excess of 10, 000 tons for armored ships and cruisers not to exceed 6,000 tons. Welding was an experimental production option before WW I but the Germans used it to develop the next stage of warships by saving weight whereby the ship could then carry more armament or armor plating in selected areas. Torch brazing is in full swing using silver and gold filler metals and mineral fluxes as protective cover. Electrification of Russia begins utilizing hydroelectric power sources. 1921 Leslie Hancock pioneered flame cutting machine where the burner followed the path of a magnetized stylus tracking around the contour of a metal template. The stylus is propelled by a gramophone motor. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

28 Mechanical flash welder used for joining rails together.
1922 "No longer in the tones of a Walt Whitmanesque muscular America, the skyscraper celebrated the technology that was bringing the world together." The first issue of the "Proceedings of the American Welding Society" was published in January (Vol. 1, No. 1). The name was changed in February, the next month, to "Journal of American Welding Society ". The Prairie Pipeline Company weld an 8 inch diameter pipeline 140 miles long to carry crude oil from Mexico to Jacksboro, Texas. The advantage of welding over fittings saved the project 35 percent and the cost of weld, labor and material was $2.00 per welded joint. 1923 Institute of Welding Engineers was formed and headquartered in New York City. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was formed by the US Government which was motivated by Thomas Edison's belief that history demonstrates a relationship between technological innovation and national security. 1924 1st all-welded steel buildings constructed in U.S. by General Boiler Co. "to the exclusion of rivets". Resistance, gas and metallic arc welding in the manufacturing of all steel automobile bodies at the E.G. Budd Manufacturing Company. Mechanical flash welder used for joining rails together. First recognition of welding design was presented in papers written by: J. C. Lincoln, S. W. Miller, C. J. Holslag, H. A. Woofter, and J. H. Deppler. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

29 1925 ASME Boiler Code Construction Code Section VIII is issued for unfired pressure vessels. AWS Board of Directors approves "Standardization of Hose Connections for Welding, and Cutting Torches and Regulators" AWS held First Welding Show with the National Fall Meeting, October, in Boston. A.O. Smith fabricates a single-piece heavy walled pressure vessel entirely by welding and was PUBLICLY tested then placed in an oil cracking service. 1926 H.M. Hobart and P.K. Devers used atmospheres of Helium and Argon for welding with a bare rod inside the atmosphere. Due to the impurities of the inert gases and the corresponding high cost along with a lack of knowledge about current density, commercial applications were not realized at this time. UNA-METHOD - Trade name for the rail joint welding process, arc welding apparatus, electrodes and supplies. UNA Welding & Bonding Co. Cleveland Ohio. FUSARC - (need info)...? Irving Langmuir, a noted chemist with General Electric Co. developed the Atomic Hydrogen Welding (AHW) Process. Co-authored with R. A. Weinman the paper was "Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding" Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) employee, P. W. Swain authored a paper "X-ray tests of weld " which was to have an impact with the welding industry much longer than the introduction of Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding. The technique used a gamma-ray radiation as a shadow method to detect flaws in cast or welded steels. The techniques was used to detect flaws on the US Navy 9000 tonne heavy cruisers. The process was later identified as a Nondestructive test method and contributed to the success of developing improved steel castings for the U.S. Navy. Landstroth and Wunder of A. O. Smith Co. solid extruded heavy coatings for metal-arc welding electrodes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

30 1927 Lindberg's Ryan monoplane fuselage was manufactured with welded steel alloy tubing. Soviet Union production of Resistance Welding machines at Elektrik Works called the "AT-8" and the "ATN-8: apparatus's for spot-welding and the "AS-1" and the "AS-25-1" for buttwelding. John J. Chyle of A. O. Smith Corp. invented and patented the first extruded, all-position, cellulosic, titanium dioxide later classified as E6010 type welding electrode. 1928 In East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on the Turtle Creek, America's First All-Welded Railroad Bridge was erected by Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company. Westinghouse used the bridge to transport the large generators from facilities to the rest of the country by way of the railways. Weighing in at 20,000 pounds and at 62 foot long, the bridge was manufactured without the use of rivets, a common method of bridge construction of those days. The testing of the bridge was completed by driving a locomotive on the bridge. (Information Courtesy of Mr. LaFave) Code for Fusion Welding and Gas Cutting in Building Construction (predecessor of AWS D1.1) was issued by the American Welding Society. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

31 Welding symbols are established by the American Welding Society
1929 Lincoln Electric Co. started production of heavy coated electrodes (Fleetweld 5) and sold the electrodes to the public. Sues A.O. Smith and wins. 1st European All-Welded bridge in Lowicza, Poland. Designed in 1927 by Professor Stefana Bryly and spanning the Sludwie River this bridge was still in use as late as 1977, whereby it was being replaced with a newer highway and bridge which is designed for wider traffic. The Polish Government planned to move the bridge 80 meters up stream and establish the bridge as a historical monument. In 1995, AWS President ED Bohnart presented to the Government of Poland, the AWS Historic Welded Structure Award. Welding symbols are established by the American Welding Society General Electric experiments with "Controlled-Atmosphere brazing", using hydrogen gas for copper to steel brazes. Welding conferences are held on the campuses of Lehigh and Syracuse Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

32 Specifications for welding electrodes were beginning to be written.
Atomic hydrogen arc welding process developed. Found that hydrogen was liberated releasing heat, which was 1/2 of the BTU of acetylene. Used primarily for tools steels. Development included an automatic version of the process. 1930 Specifications for welding electrodes were beginning to be written. H. M. Hobart issued Patent Number , for "Arc Welding" and P. K. Devers was issued Patent Number for "Arc Welding" on Feb 4 for using a concentric nozzle with a wire feed. This became known later as Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). Work was based on various atmospheres in 1926. Germany started development work to find a suitable substitute for their dwindling supply of critical alloys. Experiments in the U.S. and Germany found that Thermoplastics when heated could be pressed together and obtain a permanent bond. In 1938 this principle was incorporated into "Hot Gas" welding technique. Thermoplastic rod and sheet were heated simultaneously by a stream of hot air while the rod was pressed into the sheet causing a bond. World War II forced Germany to further develop and use welded Thermoplastic as a corrosion resistant structural material. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

33 1st all-welded merchant ship was built in Charleston, South Carolina.
1930 continued…. Stud Welding (SW) was developed by the New York Navy Yard to fasten wood to steel. Submerged arc welding developed by National Tube Co. in McKeesport, PA by Robinoff. Later sold rights to Linde Air Products and renamed UNION-MELT. Used in late 30s and early 40s in shipyards and ordnance factories. 1st all-welded merchant ship was built in Charleston, South Carolina. Advancements in protective atmospheres that dissociate chromium oxide from the surface of stainless steel are performed in furnaces without the mineral flux and were found in laboratories with no commercial equivalence Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

34 1931 E. G. Budd Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia spot welded stainless steel (18-8) and built the Privateer. The spot-welding was a process called "shotwelding" a proprietary process developed by E.G. Budd. Combustion Engineering shipped the first commercial land boiler fabricated by ASME welding code to Fisher Body Div. of General Motors Corporation. 1932 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) developed by National Tube Co. in McKeesport, PA by Robinoff. Later sold rights to Linde Air Products and renamed UNION-MELT. Used in late 30s and early 40s in shipyards and ordnance factories. British Corporation Register and Lloyd's introduce revised rules and approvals for the use of welding on ships. 1933 Lincoln Electric Co. published 1st edition of "Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding Design and Fabrication" with the purpose to have its customers use arc welding efficiently. As a full service company, this book provided the customers a knowledge of welding education and training. English Antiquarian, H. A. P. Littledale patents the "Littledale Process (British Patent No. 415,181)", following the same approach that Pliny and Theophilus wrote about from the past two millenniums. Mixing copper salts with seccotine glue ultimately would produce the following reaction {CuO+C -> Cu + CO} which is where brazing would theoretically be reached. The temperature the reaction takes place: 850C. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

35 1st All-welded Excavator - HARNISCHFAGER Corp.
1934 1st All-welded Excavator - HARNISCHFAGER Corp. 1st All-welded British bridge - Middlesborough, England Lloyd's Rules for pressure vessels permits inspection using X-Ray technology. In Scotland, welding was beginning to be recognized as a separate crafts trade and the Trade Unions were opposed to this recognition. The General Secretary of the Boilermaker's Union argued that it was unfair to condemn any young man to a lifetime of welding. (Scotland). The Shipbuilding Employers insisted on the separate recognition. Westinghouse introduces the "Ignitron" which would become the basis for resistance welding timing controllers. American Welding Society presents John C. Lincoln the Samuel Wylie Miller Medal for "Meritorious Achievement". The award cited him for his work on the variable voltage machine, the ductility and strength of welds, the carbon arc automation process, and his efforts to expand the use of welding in many industries. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

36 1st All-welded Box Girder Crane by HARNISCHFAGER Corp., Milwaukee WI.
1935 Granulated flux developed in 1932 and a continuous bare wire feed became known as "Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)" and saw major applications in shipbuilding and pipe fabrication (see 1932 for a different account). Solid extruded electrodes are introduce in Britain and subsequently the first British welding electrode standard written. Welding has "Arrived" when London, England hosts 900 attendees at the "Great Symposium" on the "Welding of Iron and Steel" Solar Aircraft Company of San Diego California develops a flux to combat welding problems with stainless steel manifolds for the U.S. Navy and was regarded as a closely-guarded military secret.  Where flux is applied to the front of the weld, this was placed on the backside of weld, protecting from oxide formation. Later, the product was developed further to accommodate the Heliarc process. 1936 1st All-welded Box Girder Crane by HARNISCHFAGER Corp., Milwaukee WI. 1st All-welded Gear were fabricated by HARNISCHFAGER Corp. Milwaukee WI. First Specification for Design, Construction, Alteration and Repair of Highway and Railway Bridges by Fusion Welding was issued by the American Welding Society. Tentative Rules for the Qualification of Welding Processes and Testing of Welding Operators was submitted by AWS. The Soviet Union at the Electrik Works started using the electronic control gears as the first valve timer with a thyristor contactor (RVE-1) for resistance welding. Japan Welding Society stipulates the rules of qualification testing in "The Standard of Qualification for Arc Welding Operator". Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

37 A.F. Wall purchases Colmonoy and renames to Wall-Colmonoy (Detroit).
1937 BS 538: Metal arc welding in mild steel, was issued, legitimizing arc welding structural applications. Norman Cole and Walter Edmonds, metallurgists from California are granted a patent for their product named "Colmonoy". Derived from COLe and edMONds and allOY. 1938 The Welding Handbook, First Edition was printed and edited by William Sparagen and D. S. Jacobus. Pressure vessel industry began implementing the high production value of Automatic Welding. The German Shipbuilding Industry uses welding extensively to reduce the weight of warships and increase the overall size of the ship.  This restriction was put in place after World War I. K. K. Madsen of Denmark describes Gravity Welding as a specialized electrode holder and the mechanism which will maintain a covered electrode in contact with the workpiece. A.F. Wall purchases Colmonoy and renames to Wall-Colmonoy (Detroit). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

38 Single lap tensile specimens 45 degree vee-type tensile specimen
1939 Floyd C. Kelly of General Electric publishes "Properties of Brazed 12% Chrome Steel" as an early investigation of the strength of brazed joints.4Aluminum Spot Welding saw application in the Aviation Industry. He describes: Single lap tensile specimens 45 degree vee-type tensile specimen Butt brazed tensile specimens. Aluminum Spot Welding saw application in the Aviation Industry. Ultrasonic Fluxless soldering patented in Germany. Process is conceived in 1936. Air Arc Gouging is developed (USA). Stud Welding (Nelson Stud Welding Co.) used by the US Navy to reduce time installing studs during fabrication of ships and aircraft carriers. 1940s With World War II GTAW was found to be useful for welding magnesium in fighter planes, and later found it could weld stainless steel and aluminum. Canadian Welding Society (CWS) formed. Exchequer, first all-welded ship built at Ingalls Shipyard in Mississippi. J. Dearden and H. O'Neill (UK) discuss "Weldability" in terms of carbon equivalencies. Sun Shipbuilding Company builds the world's largest ocean-going tanker, I. Van Dyck (11650 DWT). This was the first large scale use of automatic welding applied in shipyard work. First mass soldering technique, Dip Soldering, is used for Printed Wiring Boards (PWB) to keep up with the development of electronic equipment such as, Television, radios, etc. Little advancement was made in brazing and there were no dry-hydrogen facilities, except for laboratories, for brazing Stainless steel and there were no vacuum furnaces. Germany was using 85Ag-15Mn brazing alloys as the best high temperature filler metal available. Used for brazing hollow sheet metal blades used in the turbine engines and stators. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

39 1940 Gas shielded metal arc welding developed by Hobart and Devers at Battelle Memorial Institute. 1941 Engineers at Northrup Aircraft Co. and Dow Chemical Co. developed the GMAW process for welding magnesium, and later licensed it to Linde Co. with a water cooled, small diameter electrode wires using CV power. Because of the high cost of inert gas, the cost savings were not recognized until much later. PLUTO - PipeLine Under The Ocean was created using the Flash Weld (FW) process for 1000 miles of 3 inch diameter pipe, to assist in the invasion of Normandy Beach, France. Once in place, the pipeline began pumping 1 million gallons of petrol per day directly to depots deep in the French country side. Friction Surfacing. H. Klopstock and A. R. Neelands "An Improved Method of Joining and Welding Metals" British Patent , October 1941. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

40 Second Edition of the Welding Handbook was printed and issued.
1942 Chief of Research, V. H. Pavlecka, and engineer Russ Meredith of Northrup Aircraft Inc. designed the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process to weld magnesium and stainless steel. Alternate names are TIG (tungsten inert gas) and Argonarc and Heliarc. Heliarc is the term originally applied to the GTAW process. (Patent Number , 24 February 1942). The invention of GTAW was probably the most significant welding process developed specifically for the aircraft industry and remained so until recently, with the Friction Sir Weld process of the 1990's. Mr. Northrup of Northrup Aircraft Inc. was a visionary who wanted an all-welded aircraft (i.e., manufacturing costs, and lightweightness of the aircraft). Meredith was working from research of Devers and Hobart at General Electric (1920s) who had experimented with tungsten arcs in non-oxidizing atmospheres. The high reactivity of magnesium (Northrup's dream metal) would cause problems with more conventional processes, so, Meredith to began developing a torch with better handling characteristics and would use inert gas enshrouding tungsten. Thus, the Heli-arc process. From the Dec 1942 Welding Journal: "The full importance of arc welding on the future of magnesium alloys cannot be fully appreciated at this time but the fabrication of these strong light alloys has opened the possibilities that were not considered even a year ago. For the man in industry, this method of joining offers simplicity of structure, ease and speed of fabrication and over-all economy." US Patent , Jan 6, 1942 issued to George Hafergut for Firecracker Welding. Traveling 285 miles north of Edmonton Canada and barging 1100 miles north to the Norman Well refinery a base camp was setup to build the Canadian Oil (CANOL) project. Working for 20 months, 1800 miles of pipeline was laid along side of 2000 miles of road. The last weld was laid on 1 February On 1 April 1945 the wells were shut down. Second Edition of the Welding Handbook was printed and issued. SAW proves it worthiness during World War II with the building of the Liberty Ships. G.L. Hopkins of Woolrich Arsenal defines the problem of cracking in alloy steels and hydrogen in welding electrodes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

41 Sciaky (USA) markets the three-phase resistance welder. 1944
1943 Union-Melt is now commonly referred to as Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). The process used rods rather than wire filler metal and could weld work pieces up to 2 -1/2 inches thick. Sciaky (USA) markets the three-phase resistance welder. 1944 1st Low-hydrogen electrodes used in fabrication of alloy armor tanks vehicles by the Heil Corp in response to the chrome and nickel shortages from World War II for the U.S. Army. The Bureau of Navy Aeronautics designed and E. G. Budd Mfg. built the "Conestoga", a stainless steel aircraft. Despite the success of the aircraft, aluminum and rivets became the influencing factor in aircraft design. 1945 After World War II, the Allies brought from Germany the alloy combination, 85Ag-15Mn which has a 1760°F brazing temperature. ElectoBrazing is used for manufacturing shafts to gears. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

42 1946 Sprayweld Process (US Patent ) issued to Wall-Colmonoy uses an alloy powder spray which produces a smooth, welded deposits. General Electric Co. Ltd (UK) invents the Cold Pressure Welding Process. High Frequency (HF) stabilized AC tungsten-arc welding is used for aluminum alloys. 1947 The Final Report of a Board of Investigation, ordered by the Secretary of the Navy, "To Inquire Into The Design and Methods of Construction of Welded Steel Merchant Vessels, 15 July 1946" was issued. Canadian Welding Bureau was created as a division of the Canadian Standards Association The Austrian Welding Society is formed and publishes a monthly magazine "Scheisstechnik"  Nicrobraz, developed by Robert Peaslee of Wall-Colmonoy, is a 2500°F nickel alloy braze filler metal used in hydrogen furnaces. Used for stainless steel fuel supply connecting injectors to injector pumps for 18 cylinder reciprocating engines. The fledgling aircraft engine industry needed something else for engines to experience a hot shutdown without blowing the silver braze filler metal out from the brazed joints. Typical alloy was 85Ag-15Mn (BAg-23). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

43 1948 · The Ohio State University Board of Trustees established the Department of Welding Engineering on January 1 as the first of its kind for a Welding Engineering cirriculum at a University.  OSU pioneered the Welding Engineering through an emphasis in the Industrial Engineering Department the previous nine years.  The advantages of this engineering degree is 1) Enable satisfactory administration of problems relating to education and research in the welding field. 2) Recognition is given to the Welding Engineer as an entity among applied sciences. 3) A degree is authorized which is descriptive of a particular discipline imposed in training for professional work in the field. · Air Reduction Company develops the Inert-Gas Metal-Arc (MIG) process. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

44 · SIGMA Welding (Shielded Inert Gas Metal Arc) was developed to weld plate greater than1/8 inch instead of the "Heli-Arc" welding process. The arc is maintained in a shield of argon gas between the filler metal electrode and the workpiece. No flux is used. Licensed by Linde Air Products Co. · Curtiss-Wright Corporation looks at brazing as a strong, lightweight process for durable assemblies. 1949 · American Westinghouse introduces and markets welding machines using Selenium Rectifiers. · US Navy uses inert-gas metal arc welding for aluminum hulls of 100 feet in length. 1950 · The Kurpflaz Bridge in Germany was built as the first welded orthotropic deck. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

45 · Third Edition of the Welding Handbook is printed by AWS.
· Electron Beam (EB) welding process developed in France by J. A. Stohr of the French Atomic Energy Commission. First Public disclosure was 1957. · Wave soldering is introduced to keep up with the demand of Printed Wiring Boards used in the electronics age. · Research on testing of brazed joint begins as serious endeavor for the next ten years. 1950 · Electroslag Welding (ESW) is developed at the E. O. Paton Welding Institute, Ukraine USSR. · Third Edition of the Welding Handbook is printed by AWS. · Flash Butt Welding is the standard for welding rail line construction. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

46 · Russia use Electroslag Welding (ESW) process in production.
1951 · Russia use Electroslag Welding (ESW) process in production. · The Philip Roden Co. of Milwaukee Wisconsin announces the DryRod electrode oven. This oven is intended to provide a controlled moisture environment of 0.2% moisture standard set forth by the government. This oven provides adjustable temperature control of F, vented and holding 350 pounds of electrodes. 1953 · Modifying the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process, Lyubavskii and Novoshilov used CO2 with consumable electrodes. Resulted in hotter arc, uses higher current, and larger diameter electrodes. · The Ohio State University established a Welding Engineering College curriculum out of the Industrial Engineering Department. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

47 1957 · Flux Cored-Arc Welding (FCAW) patented and reintroduced by National Cylinder Gas Co. · Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) Process developed by Robert M. Gage · Russia, Britain, and USA independently develop a short-circuiting transfer for low-current low-voltage welding in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. · Braze repair process for cracks in jet engine combustion chambers and transition ducts · The Soviet Union introduced the Electroslag Welding (ESW) Process at the Brussels World Fair in Belgium. This welding process had been used since 1951 in the USSR which was based on the concept and work of an American, R. K. Hopkins. Perfected at the Paton Institute Laboratory in Kiev, Ukraine, USSR and the Welding Research Laboratory in Braitislava, Czechoslovakia. · AWS Committee on Brazing and Soldering is formed to develop a test for evaluating strength of brazed joints. Robert Peaslee proposes a test in the Welding Journal. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

48 · Pulsed Arc Welding...(more to follow)
1959 · Electroslag welding process was first used at the Electromotive Division of General Motors in Chicago and was called the "Electro-Molding Process". · Development of Inside-Outside Electrode which did not require an external gas shielding - Innershield from Lincoln Electric Co. · Short Arc (Micro-wire Short Arc) developed from refined power supplies and smaller diameter wires. 1960s · Pulsed Arc Welding...(more to follow) · Space Program is underway...(more to follow) · Difficult to stabilize GTAW at below 15 amps, Microplasma is developed to overcome the limitation. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

49 1960 · Development of a cold wall vacuum furnace
1960 · Development of a cold wall vacuum furnace. · First laser beam produced using a ruby crystal for the Light Amplification Stimulated Emission Radiation (LASER). · Explosive welding is developed in USA. · Hughes Aircraft Company (Mainar) develops the first ruby laser (springtime). · Bell Telephone Laboratories (Ali Javan) developed and presented the first gas laser using neon and helium (fall time) · The Mercury Space Capsule is formed using inner and outer titanium shell, seam welded together using a three-phase resistance welder by Sciaky · U.S.S. Thresher sinks off the coast of New Hampshire and by December, the U.S. Navy charters the Submarine Safety Program (SUBSAFE) to control the fabrication, inspection and quality control of submarine construction. The presumed failure was with a silver-brazed piping joint, but after the investigation, the whole welding and brazing program was suspect. Included was the material properties of the welding and brazing filler metals. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

50 · CO2 lasers are developed for cutting and welding. 1967
· CO2 lasers are developed for cutting and welding. 1967 · H. J. Clarke makes the following Predictions during the AWS Plummer Lecture in Houston as he ties the current state of technology of welding to the future of progress: · World's Population would be greater than 5 Billion. · Large scale farming of the ocean and fabrication of synthetic protein. · Controlled thermonuclear power as a source of energy. · General immunization against bacteria and virile infections, perfected and available. · Primitive forms of life will created in the lab. · Automation will have advance for performance of menial chores and complicated functions. · Housewives would be ordering groceries and everyday items from central stores linked to the home electronically. (!!!) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

51 · Weather manipulation by the military.
Children will be receiving education at home - "either by television or with personal teaching machines and programmed instructions" · Moon - mining and manufacture of propellant and on Mars, permanent unmanned research stations. · Weather manipulation by the military. · Effective anti-ballistic missile defense in the form of air-launched missiles and directed energy beams. · Libraries will be "computer-run" · Gravity welding is introduced in Britain after its initial discovery by Japan. 1969 · The Russian Welding Program in Space began by producing Electron Beam welds on SOYUZ-6. Welding an AMG6 and DM-20 aluminum alloys with the Vulkan process. Sponsored by the E. O. Paton Welding Institute Academy of Science. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

52 · BP discovers oil off the coast of Scotland. 1971
1970 · As miniaturization developed from the pressure to increase component densities, Surface Mount Technology is developed. This required new ways to make soldered joints, including the development of vapor phase, infrared, hot gas and other re-flow technologies. · First AWS International Brazing Conference including 24 papers presented created much interest in the brazing process. · BP discovers oil off the coast of Scotland. 1971 · British Welding Institute (Houldcroft) adds oxidizing gas jet around laser beam to develop laser cutting. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

53 1973 · The American Astronauts used Electron Beam welding process in June 1973 welding Aluminum Alloy 2219-T87, Stainless 304 and Pure Tantalum. · Welding equipment manufacturers concentrate on equipment refinement instead of new processes. · Two Supertankers, Globtik Tokyo and Globtik London ( DWT) were built for carrying 153 million gallons (3 million barrels) of crude oil Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

54 1976 · First automotive production application of lasers weld begins with General Motors Corporation, Dayton Ohio using two 1.25 kW CO2 lasers. for welding valve assemblies for emission control systems. 1977 · The US Federal Highway Administration issues a moratorium of Electroslag Welding (ESW) when cracks are discovered during an inspection of a bridge in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on an interstate highway. Failure analysis was conducted by Lehigh University on Interstate 79. 1980 · The Fort McHenry tunnel contract, for 750 Million Dollars, is awarded to begin construction, completing Intestate 95 through Baltimore, Maryland. This is the largest tunnel of its kind, 180 feet at the bottom with two separate four lane immersed tunnels removing 3.5 million cubic yards of dredge. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

55 1983 · Homopolar pulse welding variation of the upset welding process research begins at the University of Texas at Austin at the Center for Electromechanics. 1987 · Laser research begins a unique method for depositing complex metal alloys (Laser Powder Fusion). 1991 · TWI of Cambridge England develops the Friction Stir Weld (FSW) process in its laboratory. This process differs from conventional rotary technology whereby a hard, non consumable, cylindrical tool causes friction, plasticizing two metals into a Solid-State Bond. No shielding gas or filler metal is required. Metals joined successfully include, the 2XXX, 6XXX and 7XXX series aluminum. NASA is the first US venture which welded the massive fuel tank for the Space Shuttle. · Brazing Handbook (Fourth Edition) shows the data of the filler metal/base metal failure transitions between 1T and 2T overlap and is the key for the design data (factor of safety). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

56 1996 · Over 7,00,000 brazements are produced for the aircraft industry in the US and Canada. · Over 132,010,00 units of brazed automotive parts are produce · The Edison Welding Institute develops a solution to obtaining deeper penetration of a GTA weld by introducing FLUX onto the surface of the weld. This FLUX helps drive the welding arc heat deeper into the weld joint and permits 300 percent more penetration.   2000 · Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) is introduced by Pulsar Ltd. of Israel using capacitive power as a solid state welding process. Discharging 2 Million amps in less than 100 microseconds this process can create a metallurgical, a non-metallurgical or a mechanical lock, depending on the substrate involved. No heat affected zone (HAZ) is created since only a rise of 30oC occurs. · Tailored welded blanks of aluminum are used where spot welding was once performed. · Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

57 2000 Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory use the energy of the x-ray to weld metal-matrix composite (Ti or Al / Al2O3 or SiC) materials. · Diode laser welding, once limited to compact disks, laser printers, and laser pointers, are now making their way to the manufacturing floor. Welding Type 304 Stainless steel (0.024 inch), Titanium foil (0.005 inch thick) and laser brazing with a silicon-bronze brazing wire. · Conductive heat resistance seam welding (CHRSEW) is developed. The process uses steel cover sheets placed on top of aluminum butted together. Using conventional seam welding, the heat generated from the steel forms a molten interface on the aluminum and fusion is made at the butt joint. The steel covers are then removed. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

58 2001 · AWS D17.1, "Specification for Fusion Welding for Aerospace Applications" is published in March.  The efforts of approximately 50 individuals from a cross-section of the Aviation Industry and government produces the first commercial aviation welding specification. · Flame brazing 5XXX aluminum alloys using non-corrosive flux. · Sulzar Elbar introduces laser powder welding technology. Permits rebuilding of substrate material (High Creep Resistance) and reproduction of the single crystal structure. 2002 · From Linde Gas in Germany, a Diode laser using process gases and "active-gas components" is investigated to enhance the "key-holing" effects for laser welding. The process gas, Argon-CO2, increases the welding speed and in the case of a diode laser, will support the transition of heat conductivity welding to a deep welding, i.e., 'key-holing'. Adding active gas changes the direction of the metal flow within a weld pool and produces narrower, high-quality weld. · CO2 Lasers are used to weld polymers. The Edison Welding Institute is using through-transmission lasers in the nm range to readily form welded joints. Using silicon carbides embedded in the surfaces of the polymer, the laser is capable of melting the material leaving a near invisible joint line Future developments. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

59 ABOUT AWS The American Welding Society (AWS) was founded in 1919 as a multifaceted, nonprofit organization with a goal to advance the science, technology and application of welding and related joining disciplines The Engineering Societies Building (left) in New York City was the home of AWS until 1961 when the Society moved to the United Engineering Center, also in New York City. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

60 The Society moved its headquarters to Miami in 1971 (left).
From factory floor to high-rise construction, from military weaponry to home products, AWS continues to lead the way in supporting welding education and technology development to ensure a strong, competitive and exciting way of life for all Americans. The Society moved its headquarters to Miami in 1971 (left). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

61 The American Welding Society, in conjunction with the Department of Energy, has put together a vision that will carry the welding industry through 2020. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

62 Technical Publications
AWS offers over 300 books, charts, videos, replicas, proceedings, and software. 160 AWS-developed codes, recommended practices, and guides are produced under strict American National Standards Institute (ANSI) procedures, including one of the most consulted codes in the world, D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

63 Foundation Founded in 1989, to support research and education in welding and related technologies. It is committed to annually awarding fellowships to deserving graduate students for important research in areas important to the requirements of industry. Accordingly, each year the AWS Foundation administers six $20,000 grants - matched in kind by the participating universities. The award of scholarships to vocational and undergraduate college students is also a high priority and a student loan program has also been developed to prepare students for welding related careers. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

64 The Professional Program
The AWS Professional Program offers a broad spectrum of Technical Papers describing the latest findings in welding research, processes and applications. Special sessions and gatherings exploring the boundaries of industry issues are also significant features of the convention. Subjects cover an entire range of industry concerns from the joining of space age materials to production management techniques, testing, quality assurance and more. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

65 Which welding process(es) will see an increase in use and which will see a decrease in use during the next decade? There was much speculation, but almost unanimously the process chosen for decline was shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). A very few speculated a decline in the use of gas metal arc (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). A significant group felt the continuous wire processes (FCAW, GMAW) would experience the most use. The GTAW process was the next most mentioned. One of the reasons stated for its increase was "the need for high-quality work on thin materials." Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

66 Welding Forges into the Future
Where do you see the use of welding automation heading in your industry? Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

67 In what areas of welding do we need more knowledge?
Safety and Health. The industry needs more knowledge and awareness regarding the hazards of welding, according to the respondents. · Welding of the newer grades of high-strength steels, high- alloy steels and heat treatable steels. We need to "keep up the 'how to weld' information with the increase in 'new' alloys, which are becoming more difficult to weld." · Automation. A variety of topics relating to automation. These included training in computerization and automation; information on short-run automation; and the need to create standard platforms for welding equipment, robot controllers, sensing devices and other automation peripherals. · The basics While universities and institutions are doing basic research, they cannot tell you the best process and fastest speed for a 1Ž4-in. fillet weld." Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

68 What are the strengths of the welding industry? What are its weaknesses?
What business improvements during the next ten years would be in your company's best interests? What has to be done in the future to keep the welding industry healthy? More than 50% of the respondents believe improving the image of welding so top students will be drawn to the industry and bettering training methods for welders and welding engineers are the keys to welding's future. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

69 One respondent summed up his reasons this way:
Are you optimistic or pessimistic about the future of your particular industry? 92% of respondents indicated they are at least optimistic about the future. One respondent summed up his reasons this way: Metallics will be around for a long time and they will need to be joined. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

70 Since time machines still exist only in the stories of H. G
Since time machines still exist only in the stories of H. G. Wells and other works of science fiction, no one can tell us exactly how welding will fare in the 21st century. However, the people who responded to the Welding Journal survey represent a cross section of fabricators of welded products and producers of welding equipment and related products. Together they offer a wide range of experience and knowledge. Answering the questions separately, in their respective cities, they still formed a consensus. They agree the future looks promising for welding. It remains and will continue to be a productive, cost-effective manufacturing method. However, steps must be taken to bring more skilled personnel into the industry, or changes must be made to accommodate for the lack of skilled personnel (e.g., welding automation). They also indicated the welding industry must embrace all of the modern-day technological tools to keep pace with the rest of the world. . Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

71 LIQUID STATE PROCESSES
Partial melting and fusion of joint Physical and mechanical changes taking place Can be with application of pressure or by addition of filler material Prior to joining, PREPARATION TO BE DONE STANDARDS- AWS; ASTM- TYPES OF GROOVES, JOINTS NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

