Presentation on theme: "Cloning its applications & implications. Cloning Cloning has been around for centuries (e.g. in gardening, agriculture) Single carrot cell Cloning carrot."— Presentation transcript:
Types of cloning 1. Reproductive cloning - generates an organism that has the same DNA as another organism 2. Therapeutic cloning -technology used to produce tissues and organs from single cell to replace damaged cells/tissues/organs
Dolly (1996-2003) - The only one success out of 276 trials - Created at Edinburg University (UK) - Dolly died after 6 year. Normal sheep lifespan is 8-10 years - She suffered lung cancer and arthritis http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=txr8-0RaD-A
Is cloning Dolly reproductive or therapeutic cloning? Why?
Steps in cloning animal (cont.) A cell is removed from the white faced sheep (i.e. the one to be cloned). Nothing is removed from this cell Nucleus of an egg cell from an egg cell donor (i.e. the black-faced sheep) is removed The egg cell (whose nucleus is removed) and the donor cell are placed next to each other in a bath of chemicals WATCH video: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/scnt.html http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/scnt.html
Steps in cloning animal (cont) - A spark of electricity caused the 2 cells to fuse. The fused cell now does have the donor’s nucleus - The fused cell begins to divide to form an embryo - The embryo is then planted into the uterus of the foster mother - A white-faced lamb was born. It is genetically identical to the donor, but it was raised by the foster mother
How nucleus (containing the desire genetic material) is inserted to an egg cell? Cell holder or stabilizer) Needle http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/images/enucleation.mpg
Other cloned animal besides Dolly The hydrid mule Idaho Gem Prometea
Cloning applications Mass production of livestock and crop plants food quantity and quality increase Prize Holstein cows can produce in excess of 75L of milk per day compared to 30 L per day for an average breed
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Are organisms that carry genes that originated from a different species GloFish Fluorescent Pigs http://www.youtube.com/watc h?feature=player_embedded &v=YSkRz0O9ZJ0
How GMOs are made? Transgenic Plants: BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn
Cloning GMOs All commercial insulin is produced by bacteria that have been genetically modified to carry human insulin gene
Using Safflower to produce Life-Saving Products Human insulin gene also get inserted into safflower plant More cost-effective 1 hectare of cloned safflower can produce 2.5kg insuline enough to treat 2500 patient/year. http://www.sembiosys.com/
Golden rice In Africa lack of vitamin A is leading to blindness. Golden rice is a GMO that helps produce more vitamin A.
GMOs use in medicine and industry OrganimsNew gene insertionBenefits GM goatsGene from a golden orb spider used to produce silk protein The silk protein can be isolated to make high strength fiber GM bananas Genes for the production of a hepatitis vaccine is inserted Banana containing vaccine; readily available in developing countries GM pigGene involved in producing omega-3 fatty acid Bacon with healthier fat
Steel strength spider web http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/j an-june11/nova_01-19.html
Cloning endangered/extinct species - Captive breeding rarely works - Cloning provides an alternative -Endangered banteng was cloned in 2003 by Advanced Cell Technology (USA) -Extinct ibex was successfully cloned in 2009; died of lung defects -Cloning should be used as last resort. Banteng (wild bovine)- endangered Spanish ibex (wild goat)- extinct
Bring Long-extinct Woolly Mammoth Back to Life How they did it? Scientists bought mammoth hair from eBay.com and decoded the ancient DNA inside. Penn State scientists decoded 80 percent of the woolly mammoth genome, raising the possibility that the creature could be cloned
Cloning costs and risks Cloned plants and livestock may be expensive to produce and maintain Some consumers feel cloned organisms are unnatural and buying them is unethical Being genetically identical means being more vulnerable to diseases Food choices reduced Long-term risks of reduced genetic diversity is unknown
Lancelot: a $155,000 cloned dog Done by BioArts International in 2008 The owner already had 8 other dogs Is it acceptable to spend that much on cloning a pet? Deceased Lancelot and its clone
GM Products: Pros and Cons Benefits Crops –Enhanced taste and quality –Reduced maturation time –Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance –Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides –New products and growing techniques Animals –Increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency –Better yields of meat, eggs, and milk –Improved animal health and diagnostic methods
Environment –"Friendly" bioherbicides and bioinsecticides –Conservation of soil, water, and energy –Better natural waste management Society –Increased food security for growing populations
Controversies Safety –Potential human health impacts, including allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, unknown effects –Potential environmental impacts, including: unintended transfer of transgenes through cross- pollination, unknown effects on other organisms (e.g., soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity Access and Intellectual Property –Domination of world food production by a few companies –Increasing dependence on industrialized nations by developing countries –Biopiracy, or foreign exploitation of natural resources
Regulation and testing Use the internet to find out 1. Who responsible for regulating GMOs? 2. How long does testing a GMO take? 3. Is labeling required?
Regulation and testing Health Canada is responsible, under the Food and Drugs Act and its Regulations, for provisions related to public health, food safety and nutrition. Testing: 7-10 year process Labeling: required if there are side effects, voluntary otherwise.
Ethics –Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values –Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species –Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa –Animal's welfare https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uInGy0G7w-U&noredirect=1 Labeling –Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., United States) –Mixing GM crops with non-GM products confounds labeling attempts Society –New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries