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Genetic Engineering. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Engineering. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Engineering

2 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

3 Biotechnology The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product: Foods Vaccines Antibiotics Vitamins Biodegradation

4 Genetic Engineering Manipulating an organism’s genome to: alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit correct genetic defects in humans

5 Ex: Golden Rice Created to provide people with Vitamin A Developed to help the very poor

6 Ex: Flavr Savr Tomato Created to prevent the softening of the tomato Made more resistant to rotting Could be “vine-ripened”

7 Ex: Glofish Inserted fluorescent gene from a jellyfish into zebrafish Sold as a pet

8 Ex: Roundup Ready Soybeans Soybeans that are resistant to Roundup herbicide Created to reduce the application of harmful herbicides

9 Bioethics Warm-Up Which human traits do you think are acceptable to genetically modify? Which human traits aren’t acceptable to genetically modify?

10 Bioethics Warm-Up Would you want to know if you were genetically predisposed to a certain disorder (like heart disease or diabetes)? What if it was for a disorder that has no known treatment?

11 Glowing Animals


13 Other Uses of Genetic Technology Used to identify individuals: –Suspects in a crime (“DNA fingerprinting”)

14 Other Uses of Genetic Technology Used to identify individuals: –Relation between individuals: Ex: paternity tests

15 Other Uses of Genetic Technology Used to identify individuals: –Relation between individuals: Ex: University of Arizona Shoah Project to identify and reunite the families of Holocaust victims

16 DNA DNA is universal – the genetic information from one species will work in another species “DNA is DNA”

17 DNA 101 – Quick Refresher DNA formed from units called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made of: –5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose) –Phosphate group –Nitrogenous base Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine

18 DNA 101 – Quick Refresher In all DNA: –A pairs with T –C pairs with G Weak hydrogen bonds form between complimentary base pairs

19 Bioethical Question Should a company be allowed to patent (and own the exclusive rights of) a genetically modified organism?

20 Useful Properties of DNA Restriction Endonuclease – enzymes used to cut apart DNA strands

21 Useful Properties of DNA Restriction enzymes can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving “sticky ends” for insertion of new DNA Ligase – enzyme used to “glue” strands together

22 DNA Manipulation

23 Restriction Endonucleases Also called restriction enzymes 1962: “molecular scissors” discovered in in bacteria E. coli bacteria have an enzymatic immune system that recognizes and destroys foreign DNA 3,000 enzymes have been identified, many are purified and available commercially

24 Restriction Endonucleases Named for bacterial genus, species, strain, and type Example: EcoR1 Genus: Escherichia Species: coli Strain: R Order discovered: 1

25 “Sticky Ends” vs. “Blunt Ends”


27 Restriction Endonuclease Restriction enzymes recognize specific palindromic sequences and cut them –Palindromes: words that are the same forwards and backwards Ex: Stanley Yelnats Ex: Go hang a salami, I’m a lasagna hog Ex: Anna Ex: A man, a plan, a canal, Panama! Ex: Wet sanitary rat in a stew.



30 Bioethical Issues Should we be able to insert non-human DNA into human DNA? Would this change what it means to be “human”? Should humans be able to alter our intelligence via genetic engineering?


32 Warm-Up If there aren’t any risks associated with GM foods, should companies be required to label foods made with GMOs?

33 Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA: DNA from two or more species that has been joined together Transgenic: organisms altered by genetic engineering

34 Warm-Up Genetic pollution: undesired and uncontrolled gene flow from GMOs into wild populations What are the implications of “genetic pollution”? Should we try to prevent “genetic pollution”?


36 Other Uses


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