72 Types of welds and symbols
FILLET, SQUARE BUTT, SINGLE V, DOUBLE V, SINGLE U, DOUBLE U, SINGLE BEVEL BUTT, DOUBLE BEVEL BUTT, SINGLE J BUTT, DOUBLE J BUTT, STUD, BEAD(EDGE OR SEAL), PLUG, SPOT, SEAM, MASHED SEAM, STITCH, PROJECTION, FLASH, UPSET etc. (REFER sketches supplied) NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

73 Standard location of elements of weld symbol
G- Grind C- Chip F-File M-Machine R- Rolling Length of weld Unwelded length Size Finish symbol Weld all around Specification process. No tail- SMAW S L P Field weld Reference line Arrow connecting reference line to arrow side of joint /to edge prepared /member or both Other side of arrow Near side of Arrow NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

74 Groove face GROOVE ANGLE Joint angle ROOT Root Face NITC
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

75 WELD POSITIONS WELD MOVEMENTS
FLAT HORIZONTAL VERTICAL OVERHEAD H O C J U ZIGZAG NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

76 WELDING TERMINOLOGY Slide 2 of 18

77 WELDING TECHNIQUES FOREHAND BACKHAND THIN THICK Same direction torch
Heat concentrated away from bead Even flow, rippled design THICK Opposite direction torch Heat concentrated on bead Broad bead Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

78 WELD POSITIONS FLAT HORIZONTAL VERTICAL OVERHEAD NITC
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

79 WELD MOVEMENTS STRAIGHT I Z L ZIGZAG O Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

80 ASME P Material Numbers Explained
ASME has adopted their own designation for welding processes, which are very different from the ISO definitions adopted by EN   Designation Description OFW Oxyfuel Gas Welding SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding (MMA) SAW Submerged Arc Welding GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG/MAG) FCAW Flux Cored Wire GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) PAW Plasma Arc Welding Straight polarity = Electrode -ve Reverse polarity = Electrode +ve Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

81 F Number General Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X
ASME F Numbers  F Number General Description 1 Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes :- A5.1 : E7024 2 Most Rutile consumables such as :- A5.1 : E6013 3 Cellulosic electrodes such as :- A5.1 : E6011 4 Basic coated electrodes such as : A5.1 : E7016 and E7018 5 High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duplex :- A5.4 : E316L-16 6 Any steel solid or cored wire (with flux or metal) 2X Aluminium and its alloys 3X Copper and its alloys 4X Nickel alloys 5X Titanium 6X Zirconium 7X Hard Facing Overlay Note:- X represents any number 0 to 9  Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

82 ASME A Numbers  These refer to the chemical analysis of the deposited weld and not the parent material.  They only apply to welding procedures in steel materials.   A1 Plain unalloyed carbon manganese steels. A2 to A4 Low alloy steels containing Moly and Chrome Moly A8 Austenitic stainless steels such as type 316. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

83 ASME Welding Positions
Note the welding progression, (vertically upwards or downwards), must always be stated and it is an essential variable for both procedures and performance qualifications.  Welding Positions For Groove welds:- Welding Position Test Position ISO and  EN Flat 1G  PA Horizontal 2G PC Vertical Upwards Progression 3G PF Vertical Downwards Progression PG Overhead 4G PE Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5G Pipe 45 degrees Upwards 6G HL045 Pipe 45 degrees Downwards JL045 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

84 G for Groove Welds F for Fillet Welds Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

85 G for Groove Welds F for Fillet Welds Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

86 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

87 Test Position ISO and EN 1F PA 2F PB 2FR 3F PF PG 4F PD 5F
 Welding Positions For Fillet welds:- Welding Position Test Position ISO and  EN Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) 1F PA Horizontal  2F PB Horizontal Rotated 2FR Vertical Upwards Progression 3F PF Vertical Downwards Progression PG Overhead 4F PD Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5F Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

88 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

89 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

90 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

91 Multiple-pass layers. Weld layer sequence
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

92 Welding Positions QW431.1 and QW461.2
Basically there are three inclinations involved. Flat, which includes from 0 to 15 degrees inclination degrees inclination Vertical, degrees For each of these inclinations the weld can be rotated from the flat position to Horizontal to overhead.  Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

93 Effects of expansion and contraction
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

94 CONTROLLING DISTORTION
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

95 HEAT AFFECTED ZONE Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

96 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

97 LIQUID STATE PROCESSES
Partial melting and fusion of joint Physical and mechanical changes taking place Can be with application of pressure or by addition of filler material Prior to joining, PREPARATION TO BE DONE STANDARDS- AWS; ASTM- TYPES OF GROOVES, JOINTS NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

98 OXY ACETYLENE WELDING (OAW)
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

99 Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)
The oxyacetylene welding process uses a combination of oxygen and acetylene gas to provide a high temperature flame.

100 Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)
OAW is a manual process in which the welder must personally control the the torch movement and filler rod application The term oxyfuel gas welding outfit refers to all the equipment needed to weld. Cylinders contain oxygen and acetylene gas at extremely high pressure. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

101 Typical Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW) Station
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

102 OPEN ACETYLENE AND IGNITE OPEN OXYGEN AND ADJUST FLAME
STEPS for OAW PREPARE THE EDGES AND MAINTAIN PROPER POSITION ………………………….(USE OF FIXTURES, CLAMPS) OPEN ACETYLENE AND IGNITE OPEN OXYGEN AND ADJUST FLAME HOLD TORCH AT ABOUT 45O AND FILLER METAL AT 30 TO 40 O TOUCH FILLER ROD TO JOINT AND CONTROL MOVEMENT SINGLE BEAD MADE Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

103 FOR DEEP JOINTS, MULTIPLE PASSES CLEANING EACH WELD BEAD IS IMPORTANT
EQUIPMENT- WELDING TORCH- VARIOUS SIZES AND SHAPES CYLINDERS DIFFERENT THREADS, ANCHORED AND NOT DROPPED Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

104 LOW COST. MANUAL AND HENCE SLOW
CAPABILITIES LOW COST. MANUAL AND HENCE SLOW PORTABLE, VERSATILE AND ECONOMICAL FOR LOW QUANTITY AND REPAIR WORKS FOR ALL FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS LIMITATIONS THICKNESS < 6 MM SKILL ESSENTIAL---FOR PIPE, PRESSURE VESSELS, LOAD BEARING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

105 Oxygen Cylinders Oxygen is stored within cylinders of various sizes and pressures ranging from PSI. (Pounds Per square inch) Oxygen cylinders are forged from solid armor plate steel. No part of the cylinder may be less than 1/4” thick. Cylinders are then tested to over 3,300 PSI using a (NDE) hydrostatic pressure test. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

106 Oxygen Cylinders Cylinders are regularly re-tested using hydrostatic (NDE) while in service Cylinders are regularly chemically cleaned and annealed to relieve “jobsite” stresses created by handling . Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

107 Cylinder Transportation
Never transport cylinders without the safety caps in place Never transport with the regulators in place Never allow bottles to stand freely. Always chain them to a secure cart or some other object that cannot be toppled easily. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

108 Oxygen Cylinders Oxygen cylinders incorporate a thin metal “pressure safety disk” made from stainless steel and are designed to rupture prior to the cylinder becoming damaged by pressure. The cylinder valve should always be handled carefully Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

109 Pressure Regulators for Cylinders
Reduce high storage cylinder pressure to lower working pressure. Most regulators have a gauge for cylinder pressure and working pressure. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

110 Pressure Regulators for Cylinders
Regulators are shut off when the adjusting screw is turn out completely. Regulators maintain a constant torch pressure although cylinder pressure may vary Regulator diaphragms are made of stainless steel Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

111 Pressure Regulators Gauges Using a “Bourdon” movement
Gas entering the gauge fills a Bourdon tube As pressure in the semicircular end increases it causes the free end of the tube to move outward. This movement is transmitted through to a curved rack which engages a pinion gear on the pointer shaft ultimately showing pressure. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

112 Regulator Hoses Hoses are are fabricated from rubber
Oxygen hoses are green in color and have right hand thread. Acetylene hoses are red in color with left hand thread. Left hand threads can be identified by a groove in the body of the nut and it may have “ACET” stamped on it Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

113 Check Valves & Flashback Arrestors
Check valves allow gas flow in one direction only Flashback arrestors are designed to eliminate the possibility of an explosion at the cylinder. Combination Check/ Flashback Valves can be placed at the torch or regulator. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

114 Acetylene Gas Virtually all the acetylene distributed for welding and cutting use is created by allowing calcium carbide (a man made product) to react with water. The nice thing about the calcium carbide method of producing acetylene is that it can be done on almost any scale desired. Placed in tightly-sealed cans, calcium carbide keeps indefinitely. For years, miners’ lamps produced acetylene by adding water, a drop at a time, to lumps of carbide. Before acetylene in cylinders became available in almost every community of appreciable size produced their own gas from calcium carbide. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

115 Acetylene Cylinders Acetylene is stored in cylinders specially designed for this purpose only. Acetylene is extremely unstable in its pure form at pressure above 15 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) Acetone is also present within the cylinder to stabilize the acetylene. Acetylene cylinders should always be stored in the upright position to prevent the acetone form escaping thus causing the acetylene to become unstable. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

116 Acetylene Cylinders Cylinders are filled with a very porous substance “monolithic filler” to help prevent from large pockets of pure acetylene forming Cylinders have safety (Fuse) plugs in the top and bottom designed to melt at 212° F (100 °C) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

117 Acetylene Valves Acetylene cylinder shut off valves should only be opened 1/4 to 1/2 turn This will allow the cylinder to be closed quickly in case of fire. Cylinder valve wrenches should be left in place on cylinders that do not have a hand wheel. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

118 Oxygen and Acetylene Regulator Pressure Settings
Regulator pressure may vary with different torch styles and tip sizes. PSI (pounds per square inch) is sometimes shown as PSIG (pounds per square inch -gauge) Common gauge settings for cutting 1/4” material Oxy 30-35psi Acet 3-9 psi 1/2” material Oxy 55-85psi Acet 6-12 psi 1” material Oxy psi Acet 7-15 psi Check the torch manufactures data for optimum pressure settings Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

119 Regulator Pressure Settings
The maximum safe working pressure for acetylene is 15 PSI ! Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

120 Typical torch styles A small welding torch, with throttle valves located at the front end of the handle. Ideally suited to sheet metal welding. Can be fitted with cutting attachment in place of the welding head shown. Welding torches of this general design are by far the most widely used. They will handle any oxyacetylene welding job, can be fitted with multiflame (Rosebud) heads for heating applications, and accommodate cutting attachments that will cut steel 6 in. thick. A full-size oxygen cutting torch which has all valves located in its rear body. Another style of cutting torch, with oxygen valves located at the front end of its handle. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

121 Typical startup procedures
Verify that equipment visually appears safe IE: Hose condition, visibility of gauges Clean torch orifices with a “tip cleaners” (a small wire gauge file set used to clean slag and dirt form the torch tip) Crack (or open) cylinder valves slightly allowing pressure to enter the regulators slowly Opening the cylinder valve quickly will “Slam” the regulator and will cause failure. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

122 Typical startup procedures
Never stand directly in the path of a regulator when opening the cylinder Check for leaks using by listening for “Hissing” or by using a soapy “Bubble” solution Adjust the regulators to the correct operating pressure Slightly open and close the Oxygen and Acetylene valves at the torch head to purge any atmosphere from the system. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

123 Typical startup procedures
Always use a flint and steel spark lighter to light the oxygen acetylene flame. Never use a butane lighter to light the flame Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

124 Flame Settings There are three distinct types of oxy-acetylene flames, usually termed: Neutral Carburizing (or “excess acetylene”) Oxidizing (or “excess oxygen” ) The type of flame produced depends upon the ratio of oxygen to acetylene in the gas mixture which leaves the torch tip. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

125 TYPES of FLAMES Neutral- with inner cone(30400C-33000C), outer envelope, (21000C near inner cone, 12600C at tip)- high heating Reducing- Bright luminous inner cone, acetylene feather, blue envelope Low temperature, good for brazing, soldering, flame hardening Hydrogen, methyl acetylene, propadiene also used as fuel. Oxidising- pointed inner cone, small and narrow outer envelope Harmful for steels, good for Cu- Cu based alloys NITC Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

126 OXY ACETYLENE WELDING (OAW) Types of Flames
Neutral Reducing Oxidising high heating low temperature good for Cu- Cu alloys Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

127 Pure Acetylene and Carburizing Flame profiles
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

128 Neutral and Oxidizing Flame Profiles
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

129 Flame definition The neutral flame is produced when the ratio of oxygen to acetylene, in the mixture leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one. It’s termed ”neutral” because it will usually have no chemical effect on the metal being welded. It will not oxidize the weld metal; it will not cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal. The excess acetylene flame as its name implies, is created when the proportion of acetylene in the mixture is higher than that required to produce the neutral flame. Used on steel, it will cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal. The oxidizing flame results from burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or ”burn” some of the metal being welded. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

130 Quiz time The regulator diaphragm is often made from _______?
A: reinforced rubber B: malleable iron C: tempered aluminum D: stainless steel Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

131 Quiz time The hose nuts for oxygen and acetylene differ greatly, because the acetylene hose nut has. A: a left hand thread. B: has a groove cut around it. C: may have ACET stamped on it. D: All of the above. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

132 Quiz time An oxygen cylinder must be able to withstand a ________ pressure of 3300 psi (22753 kPa) to be qualified for service A: atmospheric B: hydrostatic C: hydroscopic D: vapor Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

133 Quiz time Why is the area above 15 psig often marked with a red band on a acetylene low pressure regulator ? Answer Acetylene pressure above 15 psig is unstable and should not be used Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

134 Quiz time True or False ? Answer: True
A flint and steel spark lighter is the generally used to light the oxyacetylene flame. Answer: True Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

135 Quiz time Acetylene cylinder fuse plugs melt at a temperature of ________° F or 100°C Answer 212°F Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

136 Quiz time What is the maximum safe working gauge pressure for acetylene gas? A: 8 psig (55 kPa) B: 15 psig (103 kPa) C: 22 psig (152 kPa) D: 30 psig (207 kPa) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

137 Quiz time The colour of and oxygen hose on a oxyacetylene welding outfit is ______? Answer Green/Blue Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

138 Quiz time The type of safety device is used on a oxygen cylinder.
A: A fusible plug B: A check valve C: A pressure safety disk D: A spring loaded plug Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

139 Quiz time True or False ? Answer: True
The regulator is closed when the adjusting screw is turned out. Answer: True Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

140 Quiz time The colour of acetylene hose on a oxyacetylene welding outfit is ______? Answer Red Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

141 Quiz time No part of an oxygen cylinder walls may be thinner than _______? A: 1/4”in (6.4 mm) B: 3/8”in (9.5 mm) C: 3/16”in (4.8 mm) D: 7/32”in (5.6 mm) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

142 Quiz time To prevent the occurrence of flashbacks, a ________ should be installed between either the torch and hoses or regulators and hoses. A: a two way check valve. B: flame screen. C: flashback arrestor. D: three way check valve. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

143 Quiz time What type of safety device is used on a acetylene cylinder.
A: A spring loaded plug B: A pressure safety disk C: A fusible plug D: A check valve Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

144 Quiz time Mixing _______ and water will produce acetylene gas.
A: calcium carbide B: potassium carbonate C: carbon dioxide D: acetylene carbide Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

145 LIQUID STATE PROCESS PARTIAL MELTING BY STRIKING AN ARC
AFTER THE INVENTION OF ELECTRICITY HOW ARC STRUCK? ARC COLUMN THEORY Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

146

147 ARC WELDING Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

148 ARC WELDING ELECTRIC ARC CARBON ARC WELDING (CAW) - OLDEST
WITHOUT ADDITIONAL EXTERNAL SOURCE AUTOGENEOUS NONCONSUMABLE- CONSUMABLE CARBON ARC WELDING (CAW) - OLDEST METALLIC ARC WELDING (MAW) COATING MATERIALS ARC TO BE CREATED BY ELECTRICITY WHEN? WITH THE INVENTION OF AC DYNAMO IN 1877 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

149 BEGINNING IN 1881- TO CONNECT PLATES OF STORAGE BATTERY
1886- BUTT WELDING TECHNIQUE WAS DEVELOPED BUTTED, CLAMPED HIGH CURRENT PASSED AT THE JOINT, RESISTANCE OF METAL TO ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCES HIGH HEAT- PIECES FUSED Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

150 1ST BY N.V. BERNADO USING CARBON ELECTRODES
ARC WELDING- MELTING AND FUSING OF METAL BY ELECTRODES 1ST BY N.V. BERNADO USING CARBON ELECTRODES CONSISTANTLY IMPROVED 1895 N.G. SLAVIANOFF USED METALLIC ELECTRODES 1905 BARE ELECTRODES COATED—SHIELDING--- (SAW) PORTABLE AND AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINES Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

151 USE OF CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
ARC WELDING PROCESSES USE OF CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) SIMPLEST AND MOST VERSATILE ABOUT 50% OF INDUSTRIAL WELDING BY THIS PROCESS CURRENT- 50 TO 300 A, < 10 KW AC/DC USED FOR THICKNESSES UPTO 19 –20 MM Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

152 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)

153 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
Also known as Manual Metal Arc (MMA) welding Informally as stick welding is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

154 IONS FROM ANODE TO CATHODE, AS METAL IONS ARE +VE CHARGED
ELECTRICAL / IONIC THEORY IONS FROM ANODE TO CATHODE, AS METAL IONS ARE +VE CHARGED ARC COLUMN THEORY ANODE + TOUCH AND THEN ESTABLISH A GAP TO BALANCE THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE IONS COLLIDE WITH GAS MOLECULES PRODUCES A THERMAL IONISATION LAYER IONISED GAS COLUMN – AS HIGH RESISTANCE CONDUCTOR ON STRIKING CATHODE, HEAT GENERATED TERMED AS IONIC THEORY NOT COMPLETE IN EXPLAINING ARC COLUMN THEORY THUS, ELECTRON THEORY DC CATHODE -

155 ELECTRON IMPINGEMENT IONIC BOMBARDMENT
ELECTRON THEORY IONS FROM ANODE TO CATHODE AS METAL IONS ARE +VE CHARGED -VELY CHARGED ELECTRONS DISSOCIATED FROM CATHODE MOVE OPPOSITE WITH HIGH VELOCITY ARC COLUMN THEORY ANODE + DC (MASS- 9.1x gm) CAUSES HEAT IN ARC COLUMN RELEASES HEAT ENERGY IN STRIKING THE ANODE CALLED ELECTRON IMPINGEMENT AND IONIC BOMBARDMENT CATHODE - Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

156 HIGH HEAT LOW HEAT MEDIUM HEAT ANODE+ ELECTRON IMPINGEMENT
IONIC BOMBARDMENT CATHODE - Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

157 THIS COMPLETES THE ARC COLUMN THEORY
MAGNETIC FLUX THEORY THE COLUMN NOT FLAIRING DUE TO THE FLUX LINES AROUND THE ARC COLUMN. (Right hand Thumb Rule) THIS COMPLETES THE ARC COLUMN THEORY Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

158 POLARITY AC Currents higher than those of DCRP can be employed (400 A to 500 Afor 6 mm electrode) Arc cleaning of the base metal Normal penetration Equal heat distribution at electrode and job Electrode tip is colder as compared to that in DCRP Average arc voltage in argon atmosphere is 16V Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

159 DCRP Currents generally less than 125 amps (upto 6 mm dia electrodes) to avoid overheating 2/3rd heat at electrode and 1/3rd at the job Least penetration Average arc voltage on argon atmosphere is 19V Chances of electrode overheating, melting and losses Better arc cleaning action Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

160 DCSP Welding currents upto 1000 amps can be employed for 6 mm electrodes 33.33% heat is generated at the electrode and 66.66% at the job. Deep penetration Average arc voltage in an argon atmsphere is 12 V Electrode runs colder as compared to AC or DCRP No arc cleaning of base metal Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

161 METALLURGY OF WELDING Hence, study of: Nature of welded joint
During joining, localized heating occurs. This leads to metallurgical and physical changes in materials welded. Hence, study of: Nature of welded joint Quality and property of welded joint Weldability of metals Methods of testing welds Welding design Process selection- important .

162 (3) Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)
(2) Fusion Zone (1) Base Metal Structures: (1) SMALL (2) MEDIUM (3) LARGE Properties of (2) and (3) important Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

163 Cooling of Bead- similar to a casting in mould, which is metallic here. Cooling is slow Hence the structure is coarse and Strength toughness and ductility low. But use of proper electrodes improves these. The purpose of coating the electrode is to achieve the improved properties. If without, nitrides and oxides of base metal form and these result in weak and brittle nature. With coating, properties comparable with base metal achieved. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

164 Flux + impurities- less dense. Floats as SLAG
Gas shield Arc column makes CRATER on striking the surface- Temperature above 1500 C Flux + impurities- less dense. Floats as SLAG Slag prevents heat loss- makes an evenly distribution of heat radiation. Preheating to receive the molten metal at an elevated temperature and modify the structure. Not for M.S. Locked in stresses due to heating and cooling- to be relieved by PEENING, or other heat treatment processes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

165 MAGNETIC ARC BLOW -- FOR AC SUPPLY.
Current through conductor- magnetic Flux lines perpendicular to current flow- apply Right hand Thumb Rule. Three areas of magnetic field Arc; 2. Electrode; 3. Work piece, when ground. Forward pull of Arc column results, called as Magnetic Arc Blow. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

166 EQUIPMENT Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

167 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

168 PURPOSE OF COATING Gives out inert or protective gas- shields
Stabilizes the arc- by chemicals Low rate consumption of electrode- directs arc and molten metal Removes impurities and oxides as slag Coatings act as insulators- so narrow grooves welded Provide means to introduce alloying elements Bare electrodes - carbon- more conductive- slow consumption in welding Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

169 ELECTRODE COATING INGREDIENTS
Slag forming ingredients- silicates of sodium, potassium, Mg, Al, iron oxide, China clay, mica etc. Gas shielding- cellulose, wood, starch, calcium carbonate De-oxidising elements- ferro manganese, ferro silicon- to refine molten metal Arc stabilizing – calcium carbonate, potassium silicate, titanates, Mg silicate etc. Alloying elements- ferro alloys, Mn, Mo., to impart special properties Iron powder- to improve arc behaviour, bead appearance Other elements - to improve penetration, limit spatter, improve metal deposition rates, Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

170 As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination. Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its equipment and operation, shielded metal arc welding is one of the world's most popular welding processes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

171 It dominates other welding processes in the maintenance and repair industry, used extensively in the construction of steel structures and in industrial fabrication. The process is used primarily to weld iron and steels (including stainless steel) but aluminum, nickel and copper alloys can also be welded with this method. Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) , a modification to SMAW is growing in popularity Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

172 Various welding electrodes and an electrode holder
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

173 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Uses an open electric arc, so risk of burns – to be prevented by protective clothing in the form of heavy leather gloves and long sleeve jackets. The brightness of the weld area can lead arc eye, in which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Welding helmets with dark face plates to be worn to prevent this exposure Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

174 New helmet models have been produced that feature a face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high amounts of UV light To protect bystanders, especially in industrial environments, transparent welding curtains often surround the welding area. These are made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield nearby workers from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc, but should not be used to replace the filter glass used in helmets. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

175 ARC EYE Arc eye, also known as arc flash or welder's flash or corneal flash burns, is a painful condition sometimes experienced by welders who have failed to use adequate eye protection. It can also occur due to light from sunbeds, light reflected from snow (known as snow blindness), water or sand. The intense ultraviolet light emitted by the arc causes a superficial and painful keratitis. Symptoms tend to occur a number of hours after exposure and typically resolve spontaneously within 36 hours. It has been described as having sand poured into the eyes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

176 Instill topical anaesthesia Inspect the cornea for any foreign body
Signs Intense lacrimation Blepharospasm Photophobia Fluorescein dye staining will reveal corneal ulcers under blue light Management Instill topical anaesthesia Inspect the cornea for any foreign body Patch the worse of the two eyes and prescribe analgesia Topical antibiotics in the form of eye drops or eye ointment or both should be prescribed for prophylaxis against infection Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

177 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

178 CONTROL PANEL Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

179 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

180 DC+ = Optimum Penetration DC - = Optimum deposition rate
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

181 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Is a common arc welding process. A continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (metal cored) electrode used. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being “submerged” under a blanket of granular fusible flux. When molten, the flux becomes conductive, and provides a current path between the electrode and the work Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

182 Normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode.
Semi-automatic (hand-held) SAW guns with pressurized or gravity flux feed delivery are available. The process is normally limited to the 1F, 1G, or the 2F positions (although 2G position welds have been done with a special arrangement to support the flux). Deposition rates approaching 45 kg/h have been reported — this compares to ~5 kg/h (max) for shielded metal arc welding. Currents ranging from 200 to 1500 A are commonly used; currents of up to 5000 A have been used (multiple arcs). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

183 Single or multiple (2 to 5) electrode wire variations of the process exist
SAW strip-cladding utilizes a flat strip electrode (e.g. 60 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick). DC or AC power can be utilized, and combinations of DC and AC are common on multiple electrode systems. Constant Voltage welding power supplies are most commonly used, however Constant Current systems in combination with a voltage sensing wire-feeder are available. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

184 SAW Fusion Welding Process Automatic / Semi Automatic
Arc Between Consumable Electrode And Work Arc Covered Under granular Flux Wire / Electrode Continuously Fed To Weld Pool Wire / Arc Under Flux Moves Along The Groove Wire, BM & Flux Close to Arc Melt Under Flux On Cooling Weld Metal Solidifies Molten Flux Forms Thick Slag Coating On Weld

185 SAW + + – ••• Hopper Power Source Flux Wire Slag Weld Flux Base Metal
••••••••••••••• ••• Arc

186 Flux For SAW Sodium Chloride Potassium Chloride Titanium Dioxide
Sodium Silicate Deoxidizing Agents

187 Types Of Flux Fused Flux Agglomerated Flux Neutral Flux Active Flux

188 Types Of Flux Neutral Flux -Wire compatible to base metal Active Flux
- Single flux suitable for several material Active Flux Single flux suitable for specific application Wire may be different from basemetal To be welded within the recommended parameters

189 Function Of Flux In SAW Stabilizes Arc
Prevents contamination of weld metal Cleans the weld from unwanted impurities Increases Fluidity of molten metal Generates inert gas shielding while metal transfers Forms slag after melting & covers weld Allows deposited metal to cool slowly Compensates alloying elements Within the weld Eliminates spatter generation Helps in even & uniform bead finish

190 Baking Requirements For Flux
Spread the loose Flux in a Tray Of baking Oven Identify The Tray With The Quality/Grade Of Flux Bake Tray in an Oven Between 300° C to 350° C Baking Time 2 Hrs to 3 Hrs Reduce the temperature to 100 ° C to 150 ° C Hold the Flux at this temperature till use

191 Why Baking Flux? To remove the moisture (H2O)
To avoid possible cracking of weld due to H2

192 How Does Moist Flux Generate Crack Within Weld?
Moist Flux introduce atomic hydrogen at high temperature in weld On cooling, atomic hydrogen try to form molecules The reaction results in stresses and fine cracks Cracks occur within hardened metal - HAZ Known as “Hydrogen Embrittlement” or “Under Bead Crack” or Delayed Crack

193 Reuse Of Flux Flux May Be Reused Provided
- Weld Not Highly Critical In Impact / Chemistry - Reuse Limited To Maximum Twice - All Slag Particles Are sieved & Removed - Rebaked If not Remained In Hot - Minimum 50% Fresh Flux Well Mixed - Customer Spec. Doesn't Prohibit The Same

194 Types Of Power Source Thyrester – DC Rectifier – DC
Motor Generator – DC Transformer - AC

195 Characteristic Of Power Source
Machine welding Drooping – Cons. A Linear – Cons. V V V1 V1 V2 V2 A A A1 A2 A1 A2

196 SAW Wire - Electrode Consumable Electrode / Wire
Layer Wound On Spool / Coil CS & LAS Wires Coated with Cu Conducts Current and generates Arc Chemistry Compatible To Base Metal Grade Of Flux Can Be Same For CS & LAS Wire melts & deposited as filler in joint

197 Typical Welding Parameter
Sr no Wire Ø mm Current A Voltage V Speed mm/min Dep. Rate Per Arc Hr Wire & Flux 1 1.6 22-26 3 – 4 kgs CS wire + Neutral Flux 2 24-26 kgs 4 2.5 25-27 4 –4.5 kgs 5 3 28-30 5 – 5.5 kgs 6 30-32 kgs 7 30-34 kgs

198 Current Wave Offset Wave Balance Frequency Important parameters
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

199 Wave Offset Variation Current, Voltage, Power time Level 2 Level 3
+75%,-25% Level 3 +25%,-75% Level 1 50%,50% time * Wave offset refers to the shift in the amplitude direction. Equal amplitude in positive and negative side is referred as zero offset whereas an increase in wave offset implies that the positive amplitude is increased from its equilibrium position of 50% and proportionate decrease in negative amplitude from its equilibrium position of 50% and decrease in wave offset implies that the positive amplitude is decreased from its equilibrium position of 50% and proportionate increase in negative amplitude from its equilibrium position of 50% Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

200 Wave Balance Variation
Level 1 +50, -50 Level 2 +75, -25 Level 3 +25, -75 time Current, Voltage, Power Wave balance refers to the amount of time the waveform spends in DC+ part of cycle but the amplitude will be same. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

201 Effect of Frequency Current, Voltage, Power Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Low Level 2 medium Level 3 High time Current, Voltage, Power Frequency refers to shift of peak current with respect to the zero crossing. Here we observe that at lower frequency shift of peak current with respect to the zero crossing is less than in comparison to higher frequency. So Penetration & deposition will be more at lower frequency. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

202 Important Terminology used in Critical SAW
Preheating Post Heating or Dehydrogenation Intermediate Stress leaving Inter pass Temperature Post Weld Heat Treatment

203 What Is Preheating? Heating the base metal along the weld joint to a predetermined minimum temperature immediately before starting the weld. Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible Temperature to be verified by thermo chalks prior to starting the weld

204 Why Preheating? Preheating eliminates possible cracking of weld and HAZ Applicable to -Hardenable low alloy steels of all thickness -Carbon steels of thickness above 25 mm. -Restrained welds of all thickness Preheating temperature vary from 75°C to 200°C depending on hardenability of material, thickness & joint restrain

205 How does Preheating Eliminate Crack?
Preheating promotes slow cooling of weld and HAZ Slow cooling softens or prevents hardening of weld and HAZ Soft material not prone to crack even in restrained condition

206 What Is Post Heating? Raising the pre heating temperature of the weld joint to a predetermined temperature range (250° C to 350° C) for a minimum period of time (3 Hrs) before the weld cools down to room temperature. Post heating performed when welding is completed or terminated any time in between. Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible Temperature verified by thermo chalks during the period

207 Why Post Heating? Post heating eliminates possible delayed cracking of weld and HAZ Applicable to -Thicker hardenable low alloy steels -Restrained hardenable welds of all thickness Post heating temperature and duration depends on hardenability of material, thickness & joint restrain

208 How does Post Heating Eliminate Crack?
SAW introduces hydrogen in weld metal Entrapped hydrogen in weld metal induces delayed cracks unless removed before cooling to room temperature Retaining the weld at a higher temperature for a longer duration allows the hydrogen to come out of weld

209 What Is Intermediate Stress Relieving?
Heat treating a subassembly in a furnace to a predetermined cycle immediately on completion of critical restrained weld joint / joints without allowing the welds to go down the pre heat temperature. Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness Applicable to Highly restrained air hardenable material

210 Why Intermediate Stress Relieving?
Restrained welds in air hardenable steel highly prone to crack on cooling to room temperature. Cracks due to entrapped hydrogen and built in stress Intermediate stress relieving relieves built in stresses and entrapped hydrogen making the joint free from crack prone

211 What Is Inter- Pass Temperature?
The temperature of a previously layed weld bead immediately before depositing the next bead over it Temperature to be verified by thermo chalk prior to starting next bead Applicable to Stainless Steel Carbon Steel & LAS with minimum impact

212 Why Inter Pass Temperature?
Control on inter pass temperature avoids over heating, there by -Refines the weld metal with fine grains -Improves the notch toughness properties -Minimize the loss of alloying elements in welds -Reduces the distortion

213 What Is Post Weld Heat Treatment?
Heat treating an assembly on completion of all applicable welding, in an enclosed furnace with controlled heating/cooling rate and soaking at a specific temperature for a specific time. Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness Applicable to -All type of CS & LAS

214 Material applications
Carbon steels (structural and vessel construction); Low alloy steels; Stainless Steels; Nickel-based alloys; Surfacing applications (wearfacing, build-up, and corrosion resistant overlay of steels). Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

215 Advantages of SAW High deposition rates (over45 kg/h) have been reported; High operating factors in mechanized applications; Deep weld penetration; Sound welds are readily made (with good process design and control); High speed welding of thin sheet steels at over 2.5 m/min is possible; Minimal welding fume or arc light is emitted. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

216 Limitations of SAW Limited to ferrous (steel or stainless steels) and some nickel based alloys; Normally limited to the 1F, 1G, and 2F positions; Normally limited to long straight seams or rotated pipes or vessels; Requires relatively troublesome flux handling systems; Flux and slag residue can present a health & safety issue; Requires inter-pass and post weld slag removal. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

217 Key SAW process variables
Wire Feed Speed (main factor in welding current control); Arc Voltage; Travel Speed; Electrical Stick-Out (ESO) or Contact Tip to Work (CTTW); Polarity and Current Type (AC or DC). Other factors Flux depth/width; Flux and electrode classification and type; Electrode wire diameter; Multiple electrode configurations. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

218 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

219 FCAW Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

220 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW)

221 GTAW Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

222 GTAW Fusion Welding Process
Arc Between Non-Consumable Tungsten Rod And Work Arc & Weld Pool Shielded By Argon/Gas Filler Wire Separately Added To Weld Pool Welding Torch & Tungsten Rod Cooled by Flow OF Argon / Cooling Water Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

223 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW)
ELECTRODE NOT CONSUMED TUNGSTEN ELECTRODES USED ARGON- HEAVIER FOR NARROW AND LIMITED EXPANSION,WIDER, DEEPER PUDDLE HELIUM FOR EVEN EXPANSIONLIMITED STRESS BUILDUP MORE He, MORE HEAT IN ARC Ar-He MIX FOR AUTOMATIC GTAW Ar- CO2 FOR CARBON STEELS, ECONIMICAL, INCREASES WETTING ACTION GTAW TORCH- WATER OR AIR COOLED CONSTANT CURRENT SOURCE.(IIIr TO SMAW) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

224 GTAW Equipment & Accessories
Power Source – Inverter, Thyrister, Rectifier, Generator High Frequency Unit Water Cooling System Welding Torch- (Ceramic Cup, Tungsten Rod, Collet, Gas-lens) Pedal Switch Argon Gas Cylinder Pressure Gauge, Regulator, Flow Meter Earthing Cable With Clamp Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

225 Equipment & Accessories
Pressure Regulator Flow Meter Tungsten Rod Argon Gas In Cooling Water In Solenoid Valve Argon Cylinder Gas Lens HF Unit & Water Cooling System Welding Cable & Cooling Water In Tube Ceramic Cup Cooling Water Out Argon Shielding Arc High Frequency Connection + Work Pedal Switch Power Source Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

226 Equipment GTAW torch with various electrodes, cups, collets and gas diffusers GTAW torch, disassembled Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

227 Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), commonly known as Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding
Is an arc welding process that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually an inert gas such as argon), and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it. A constant current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as a plasma. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

228 Most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater control over the weld than competing procedures such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding, allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master, and furthermore, it is significantly slower than most other welding techniques. A related process, plasma arc welding, uses a slightly different welding torch to create a more focused welding arc and as a result is often automated. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

229 GTAW system setup Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

230 Applications Aerospace industry is one of the primary users of gas tungsten arc welding. The process is used in a number of other areas. Many industries use GTAW for welding thin workpieces, especially nonferrous metals. It is used extensively in the manufacture of space vehicles, and is also frequently employed to weld small-diameter, thin-wall tubing. Is often used to make root or first pass welds for piping of various sizes. In maintenance and repair work, the process is commonly used to repair tools and dies, especially components made of aluminum and magnesium. Because the welds it produces are highly resistant to corrosion and cracking over long time periods, GTAW is the welding procedure of choice for critical welding operations like sealing spent nuclear fuel canisters before burial. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

231 Quality GTAW ranks the highest in terms of the quality of weld produced. Operation must be with free from oil, moisture, dirt and other impurities, as these cause weld porosity and consequently a decrease in weld strength and quality. To remove oil & grease, alcohol or similar commercial solvents used, while a stainless steel wire brush or chemical process remove oxides from the surfaces of metals like aluminum. Rust on steels removed by first grit blasting the surface and then using a wire brush to remove imbedded grit. These steps important when DCEN used, because this provides no cleaning during the welding process, unlike DCEPor AC. To maintain a clean weld pool during welding, the shielding gas flow should be sufficient and consistent so that the gas covers the weld and blocks impurities in the atmosphere. GTA welding in windy or drafty environments increases the amount of shielding gas necessary to protect the weld, increasing the cost and making the process unpopular outdoors. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

232 Because of GTAW's relative difficulty and the importance of proper technique, skilled operators are employed for important applications. Low heat input, caused by low welding current or high welding speed, can limit penetration and cause the weld bead to lift away from the surface being welded. If there is too much heat input, the weld bead grows in width while the likelihood of excessive penetration and spatter increase. If the welder holds the welding torch too far from the workpiece, shielding gas is wasted and the appearance of the weld worsens. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

233 If the amount of current used exceeds the capability of the electrode, tungsten inclusions in the weld may result. Known as tungsten spitting, it can be identified with radiography and prevented by changing the type of electrode or increasing the electrode diameter. If the electrode is not well protected by the gas shield or the operator accidentally allows it to contact the molten metal, it can become dirty or contaminated. This often causes the welding arc to become unstable, requiring that electrode be ground with a diamond abrasive to remove the impurity. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

234 GTAW welding torches designed for either automatic or manual operation and are equipped with cooling systems using air or water. The automatic and manual torches are similar in construction, but the manual torch has a handle while the automatic torch normally comes with a mounting rack. The angle between the centerline of the handle and the centerline of the tungsten electrode, known as the head angle, can be varied on some manual torches according to the preference of the operator. Air cooling systems are most often used for low-current operations (up to about 200 A), while water cooling is required for high-current welding (up to about 600 A). The torches are connected with cables to the power supply and with hoses to the shielding gas source and where used, the water supply. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

235 The internal metal parts of a torch are made of hard alloys of copper or brass in order to transmit current and heat effectively. The tungsten electrode must be held firmly in the center of the torch with an appropriately sized collet, and ports around the electrode provide a constant flow of shielding gas. The body of the torch is made of heat-resistant, insulating plastics covering the metal components, providing insulation from heat and electricity to protect the welder. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

236 GTAW TORCH Cap with collet For Holding Tungsten Torch Handle
Cooling Water Outlet Argon Gas Inlet Cooling Water Inlet Tube with cable Ceramic Cup Tungsten Rod Argon Shielding Gas Base Metal Earthing Cable Arc Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

237 The size of the welding torch nozzle depends on the size of the desired welding arc, and the inside diameter of the nozzle is normally at least three times the diameter of the electrode. The nozzle must be heat resistant and thus is normally made of alumina or a ceramic material, but fused quartz, a glass-like substance, offers greater visibility. Devices can be inserted into the nozzle for special applications, such as gas lenses or valves to control shielding gas flow and switches to control welding current. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

238 Power supply GTAW uses a constant current power source, meaning that the current (and thus the heat) remains relatively constant, even if the arc distance and voltage change. This is important because most applications of GTAW are manual or semiautomatic, requiring that an operator hold the torch. Maintaining a suitably steady arc distance is difficult if a constant voltage power source is used instead, since it can cause dramatic heat variations and make welding more difficult. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

239 The preferred polarity of the GTAW system depends largely on the type of metal being welded.
DCEN is often employed when welding steels, nickel, titanium, and other metals. It can also be used in automatic GTA welding of aluminum or magnesium when helium is used as a shielding gas. The negatively charged electrode generates heat by emitting electrons which travel across the arc, causing thermal ionization of the shielding gas and increasing the temperature of the base material. The ionized shielding gas flows toward the electrode, not the base material, and this can allow oxides to build on the surface of the weld. DCEP is less common, and is used primarily for shallow welds since less heat is generated in the base material. Instead of flowing from the electrode to the base material, as in DCEN, electrons go the other direction, causing the electrode to reach very high temperatures. To help it maintain its shape and prevent softening, a larger electrode is often used. As the electrons flow toward the electrode, ionized shielding gas flows back toward the base material, cleaning the weld by removing oxides and other impurities and thereby improving its quality and appearance. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

240 AC commonly used when welding aluminum and magnesium manually or semi-automatically, combines the two direct currents by making the electrode and base material alternate between positive and negative charge. This causes the electron flow to switch directions constantly, preventing the tungsten electrode from overheating while maintaining the heat in the base material. This makes the ionized shielding gas constantly switch its direction of flow, causing impurities to be removed during a portion of the cycle. Some power supplies enable operators to use an unbalanced alternating current wave by modifying the exact percentage of time that the current spends in each state of polarity, giving them more control over the amount of heat and cleaning action supplied by the power source. In addition, operators must be wary of rectification, in which the arc fails to reignite as it passes from straight polarity (negative electrode) to reverse polarity (positive electrode). To remedy the problem, a square wave power supply can be used, as can high frequency voltage to encourage ignition. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

241 Tungsten Rod Tungsten Rod Non Consumable Electrode.
Maintains Stable Arc Tip to be Ground to a cone Shape of 60º to 30º angle Thoriated Tungsten for General Application, Zerconiated Tungsten for Aluminium Welding Sizes :- 2, 2.4 & 3 mm Ø ISO Colour Code Ground to º angle Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

242 ISO Class ISO Color AWS Class AWS Color Alloy [18] WP Green EWP None WC20 Gray EWCe-2 Orange ~2% CeO2 WL10 Black EWLa-1 ~1% LaO2 WL15 Gold EWLa-1.5 ~1.5% LaO2 WL20 Sky-blue EWLa-2 Blue ~2% LaO2 WT10 Yellow EWTh-1 ~1% ThO2 WT20 Red EWTh-2 ~2% ThO2 WT30 Violet ~3% ThO2 WT40 ~4% ThO2 WY20 ~2% Y2O3 WZ3 Brown EWZr-1 ~0.3% ZrO2 WZ8 White ~0.8% ZrO2 The electrode used in GTAW is made of tungsten or a tungsten alloy, because tungsten has the highest melting temperature among metals, at 3422 °C. The electrode is not consumed during welding, though some erosion (called burn-off) can occur. Electrodes can have either a clean finish or a ground finish—clean finish electrodes have been chemically cleaned, while ground finish electrodes have been ground to a uniform size and have a polished surface, making them optimal for heat conduction. The diameter of the electrode can vary between 0.5 mm and 6.4 mm, and their length can range from 75 to 610 mm . Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

243 A number of tungsten alloys have been standardized by the International Organization for Standardization and the American Welding Society in ISO 6848 and AWS A5.12, respectively, for use in GTAW electrodes- refer table Pure tungsten electrodes (classified as WP or EWP) are general purpose and low cost electrodes. Cerium oxide (or ceria) as an alloying element improves arc stability and ease of starting while decreasing burn-off. Using an alloy of lanthanum oxide (or lanthana) has a similar effect. Thorium oxide (or thoria) alloy electrodes were designed for DC applications and can withstand somewhat higher temperatures while providing many of the benefits of other alloys. However, it is somewhat radioactive, and as a replacement, electrodes with larger concentrations of lanthanum oxide can be used. Electrodes containing zirconium oxide (or zirconia) increase the current capacity while improving arc stability and starting and increasing electrode life. Electrode manufacturers may create alternative tungsten alloys with specified metal additions, and these are designated with the classification EWG under the AWS system. Filler metals are also used in nearly all applications of GTAW, the major exception being the welding of thin materials. Filler metals are available with different diameters and are made of a variety of materials. In most cases, the filler metal in the form of a rod is added to the weld pool manually, but some applications call for an automatically fed filler metal, which is fed from rolls. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

244 shielding gases Necessary in GTAW to protect the welding area from atmospheric gases such as nitrogen and oxygen, which can cause fusion defects, porosity, and weld metal embrittlement if they come in contact with the electrode, the arc, or the welding metal. The gas also transfers heat from the tungsten electrode to the metal, and it helps start and maintain a stable arc. The selection of a shielding gas depends on several factors, including the type of material being welded, joint design, and desired final weld appearance. Argon is the most commonly used shielding gas for GTAW, since it helps prevent defects due to a varying arc length. When used with alternating current, the use of argon results in high weld quality and good appearance. Another common shielding gas, helium, is most often used to increase the weld penetration in a joint, to increase the welding speed, and to weld conductive metals like copper and aluminum. A significant disadvantage is the difficulty of striking an arc with helium gas, and the decreased weld quality associated with a varying arc length. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

245 Shielding Gas Inert Gas - Argon , Helium Common Shielding Gas – Argon
When Helium Is Used – Called Heli – Arc Welding When Argon Is Used – Called Argon Arc Welding Inert Gas Prevents Contamination Of Molten Metal It Prevents Oxidation Of Tungsten Rod It Ionizes Air Gap and Stabilizes Arc It Cools Welding Torch & Tungsten Rod Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

246 Shielding Gas Argon - Purity 99.95% Impure Argon Results In Porosities
Purity Verified by Fusing BQ CS plate Leakage of Argon in Torch Results in Porosity. Check Leakage by Closing the Ceramic Cup With Thump Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

247 Argon Gas Cylinder Light Blue In Colour
Full Cylinder Pressure: 1800 psi ( 130 Kgs / Cm2 ) Volume Of Argon In Full Cylinder: 7.3 M3 Commercial Argon (99.99%) Cost: Rs 70/- Per M3 High Purity Argon (99.999) Cost: Rs 87/- Per M3 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

248 Purging Gas Commercial Argon or Nitrogen
Back Purging Purging Gas Commercial Argon or Nitrogen Applicable to Single Sided full penetration Prevents oxidation of root pass from opposite side of weld Essential for high alloy steels, nonferrous metals and alloys Desirable For All Material Filler Wire Welding Torch Purging Gas Out Purging Gas In Root Pass Purging chamber Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

249 Argon-helium mixtures are also frequently utilized in GTAW, since they can increase control of the heat input while maintaining the benefits of using argon. Normally, the mixtures are made with primarily helium (often about 75% or higher) and a balance of argon. These mixtures increase the speed and quality of the AC welding of aluminum, and also make it easier to strike an arc. Argon-hydrogen, is used in the mechanized welding of light gauge stainless steel, but because hydrogen can cause porosity, its uses are limited. Nitrogen can sometimes be added to argon to help stabilize the austenite in austentitic stainless steels and increase penetration when welding copper. Due to porosity problems in ferritic steels and limited benefits, however, it is not a popular shielding gas additive. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

250 Materials Most commonly used to weld stainless steel and nonferrous materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, but it can be applied to nearly all metals, with notable exceptions being lead and zinc. Its applications involving carbon steels are limited not because of process restrictions, but because of the existence of more economical steel welding techniques, such as gas metal arc welding and shielded metal arc welding. GTAW can be performed in a variety of other-than-flat positions, depending on the skill of the welder and the materials being welded. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

251 accentuated AC etched zone Closeup view of an
A TIG weld showing an accentuated AC etched zone Closeup view of an aluminium TIG weld AC etch zone Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

252 Aluminum and magnesium are most often welded using alternating current, but the use of direct current is also possible, depending on the properties desired. Before welding, the work area should be cleaned and may be preheated to  °C for aluminum or to a maximum of 150 °C for thick magnesium workpieces to improve penetration and increase travel speed. AC current can provide a self-cleaning effect, removing the thin, refractory aluminium oxide (sapphire) layer that forms on aluminium metal within minutes of exposure to air. This oxide layer must be removed for welding to occur. When alternating current is used, pure tungsten electrodes or zirconiated tungsten electrodes are preferred over thoriated electrodes, as the latter are more likely to "spit" electrode particles across the welding arc into the weld. Blunt electrode tips are preferred, and pure argon shielding gas should be employed for thin workpieces. Introducing helium allows for greater penetration in thicker workpieces, but can make arc starting difficult. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

253 Direct current of either polarity, positive or negative, can be used to weld aluminum and magnesium as well. DCEN allows for high penetration, and is most commonly used on joints with butting surfaces, such as square groove joints. Short arc length (generally less than 2 mm or 0.07 in) gives the best results, making the process better suited for automatic operation than manual operation. Shielding gases with high helium contents are most commonly used with DCEN, and thoriated electrodes are suitable. DCEP is used primarily for shallow welds, especially those with a joint thickness of less than 1.6 mm. While still important, cleaning is less essential for DCEP than DCEN, since the electron flow from the workpiece to the electrode helps maintain a clean weld. A large, thoriated tungsten electrode is commonly used, along with a pure argon shielding gas. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

254 Steels For GTA welding of carbon and stainless steels, the selection of a filler material is important to prevent excessive porosity. Oxides on the filler material and workpieces must be removed before welding to prevent contamination, and immediately prior to welding, alcohol or acetone should be used to clean the surface. Preheating is generally not necessary for mild steels less than one inch thick, but low alloy steels may require preheating to slow the cooling process and prevent the formation of martensite in the heat-affected zone. Tool steels should also be preheated to prevent cracking in the heat-affected zone. Austenitic stainless steels do not require preheating, but martensitic and ferritic chromium stainless steels do. A DCEN power source is normally used, and thoriated electrodes, tapered to a sharp point, are recommended. Pure argon is used for thin workpieces, but helium can be introduced as thickness increases. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

255 Dissimilar metals Welding dissimilar metals often introduces new difficulties to GTA welding, because most materials do not easily fuse to form a strong bond. Welds of dissimilar materials have numerous applications in manufacturing, repair work, and the prevention of corrosion and oxidation. In some joints, a compatible filler metal is chosen to help form the bond, and this filler metal can be the same as one of the base materials (eg:, using a stainless steel filler metal stainless steel and carbon steel as base materials), or a different metal (such as the use of a nickel filler metal for joining steel and cast iron). Very different materials may be coated or "buttered" with a material compatible with a particular filler metal, and then welded. In addition, GTAW can be used in cladding or overlaying dissimilar materials. When welding dissimilar metals, the joint must have an accurate fit, with proper gap dimensions and bevel angles. Care should be taken to avoid melting excessive base material. Pulsed current is particularly useful for these applications, as it helps limit the heat input. The filler metal should be added quickly, and a large weld pool should be avoided to prevent dilution of the base materials. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

256 Process variations Pulsed-current
In the pulsed-current mode, the welding current rapidly alternates between two levels. The higher current state is known as the pulse current, while the lower current level is called the background current. During the period of pulse current, the weld area is heated and fusion occurs. Upon dropping to the background current, the weld area is allowed to cool and solidify. Pulsed-current GTAW has a number of advantages, including lower heat input and consequently a reduction in distortion and warpage in thin workpieces. In addition, it allows for greater control of the weld pool, and can increase weld penetration, welding speed, and quality. A similar method, manual programmed GTAW, allows the operator to program a specific rate and magnitude of current variations, making it useful for specialized applications. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

257 Dabber The Dabber variation is used to precisely place weld metal on thin edges. The automatic process replicates the motions of manual welding by feeding a cold filler wire into the weld area and dabbing (or oscillating) it into the welding arc. It can be used in conjunction with pulsed current, and is used to weld a variety of alloys, including titanium, nickel, and tool steels. Common applications include rebuilding seals in jet engines and building up saw blades, milling cutters, drill bits, and mower blades Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

258 Heat-affected zone The cross-section of a welded butt joint, with the darkest gray representing the weld or fusion zone, the medium gray the heat affected zone, and the lightest gray the base material. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

259 The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the area of base material, either a metal or a thermoplastic, which has had its microstructure and properties altered by welding. The heat from the welding process and subsequent re-cooling causes this change in the area surrounding the weld. The extent and magnitude of property change depends primarily on the base material, the weld filler metal, and the amount and concentration of heat input by the welding process. The thermal diffusivity of the base material plays a large role – if the diffusivity is high, the material cooling rate is high and the HAZ is relatively small. Alternatively, a low diffusivity leads to slower cooling and a larger HAZ. The amount of heat inputted by the welding process plays an important role as well, as processes like oxyfuel welding use high heat input and increase the size of the HAZ. Processes like laser beam welding give a highly concentrated, limited amount of heat, resulting in a small HAZ. Arc welding falls between these two extremes, with the individual processes varying somewhat in heat input Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

260 To calculate the heat input for arc welding procedures, the formula used is:
where Q = heat input (kJ/mm), V = voltage (V), I = current (A), and S = welding speed (mm/min). The efficiency is dependent on the welding process used, with shielded metal arc welding having a value of 0.75, gas metal arc welding and submerged arc welding, 0.9, and gas tungsten arc welding, 0.8. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

261 Types Of GTAW Power Source
Inverter- DC Thyrister – DC Motor Generator – DC Rectifier – DC Transformer – AC (For Aluminium Welding Only) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

262 Power Source Provides Electric Energy – Arc – Heat
Drooping Characteristic OCV – Appx. 90V, Current Range 40 A to 300 A ( Capacity Of M/s) Arc Voltage 18V to 26V Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

263 Characteristic Of GTAW Power Source
Drooping – Constant Current V V1 Vertical Curve V2 A A1 A2 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

264 High Frequency Unit Provides High Voltage Electric Energy With Very high Frequency – Cycles / Sec. Initiates low energy Arc / Spark & Ionize Air Gap. Electrically charges Air Gap For welding Current to Jump Across the Tungsten Tip & BM to Form An Arc. HF Gets Cut Off, Once Welding Arc Struck. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

265 Water Cooling System Provides Cooling Water To Welding Torch.
Cools Tungsten Rod, Torch handle & Welding Cable. Cooling Water Returns through Flexible Tube Which Carries welding cable within. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

266 Pedal Switch Switches system on And off in sequence When Pedal Pressed
Solenoid valve opens, Argon gas flows High Frequency current jumps from tungsten rod generating sparks Welding current flows generating an arc across tungsten rod and work. High frequency gets cut off from the system & welding continues. When Pedal Released Current gets cut off, Arc extinguishes Gas flow remains for few more seconds before it stops. Switches system on And off in sequence Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

267 Argon Gas Cylinder- Pressure Regulator + Flow Meter
Cylinder Stores Argon At High Pressure Regulator Regulates Cylinder Pressure to Working Pressure Flow Meter Controls Flow Rate Cylinder Valve Pressure gauges Flow Meter Flow Regulator Pressure Regulator Connection To Torch Argon Cylinder Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

268 Tools For GTAW Head Screen Hand gloves Chipping Hammer Wire Brush
Spanner Set Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

269 Filler Wire Added Separately to the weld pool.
Compatible to base metal Used in cut length for manual welding. Used from layer wound spool for automatic welding. Sizes :- 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4 & 3 mm Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

270 ASME Classification Of Filler Wire
SS Filler Wire: SFA-5.9, ER 308, 308L, 316, 316L, 347, 309 LAS Filler Wire: SFA 5.28, ER 70S A1, ER 80S B2, ER90S D2, ER 80S Ni2 CS Filler Wire: SFA , ER 70S2 C = 0.07%, Mn = 0.9% – 1.4%, Si = 0.4 – 0.7%, P = 0.025%, S = 0.035% Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

271 Dos & Don'ts In GTAW Always Connect Electrode – Ve
Keep Always Flow Meter Vertical Check & Confirm Argon Purity Clean Groove & Filler wire With Acetone Grind Tungsten Tip to Point Don’t Strike Arc With Electrode + Ve Don’t strike Arc Without Argon Flow Don’t Strike Arc By touching Tungsten Rod Don’t Touch Weld Pool With Tungsten Rod Don’t Lift and break Arc Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

272 Dos & Don'ts In GTAW Break The Arc Only By Pedal Switch
Lift The Torch only After 5 Sec Of Arc Break. Ensure Pre Purging & Post Purging of 5Sec Ensure Argon Flow & Water Circulation To Torch When Arc is Stopped Don’t Lift Torch immediately. Don’t Weld With Blend Tungsten Rod Don’t Weld With Argon Leaking Torch Don’t Weld Without Water Circulation Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

273 Dos & Don'ts In GTAW Dos Don’ts Provide Back Purging For Single Sided Full Penetration Welds Use N2 or Argon as Back Purging Gas For CS & LAS Use Argon As Back Purging Gas For SS & Non Ferrous Alloys Don’t Weld Single Sided Full Penetration Welds Without Back Purging Don’t Use N2 As Back Purging Gas For Non Ferrous Alloys Don’t Empty Ag Cylinders Fully. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

274 Defects In GTAW 1. Cracks 2. Lack Of Fusion 3. Porosity 4. Undercut
5.Lack Of Penetration Excess Penetration 7.Overlap Suck Back 9. Under Flush Burn Through 11. Tungsten Inclusion Stray Arcing Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

275 Crack Cause Remedy Wrong Consumable Wrong Procedure Improper Preheat
Inadequate Thickness In Root Pass Use Right Filler Wire Qualify Procedure Preheat Uniformly Add More Filler Wire in root Pass crack Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

276 Lack Of Fusion Cause Remedy Inadequate Current Wrong Torch angle
Improper bead placement Use Right Current Train /Qualify welder Train/Qualify Welder Lack Of Fusion Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

277 Porosity Cause Remedy Impure Argon Gas Argon Leak Within Torch
Defective Filler Wire Wet surface of BM Rusted / Pitted Filler wire Improper Flow Of Argon Replace Argon Cylinder Replace Leaking Torch Replace Filler Wire Clean & Warm BM Clean Filler Wire Provide Gas lens Porosity . . Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

278 Undercut Cause Remedy Excess Current Excess Voltage
Improper Torch angle Reduce the Current Reduce Arc length Train & Qualify the Welder Under cut Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

279 Lack Of Penetration* Cause Remedy Excess Root Face
Inadequate Root opening Over size Filler Wire Wrong Direction of Arc Improper bead placement Improper weaving technique Reduce Root Face Increase Root Opening Reduce Filler Wire size Train / Qualify Welder Train & Qualify Welder * Applicable to SSFPW LOP Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

280 Excess Penetration* Cause Remedy Excess root opening Excess Current
Inadequate root face Excess Weaving Wrong Direction Of Arc Reduce root gap Reduce Current Increase Root face Train Welder * Applicable to SSFPW Excess Penetration Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

281 Overlap Cause Remedy 1) Wrong Direction Of Arc Inadequate Current
Excess Filler Wire Train & Qualify Welder Increase Current Reduce Filler Metal Overlap Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

282 Suck Back* Cause Remedy Excess weaving in root Excess Current
Inadequate root face Wrong Electrode angle Reduce weaving Reduce Current Increase root face Train / Qualify Welder * Applicable to SSFPW in 4G, 3G & 2G Suck Back Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

283 Under flush Cause Remedy Inadequate weld beads in final layer
2) Inadequate understanding on weld reinforcement 3) Wrong selection of filler wire size Weld some more beads in final layer 2) Train / Qualify welder 3) Train / Qualify Welder Under flush Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

284 Burn through* Cause Remedy Excess Current Excess Root opening
Inadequate Root face Improper weaving Reduce the Current Reduce root opening Increase root face Train / Qualify Welder *Applicable to root pass Burn trough Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

285 Tungsten Inclusion Cause Remedy Ineffective HF
Improper Starting of Arc 3) Tungsten Tip Comes in Contact With Weld Rectify HF Unit Never Touch Weld With Tungsten Rod 3) Train / Qualify welder Tungsten Inclusion Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

286 Stray Arcing Cause Remedy HF Not In Operation
Inadequate Skill of Welder Rectify HF Unit Train the Welder Arc Strikes Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

287 Gas Metal Arc Welding

288 What Is GMAW ? A Fusion Welding Process – Semi Automatic
Arc Between Consumable Electrode &Work Arc Generated by Electric Energy From a Rectifier / Thyrester / Inverter Filler Metal As Electrode Continuously fed From Layer Wound Spool. Filler Wire Driven to Arc By Wire Feeder through Welding Torch Arc & Molten Pool Shielded by Inert Gas through Torch / Nozzle

289 Gas Metal Arc Welding MIG – Shielding Gas Ar / Ar + O2 / Ar + Co2
MAG – Shielding Gas Co2 FCAW – Shielding Gas Co2 With Flux cored Wire Note:- Addition of 1 – 5% of O2 or 5 – 10% of Co2 in Ar. increases wetting action of molten metal

290 Power Source For MIG / MAG
Inverter- DC Thyrister – DC Motor Generator – DC Rectifier – DC

291 Characteristic Of GMAW Power Source
Constant V / Linear Characteristic V Appx. Horizontal Curve V1 V2 A A1 A2

292 Current & Polarity DC- Electrode +Ve Stable Arc
Smooth Metal Transfer Relatively Low Spatter Good Weld Bead Characteristics DC- Electrode – ve, Seldom Used AC- Commercially Not In use

293 Accessories Of GMAW Power Source Wire Feed Unit
Shielding Gas Cylinder, Pressure gauges/ Regulator, Flow meter (Heater For Co2 ) Welding Torch Water Cooling System (For Water cooled Torch) Earthing Cable With Clamp

294 Tools For GMAW Head Screen With DIN 13 / 14 Dark Glass
Hand Wire Brush / Grinder With Wire Wheel Cutting Pliers Hand Gloves Chipping Hammer / Chisel & hammer Spanner Set Cylinder Key Anti-spatter Spray Earthing Cable With Clamp

295 Filler Wire - Electrode
GMAW Torch On / Off Switch Shielding Gas Torch Handle Spring Conduit Gas Cup Nozzle Tip Filler Wire - Electrode Arc Job

296 Equipment & Accessories
Pressure Regulator Flow Meter Shielding Gas Heater (Only For Co2) Solenoid Valve Switch Shielding Gas Cylinder Welding Torch Wire Feeder Copper Cup Wire Inside Spring Lining Contact Tip Electrode / Wire Wire Spool Argon / Co2 Shielding Arc Work Power Source With Inductance Torch With Cable Max. 3Mtr

297 UNIQUE IN GMAW, HIGHER WIRE FEED
GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW) ALMOST REPLACING SMAW, FASTER, INTRODUCED IN 1940’S, DCRP GENERALLY EMPLOYED, CONTINUOUS WIRE FEEDING MODES OF METAL TRANSFER 1 SPRAY 2 SHORT CIRCUIT 3 GLOBULAR 4 BURIED ARC 5 PULSED ARC HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH AMPERAGE (WIRE FEED) VERY LOW VOLTAGE MODERATE WIRE FEED BETWEEN 1&2 UNIQUE IN GMAW, HIGHER WIRE FEED PULSING BETWEEN MODES DROPLETS- DEEP Penet. FOR THICK COOLEST MODE, LEAST Penetration. FOR CARBON STEELS, 6 TO 12 MM HIGH SPPED, LOW SPATTER, DEEP Penet., FOR MS AND SS NO GUN OSCILLATION ARGON ST. (FOR NARROW) 75 % Ar + 25% CO2 90%Ar + 7.5% CO2 +2.5% He FOR THICK TO THIN, DISSIMILAR Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

298 Metal Transfer In GMAW CS Solid Wire 1.2 mm Φ 120 to 250A 16 – 24 V
Above230A 24 – 35 V Up to 120A 14 – 22V Dip/Short Circuiting Globular Spray Co2 or Ar Co2 or Ar Only Ar / Ar+O2 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

299 Function Of Shielding Gas In GMAW
Prevents Air contamination of weld Pool Prevents Contamination During Metal Transfer Increases fluidity of molten metal Minimizes the spatter generation Helps in even & uniform bead finish

300 Gas Metal Arc Welding Effects of Shielding gas
Filler Metal Deposition Rate and Efficiency Spatter Control and Post weld Cleaning Bead Profile and Overwelding Bead Penetration, Potential for Burn-through Out-of-position Weldability Welding Fume Generation Rates Weld Metal Mechanical Properties Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

301 A CONSTANT VOLTAGE POWER SOURCE USED.
GASES PUROPOSE- 1.TO SHIELD MOLTEN PUDDLE FROM CONTAMINATION 2.CREATE A SMOOTH ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION PATH FOR ELECTRONS IN ARC SOME GASES (ARGON)MAKE SMOOTH PATH, BUT SOME RESISTS (CO2) PATH. STRAIGHT ARGON FOR NARROW BEADS 98% Ar+ 2 OXYGEN FOR SPRAY, He FOR COPPER, THICK Al (WITH Ar). 75 % Ar + 25% CO2 FOR SHORT CIRCUIT., STRAIGHT CO2 ECONOMICAL, BUT SPATTERING. 90%Ar + 7.5% CO2 +2.5% He FOR BURIED ARC, SS. 90% Ar + 10% He FOR AUTOMATIC V, WIRE FEED SYSTEMS A CONSTANT VOLTAGE POWER SOURCE USED. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

302 Shielding Gases For GMAW
MIG: Argon Or Helium For SS, CS, LAS & Non-ferrous Mt & Al MIG: Ar + 1 to 2 % O2, Wire With Add. Mn & Si MIG: Ar + 5 to 20 % Co2 Wire With Add. Mn & Si MAG: Co2 With Solid Wire For CS & LAS FCAW: Co2 With Flux Cored Wire For CS, LAS & SS Overlay

303 Different types of shielding gases
Pure Gases Argon Helium Carbon Dioxide Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

304 Argon. Argon is a monatomic (single-atom) gas commonly used for GTAW on all materials and GMAW on nonferrous metals. Argon is chemically inert, making it suitable for welding on reactive or refractory metals. Low thermal conductivity and ionization potential, properties that result in a low transfer of heat to the outer areas of the arc. Helium. Helium also is a monatomic, inert gas, most commonly used for GTAW on nonferrous materials. In contrast to argon, helium has a high conductivity and ionization potential, which gives the opposite effects. Helium provides a wide profile ,good wetting on the edges of the bead, and higher heat input than pure argon. The high ionization potential can create difficulty in arc starting unless high-frequency or capacitive arc starting is used for GTAW Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

305 Carbon dioxide CO2 usually is used for GMAW short-circuit transfer and FCAW. The CO2 will disassociate into CO and O2 at the temperatures encountered in the arc. This creates the potential for oxidizing of the base metal Recombination of the CO/O2 gives wide penetration profile at the surface of the weld, while the low ionization potential and thermal conductivity create a hot area at the center of the arc column. For GMAW applications, pure CO2 is unable to produce spray transfer, and it promotes globular transfer, which causes spatter. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

306 The helium penetration profile is wider than argon’s
The traditional pure argon penetration profile is deep and narrow. The CO2 penetration profile is marked by good width and depth Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

307 Other Gases Used in Mixtures
Oxygen Oxygen creates a very wide and shallow penetration profile, with high heat input at the surface of the work. Spray transfer is facilitated, as well as wetting at the toe of the weld. Oxygen/argon mixes exhibit a characteristic "nailhead" penetration profile with GMAW carbon steel, Oxygen also is used in trimixes with CO2 and argon, Hydrogen Active shielding gas -at concentrations of less than 10 % Hydrogen is primarily used with austenitic stainless steels Hydrogen is not suitable for ferritic or martensitic steels because of cracking issues. Hydrogen also may be used in higher percentages (30 percent to 40 percent) in plasma cutting operations on stainless steel to increase capacity and reduce slag. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

308 Gas Mixtures Different combinations of welding processes and materials require different combinations of welding gases. The graphic on the left shows good shielding gas coverage. The graphic on the right shows what happens when air is allowed to seep into and contaminate the gas. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

309 ARGON/CO2 ARGON/O2 ARGON/O2/CO2
CO2 content varies from 5 percent to 25 percent. Used for spray transfer on heavy materials or when low heat input and shallow penetration are desired for thin materials. High CO2 content promotes short-circuit transfer and can provide additional cleaning action and deep penetration in heavy materials ARGON/O2 Oxygen percentage usually is between 2 and 5. Typically used in spray transfer on fairly clean materials ARGON/O2/CO2 Work well in both spray transfer and short-circuit mode and may be used on many material thickness. Oxygen tends to promote spray transfer at low voltages, while the CO2 aids penetration. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

310 The argon/CO2 penetration profile can be adjusted by the amount of CO2 contained in the gas mixture
The argon/O2 penetration profile is deeper and not as wide as that of the argon/CO2 profile. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

311 + POINTS OF GMAW HIGH WELDING SPEED
NO NEED TO CHANGE ELECTRODES (ONLY WIRE SPOOL IN GMAW) HAZ SMALL VERY LITTLE SMOKE AND VERY LIGHT SiO2 SLAG(CALLED GLASS SLAG) LEAST DISTORTION EASE OF OPERATION (QUICK LEARNING) GUN MANIPULATION EASIER MOST FLEXIBLE PROCESS- VERSATILE VERY FEW MACHINE ADJUSTMENTS FOR THICK TO THIN CHANGE MS, MCS, TOOL STEEL GRADES, SS, COPPER, Al, Mg WELDED FCAW, SAW, ESW- OTER FORMS OF GMAW Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

312 ABOUT THE POWER SOURCE DCRP, DCSP, ACHF USED
ELECTRODES OF 0.25 mm TO 6.4 mm FOR DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS ELECTRODES CODED, WITH COLOR STRIPS BEST FOR ALUMINIUM, SINCE OXIDE FILM BREAKS BY PENETRATION Frequent cleaning and shaping of electrode tip to be done Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

313 WELDING TECHNIQUE GMAW SHIELDING GAS Argon (95%) + O2(5%)
PLATE THICKNESS (mm) 7 TRAILING SHIELD Argon (99.99%) GROOVE GEOMETRY SINGLE ‘V’ 45 ANGLE ROOT GAP (mm) 2 ROOT FACE (mm) 1 CURRENT (A) VOLTAGE (V) 30-31 SPEED (mm/sec) 5.8 HEAT INPUT (KJ/mm) NO. OF PASSES o 45 1 . mm 2 mm Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

314 Welding Hull of Ships Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

315 For increasing productivity in Fabrication by
GMAW Process different shielding gases used Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

316 Typical Welding Parameters used
Gas Flow Rate : lpm Electrode Stick Out : 15mm Polarity : DCEP Gases Used Code Current (Amp) Voltage (Volt) Welding Speed (Meter/Min) Heat Input (KJ/mm) 95%Ar-5%O2 A 29 0.374 0.95 B 30 0.375 1.22 C 0.37 1.5 80%Ar-20%CO2 D 1.0 E 1.2 F Pure CO2 G 1.01 H 1.28 I 31 1.6 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

317 Experimental results of a typical study:
Sample code Heat Input (KJ/mm) Yield Strehgth (N/mm2) % Elongation Avg. Impact Toughness (J) NG-A-5O2 1.0 604 23 48 NG-B-5O2 1.22 666 21 38 NG-C-5O2 1.5 775 20 33 NG-D-20CO2 716 15 30 NG-E-20CO2 1.2 627 18 NG-F-20CO2 663 14 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

318 *When used for single pass welding of plates of thickness 6-7 mm
Weld Bead Morphology 95%Ar-5%O2 Deep Penetration * Bead in V Groove Weld Bead on Plate Weld 80%Ar-20%CO2 PureCO2 Narrow Penetration *When used for single pass welding of plates of thickness 6-7 mm Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

319 Effect of shielding gas on weld penetration
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

320 Effect of shielding gas on deposition efficiency
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

321 Effect of shielding gas on Deposition rate
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

322 Types Of Wire Feeding In GMAW
Push Type Wire fed in to The torch by Pushing through Flexible Conduit From A Remote Spool Pull Type Feed Rollers Mounted on The Torch Handle Pulls the Wire From A Remote spool Self Contained Wire Feeder & The Spool On the Torch

323 ASME Classification For CS GMAW Wire
SFA 5.18 : - CS Solid Wire ER 70 S – 2, ER 70 S – 3 ER 70 S – 6, ER 70 S – 7 SFA 5.20 :- CS Flux Cored Wire E 71 T-1, E 71 T-2 ( Co2 Gas ) E 71 T-1M, E 71 T-2M ( Ar + Co2 Mix)

324 GMAW CS Wire Generally Copper Coated Available In Solid & Flux Cored
Prevents Oxidation / rusting in Storage Promotes Electric Conductivity in Arcing Available In Solid & Flux Cored Size in mm 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4, 3 Manganese & Silicon ( Mn 1 – 2 %, Si Max 1%) Act As Deoxidizing Agents Eliminate Porosity Increase Wetting Of Molten Pool

325 Metal Transfer In MIG Short-Circuiting / Dip Transfer
Globular Transfer Spray Transfer

326 Metal Transfer In MIG CS Solid Wire 1.2 mm Φ 120 to 250A 16 – 24 V
Above230A 24 – 35 V Up to 120A 14 – 22V Dip/Short Circuiting Globular Spray Co2 or Ar Co2 or Ar Only Ar / Ar+O2

327 Short-Circuiting / Dip Transfer
Wire In Contact With Molten Pool 20 to 200 times per Second Operates in Low Amps & Volts – Less Deposition Best Suitable for Out of Position Welding Suitable for Welding Thin Sheets Relatively Large opening of Root Can be Welded Less Distortion Best Suitable for Tacking in Set up Prone to Get Lack of Fusion in Between Beads

328 Globular Transfer Metal transferred in droplets of Size grater than wire diameter Operates in Moderate Amps & Volts – Better Deposition Common in Co2 Flux Cored and Solid Wire Suitable for General purpose Welding

329 Spray Transfer Metal transferred in multiples of small droplets
100 to 1000 Droplets per Second Metal Spray Axially Directed Electrode Tip Remains pointed Applicable Only With Inert Gas Shielding – Not With Co2 Operates in Higher Amps & Volts – Higher Deposition Rate Not Suitable for Welding in Out of Position. Suitable for Welding Deep Grooves

330 Pulsed Spray Welding Power Source Provides Two different Current Levels“Background” and “Peak”at regular interval “Background” & “Peak” are above and below the Average Current Best Suitable for Full Penetration Open Root Pass Welding Good Control on Bead Shape and Finish

331 Synergic Pulse GMAW Parameters of Pulsed Current (Frequency, Amplitude, Duration, Background Current) Related to Wire feed Rate One Droplet detaches with each pulse An Electronic Control unit synchronizes wire feed Rate with Pulse Parameters Best Suitable for Most Critical Full Penetration Open Root Pass Welding Good Control on Open Root penetration, Bead Shape and Finish

332 GMAW Process Variables
Current Voltage Travel Speed Stick Out / Electrode Extension Electrode Inclination Electrode Size Shielding Gas & Flow Rate Welding Position

333 Parameter For 1.2 ф FC Wire Current – 200 to 240 A Voltage – 22-24
Travel Speed 150 to 250 mm / min Stick Out / Electrode Extension – 15 to 20 mm Electrode Inclination – Back Hand Technique Shielding Gas – Co2, 12 L/Min

334 Parameter For 1.2 ф Solid Wire
Current – 180 to 220 A Voltage – 20-22 Travel Speed 150 to 200 mm / min Stick Out / Electrode Extension – 10 to 20 mm Electrode Inclination – Back Hand Technique Shielding Gas – Co2 – 12 L/Min

335 Results In Change Of Parameters
Increase In Current More deposition, More Penetration, More BM Fusion Increase In Voltage More Weld Bead Width, Less Penetration, Less Reinforcement, Excess Spatter Increase In Travel Speed Decrease in Penetration, Decrease in Bead Width, Decrease In Gas Flow rate Results In porosity Long Stick Out / Electrode Extension Excess Weld Deposit With Less Arc intensity, Poor Bead Finish, Shallow Penetration

336 Common Defects In GMAW 1. Porosity 2. Spatters
3. Lack Of Fusion Under Cut 5. Over Lap Slag 7. Crack Lack Of Penetration 9. Burn Through Convex Bead 11. Unstable Arc Wire Stubbing

337 Porosity Cause Remedy Less Mn & Si In Wire
Rusted / Unclean BM / Groove Rusted wire Inadequate Shielding Gas Use High Mn & Si Wire Clean & warm the BM Replace the Wire Check & Correct Flow Rate Porosity . .

338 Spatters Cause Remedy Low Voltage Inadequate Inductance
Rusted BM surface Rusted Core wire Quality Of Gas Increase Voltage Increase Inductance Clean BM surface Replace By Rust Free wire Change Over To Ar + Co2 Spatters • • •

339 Lack Of Fusion Cause Remedy Inadequate Current Use Right Current
Inadequate Voltage Wrong Polarity Slow Travel Speed Excessive Oxide On Joint Use Right Current Use Right Voltage Connect Ele. + Ve Increase Travel speed Clean Weld Joint Lack Of Fusion

340 Undercut Cause Remedy Excess Voltage Excess Current
Improper Torch angle Excess Travel Speed Reduce Voltage Reduce Current Train & Qualify the Welder Reduce Travel Speed Under cut

341 Overlap Cause Remedy 1) Too Long Stick Out 2) Inadequate Voltage
Reduce Stick Out 2) Increase the Voltage Overlap

342 Slag Cause Remedy Inadequate Cleaning Inadequate Current
Wrong Torch angle Improper bead placement Clean each bead Use Right Current Train / Qualify welder Train / Qualify Welder Slag

343 Crack Cause Remedy Incorrect Wire Chemistry Too Small Weld Bead
Improper Preheat Excessive Restrain Use Right Wire Increase wire Feed Preheat Uniformly Post heating or ISR crack

344 Lack Of Penetration* Cause Remedy Too Narrow Groove Angle
Inadequate Root opening Too Low Welding current Wrong Torch angle Puddle Roll In Front Of Arc Long Stick Out Widen The Groove Increase Root Opening Increase Current Train / Qualify Welder Correct Torch Angle Reduce Stick Out * Applicable to SSFPW LOP

345 Burn through* Cause Remedy Excess Current Excess Root opening
Inadequate Root face Too Low Travel Speed Quality Of Gas Reduce the Current Reduce root opening Increase root face Increase Speed Use Ar + Co2 *Applicable to root pass Burn trough

346 Convex Bead Finish Cause Remedy Low Current Low Voltage
Low Travel Speed Low Inductance Too Narrow Groove Increase Current Increase Voltage Increase Travel Speed Increase Inductance Increase Groove Width Uneven bead finish

347 Unstable arc Cause Remedy Improper Wire Feed Improper Gas Flow
Twisted Torch Conduit Check Wire Feeder Check Flow Meter Straighten Torch Cab

348 Wire Stubbing Cause Remedy Too Low Voltage Too High Inductance
Excess Slope Too Long Stick Out Increase Voltage Reduce Inductance Adjust Slope Reduce Stick Out

349 Important Terminology used in Critical Welding
Preheating Post Heating or Dehydrogenation Intermediate Stress leaving Inter pass Temperature Post Weld Heat Treatment

350 What Is Preheating? Heating the base metal along the weld joint to a predetermined minimum temperature immediately before starting the weld. Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible Temperature to be verified by thermo chalks prior to starting the weld

351 Why Preheating? Preheating eliminates possible cracking of weld and HAZ Applicable to Hardenable low alloy steels of all thickness Carbon steels of thickness above 25 mm. Restrained welds of all thickness Preheating temperature vary from 75°C to 200°C depending on hardenability of material, thickness & joint restrain

352 How does Preheating Eliminate Crack?
Preheating promotes slow cooling of weld and HAZ Slow cooling softens or prevents hardening of weld and HAZ Soft material not prone to crack even in restrained condition

353 What Is Post Heating? Raising the pre heating temperature of the weld joint to a predetermined temperature range (250° C to 350° C) for a minimum period of time (3 Hrs) before the weld cools down to room temperature. Post heating performed when welding is completed or terminated any time in between. Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible Temperature verified by thermo chalks during the period

354 Why Post Heating? Post heating eliminates possible delayed cracking of weld and HAZ Applicable to Thicker hardenable low alloy steels Restrained hardenable welds of all thickness Post heating temperature and duration depends on hardenability of material, thickness & joint restrain

355 How does Post Heating Eliminate Crack?
SMAW introduces hydrogen in weld metal Entrapped hydrogen in weld metal induces delayed cracks unless removed before cooling to room temperature Retaining the weld at a higher temperature for a longer duration allows the hydrogen to come out of weld

356 What Is Intermediate Stress Relieving?
Heat treating a subassembly in a furnace to a predetermined cycle immediately on completion of critical restrained weld joint / joints without allowing the welds to go down the pre heat temperature. Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness Applicable to Highly restrained air hardenable material

357 Why Intermediate Stress Relieving?
Restrained welds in air hardenable steel highly prone to crack on cooling to room temperature. Cracks due to entrapped hydrogen and built in stress Intermediate stress relieving relieves built in stresses and entrapped hydrogen making the joint free from crack prone

358 What Is Inter- Pass Temperature?
The temperature of a previously layed weld bead immediately before depositing the next bead over it Temperature to be verified by thermo chalk prior to starting next bead Applicable to Stainless Steel Carbon Steel & LAS with minimum impact

359 Why Inter Pass Temperature?
Control on inter pass temperature avoids over heating, there by Refines the weld metal with fine grains Improves the notch toughness properties Minimize the loss of alloying elements in welds Reduces the distortion

360 What Is Post Weld Heat Treatment?
Heat treating an assembly on completion of all applicable welding, in an enclosed furnace with controlled heating/cooling rate and soaking at a specific temperature for a specific time. Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness Applicable to All type of CS & LAS

361 Why Post Weld Heat Treatment?
Welded joints retain internal stresses within the structure HAZ of welds remains invariably hardened Post Weld Heat Treatment relieves internal stresses and softens HAZ. This reduces the cracking tendency of the equipment in service

362 Weldability The weldability of a material refers to its ability to be welded. Many metals and thermoplastics can be welded, but some are easier to weld than others. It greatly influences weld quality and is an important factor in choosing which welding process to use. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

363 Steels The weldability of steels is inversely proportional to a property known as the hardenability of the steel, which measures the ease of forming martensite during heat treatment. The hardenability of steel depends on its chemical composition, with greater quantities of carbon and other alloying elements resulting in a higher hardenability and thus a lower weldability. In order to be able to judge alloys made up of many distinct materials, a measure known as the equivalent carbon content is used to compare the relative weldabilities of different alloys by comparing their properties to a plain carbon steel. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

364 The effect on weldability of elements like chromium and vanadium, while not as great as carbon, is more significant than that of copper and nickel, for example. As the equivalent carbon content rises, the weldability of the alloy decreases. The disadvantage to using plain carbon and low-alloy steels is their lower strength—there is a trade-off between material strength and weldability. High strength, low-alloy steels were developed especially for welding applications during the 1970s, and these generally easy to weld materials have good strength, making them ideal for many welding applications. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

365 Stainless steels, because of their high chromium content, tend to behave differently with respect to weldability than other steels. Austenitic grades of stainless steels tend to be the most weldable, but they are especially susceptible to distortion due to their high coefficient of thermal expansion. Some alloys of this type are prone to cracking and reduced corrosion resistance as well. Hot cracking is possible if the amount of ferrite in the weld is not controlled—to alleviate the problem, an electrode is used that deposits a weld metal containing a small amount of ferrite. Other types of stainless steels, such as ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, are not as easily welded, and must often be preheated and welded with special electrodes. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

366 Aluminum The weldability of aluminum alloys varies significantly, depending on the chemical composition of the alloy used. Aluminum alloys are susceptible to hot cracking, and to combat the problem, welders increase the welding speed to lower the heat input. Preheating reduces the temperature gradient across the weld zone and thus helps reduce hot cracking, but it can reduce the mechanical properties of the base material and should not be used when the base material is restrained. The design of the joint can be changed as well, and a more compatible filler alloy can be selected to decrease the likelihood of hot cracking. Aluminum alloys should also be cleaned prior to welding, with the goal of removing all oxides, oils, and loose particles from the surface to be welded. This is especially important because of an aluminum weld's susceptibility to porosity due to hydrogen and dross due to oxygen. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

367 References Lincoln Electric (1994). The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. Cleveland: Lincoln Electric. ISBN Residual stresses are stresses that remain after the original cause of the stresses has been removed. Residual stresses occur for a variety of reasons, including inelastic deformations and heat treatment. Heat from welding may cause localized expansion, which is taken up during welding by either the molten metal or the placement of parts being welded. When the finished weldment cools, some areas cool and contract more than others, leaving residual stresses. Castings may also have large residual stresses due to uneven cooling. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

368 While un-controlled residual stresses are undesirable, many designs rely on them. For example, toughened glass and pre-stressed concrete depend on them to prevent brittle failure. Similarly, a gradient in martensite formation leaves residual stress in some swords with particularly hard edges (notably the katana), which can prevent the opening of edge cracks. In certain types of gun barrels made with two tubes forced together, the inner tube is compressed while the outer tube stretches, preventing cracks from opening in the rifling when the gun is fired. Parts are often heated or dunked in liquid nitrogen to aid assembly. Press fits are the most common intentional use of residual stress. Automotive wheel studs, for example are pressed into holes on the wheel hub. The holes are smaller than the studs, requiring force to drive the studs into place. The residual stresses fasten the parts together. Nails are another example. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

369

370 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

371 Resistance Welding Commonly used resistance welding processes:
Resistance Spot Welding (RSW), Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW),& Resistance Projection Welding (PW) or (RPW)   Resistance welding uses the application of electric current and mechanical pressure to create a weld between two pieces of metal.  Weld electrodes conduct the electric current to the two pieces of metal as they are forged together. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

372 The welding cycle must first develop sufficient heat to raise a small volume of metal to the molten state.  This metal then cools while under pressure until it has adequate strength to hold the parts together.  The current density and pressure must be sufficient to produce a weld nugget, but not so high as to expel molten metal from the weld zone.   High Frequency Resistance Welding (HFRW) Percussion Welding (PEW) and Stud Welding (SW), too. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

373 H = I2 R t K Resistance Welding Benefits High speed welding
K- energy losses through radiation & conduction resistances of the electrodes electrode- w/p contact resistance resistance of the individual parts to be welded w/p-w/p contact resistance (maintained high) Electrode Weld Nugget Resistance Welding Benefits   High speed welding   Easily automated   Suitable for high rate production   Economical HAZ Electrode Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

374 Resistance Welding Limitations Initial equipment costs
  Lower tensile and fatigue strengths   Lap joints add weight and material Common Resistance Welding Concerns Optimize welding process variables. Evaluate current welding parameters and techniques.  And thus eliminate common welding problems and discontinuities - such as Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

375 Resistance Welding Problems and Discontinuities
  Cracks   Electrode deposit on work   Porosity or cavities   Pin holes   Deep electrode indentation   Improper weld penetration   Surface appearance   Weld size   Irregular shaped welds Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

376 RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
AIR OPERATED ROCKER ARM SPOT WELDING MACHINE Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

377 RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
ELECTRODE DESIGNS FOR EASY ACCESS INTO COMPONENTS Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

378 RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

379 RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

380 HIGH FREQUENCY BUTT WELDING OF TUBES
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

381 FLASH WELDING FOR SOLID RODS & TUBES DESIGN GUIDELINES POOR GOOD
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

382 RESISTANCE STUD WELDING
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

383 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

384 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

385 UNDERWATER WELDING Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

386 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

387 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

388 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

389 DISTORTION Welding involves highly localized heating of the metal being joined together.  The temperature distribution in the weldment is nonuniform.  Normally, the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are at temperatures substantially above that of the unaffected base metal.  Upon cooling, the weld pool solidifies and shrinks, exerting stresses on the surrounding weld metal and HAZ.  If the stresses produced from thermal expansion and contraction exceed the yield strength of the parent metal, localized plastic deformation of the metal occurs. Plastic deformation results in lasting change in the component dimensions and distorts the structure.  This causes distortion of weldments. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

390 Types of distortion Transverse shrinkage Angular distortion Bowing
  Longitudinal shrinkage   Transverse shrinkage   Angular distortion   Bowing   Buckling   Twisting Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

391 Effects of expansion and contraction
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

392 CONTROLLING DISTORTION
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

393 HEAT AFFECTED ZONE Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

394 Factors affecting distortion
If a component were uniformly heated and cooled distortion would be minimized.  However, welding locally heats a component and the adjacent cold metal restrains the heated material.  This generates stresses greater than yield stress causing permanent distortion of the component.  Some of the factors affecting the distortion are: Amount of restraint   Welding procedure   Parent metal properties   Weld joint design   Part fit up Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

395 Restraint - to minimize distortion
Restraint - to minimize distortion.  Components welded without any external restraint are free to move or distort in response to stresses from welding.  It is not unusual for many shops to clamp or restrain components to be welded in some manner to prevent movement and distortion.  This restraint does result in higher residual stresses in the components. Welding procedure impacts the amount of distortion primarily due to the amount of the heat input produced.  The welder has little control on the heat input specified in a welding procedure.  This does not prevent the welder from trying to minimize distortion.  While the welder needs to provide adequate weld metal, the welder should not needlessly increase the total weld metal volume added to a weldment.    Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

396 Parent metal properties, which have an effect on distortion, are coefficient of thermal expansion and specific heat of the material.  The coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal affects the degree of thermal expansion and contraction and the associated stresses that result from the welding process.  This in turn determines the amount of distortion in a component.  Weld joint design will effect the amount of distortion in a weldment.  Both butt and fillet joints may experience  distortion.  However, distortion is easier to minimize in butt joints.    Part fit up should be consistent to fabricate foreseeable and uniform shrinkage.    Weld joints should be adequately and consistently tacked to minimize movement between the parts being joined by welding. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

397 Welding Discontinuities Some examples of welding discontinuities are shown below.  Evaluation of the discontinuity will determine if the discontinuity is a defect or an acceptable condition Incomplete Fusion - A weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

398 Undercut - A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld root and left unfilled by weld metal. Overlap - The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

399 Underfill - A condition in which the weld face or root surface extends below the adjacent surface of the base metal. Incomplete Joint Penetration - A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness Partial joint penetration groove welds are commonly specified in lowly loaded structures.  However, incomplete joint penetration when a full penetration joint is required, as depicted above, would be cause for rejection.  A fix for an incomplete penetration joint would be to back gouge and weld from the other side.   Another acceptable partial penetration joint is shown below. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

400 Partial penetration joint on the left without discontinuities is an acceptable condition. 
Appropriate engineering decisions need to be applied to determine what type of joint should be specified for a given application. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

401 Several different representations of weld Cracking
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

402 Representation of a convex fillet weld without discontinuities
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

403 SOLID STATE PROCESSES Joining without fusion of work pieces
No liquid (molten ) phase present in joint Principle: If two clean surfaces are brought into atomic contact with each other - made with sufficient pressure -(in the absence of oxide film and other contaminents) they form bonds and produce strong joint To improve strength, heat and some movement of mating surfaces by plastic deformation employed. Eg: USW, Friction Welding (FRW) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

404 FORGE WELDING (FOW) Both elevated temperature and pressure applied to form strong bond between members Components heated and pressed/ hammered with tools, dies or rollers Local plastic deformation at interface breaks up the oxide films – improves bond strength. Not for high load bearing applications. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

405 COLD WELDING (CW) Pressure applied to work pieces either through dies or rolls One (or both) of the mating parts must be ductile Interface cleaned prior to welding- brushing etc. Rolling metal Bare metal Roll Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

406 Explosive welding Solid state bonding process
Joining by the cohesive force between atoms of two intimate contact surfaces High pressure waves- thousands of MPa created- To weld dissimilar metals, thick to thin, high difference in Melting Point metals. Not a costly process Extremely large surfaces can be joined (2m X 10 m) Welding of heat treated metals without affecting the process No HAZ Incompatible metals joined(thin foils to heavy plates) severe deformation needed for joining. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

407 Principle: Explosive Impulse used to produce extremely high normal pressure and a slight shear or sliding pressure ( uses a detonator for this) Two properly laid metal surfaces brought together with high relative velocity at high pressure and with proper orientation Large amount of plastic interaction between surfaces results TWO WAYS Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

408 (2). Two pieces explosively projected towards each other.
(1)Contact technique (2) Impact technique (1). Plastic interaction by positioning explosive charge to deliver shock waves at an oblique angle to parts to be welded- Less frequently used. (2). Two pieces explosively projected towards each other. Impact with high velocity (200 – 400 m/s) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

409 (1)Contact technique Plastic interaction by positioning explosive charge to deliver shock waves at an oblique angle to parts to be welded- Less frequently used. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

410 (2) Impact technique Two pieces explosively projected towards each other. Impact with high velocity (200 – 400 m/s) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

411 Detonation velocity approx. 7000 m/s in the detonation front.
Produces pressure at interface 7000 to 70,000 atms. Parts driven at an angle Velocity of impact and angle of collapse selected. Joining as s result of intense plastic flow at the surface called “surface jetting” For good joint, surface to be free from contaminants Pressure sufficient to bring surfaces within interatomic distances of each other [ In a range of speed and angle of impact, a high velocity metal jet forms. Removes surface contamination. Speed, angle(10 to 100) of detonation important] Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

412 Bond as strong as the weaker of the two obtained
Bond as strong as the weaker of the two obtained. 100 % efficient joint, (eg. In sheet forming in aerospace industries) At the interface, microhardness slightly increased. (because of plastic deformation and strain hardening- a very thin hardness zone) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

413 Titanium cladding common
Others- Ni, SS(50 mm), tantalum, carbon steels, for heat exchangers, tubes, pressure vessels, etc. No change in chemical and physical properties of parent metal But, not for brittle alloys. Metal must possess some ductility. [Quantity of charge, detonation velocity, and deformation characteristics of flyer plate decide the weld] Also spot welding by small charge. Handy explosive spot welding sets available (for 10mm to 12 mm spots) Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

414 Minus points: Severe deformation needed for joining (minimum 40 to 60%), as welding is by pressure.
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

415 THERMIT WELDING THERMITE- based on Therm, meaning heat Involves exothermic reactions between metal oxides and metallic reducing agents Heat of reaction used for welding. Fine particles of iron oxide, aluminium oxide, iron & aluminium Reactions are: (3/4) Fe3 O4 + 2 Al --- (9/4) Fe + Al2O3 + Heat 3 FeO + 2 Al Fe + Al2O3 + Heat Fe2O3 + 2Al --- 2Fe + Al2O3+ Heat Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

416 THERMIT WELDING

417 Thermit Welding Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

418 THERMIT WELDING                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Slide 13 of 18 Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

419 Mixture is non explosive
Mixture is non explosive. Produces temperature of C within a minute Practically about C. Other materials to impart special properties added. Applying a Mg fuse of special compounds of peroxides, chlorates/ chromates. Welding copper, brasses, bronzes and copper alloys to steel using oxides of copper, nickel, aluminium, manganese – temperatures of C obtained Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

420 THERMIT WELDING OF RAILS
Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

421 PLASMA WELDING

422 Plasma is commonly known as fourth state of matter after solid, liquid and gas. This is an extremely hot substance which consists of free electrons, positive ions, atoms and molecules. It conducts electricity. How it works: By positioning the electrode within the body of the torch, the plasma arc can be separated from the shielding gas envelope. Plasma is then forced through a fine-bore copper nozzle which constricts the arc. There are three operating modes which can be produced by varying bore diameter and plasma gas flow rate: •Microplasma: 0.1 to 15A. •Medium current: 15 to 200A. •Keyhole plasma: over 100A. The plasma arc is usually operated with a DC, drooping characteristic power source. Because its unique operating features are results of the special torch arrangement and separate plasma and shielding gas flows, a plasma control console can be added on to a normal TIG power source. Full plasma systems are also available. The plasma arc is not stabilised with sine wave AC. Arc reignition is difficult when there is a long electrode to workpiece distance and the plasma is constricted, extreme heating of the electrode during the positive half-cycle causes balling of the tip which can disturb arc stability. Special-purpose switched DC power sources are available. By misbalancing the waveform to reduce the duration of electrode positive polarity, the electrode is kept passably cool to maintain a pointed tip and achieve arc stability. Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC