Presentation on theme: "Chemical Reactions A process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different chemical and physical properties Examples?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemical ReactionsA process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different chemical and physical propertiesExamples?Substances that enters into a chemical reaction are the reactantsSubstances that are produced from chemical reactions are the productsReactants Products
2 Reasons for chemical reactions What accounts for the ability of different substances to undergo chemical reactionsThe arrangement of electrons in an atom determines whether it will bond with other atoms and with which atoms it will bond with.During a chemical reaction, bonds are broken, atoms are rearranged, and new bonds are created as new substances are created.
3 Chemical EquationsChemical Reactions are represented by sentences known as chemical equationsA chemical equation describes what happens in a chemical reactionIdentifies the reactants and the products
4 Word Equations Simplest type of equation Give only the names of the reactants and productsWrite the following word reactions:Hydrogen gas is burned in oxygen to yield waterSodium metal is combined with chlorine gas to yield sodium chloride.
5 Formula EquationsChemical equations are more commonly written with chemical symbolsWrite the chemical formulas for the above two reactionsThe key to writing formula equations is to be very careful to use the correct chemical symbols and formulas for the reactants and products.
6 Balancing EquationsThe total mass of the reactants must be equal to the total mass of the products.For mass to remain constant before and after a chemical reaction, the number of atoms of each element must be the same before and after a chemical reaction.Why can’t we merely change the subscripts of the chemical formula so they match on each side of arrow?
7 Steps for balancing equations Write the word equation that describes the reactionReplace the words in the equation with symbols and formulasCount the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equationTo balance the equation, it is usually best to begin with those elements that occur in only one substance on each side of the equation.
8 ExamplesManganese metal reacts with sulfuric acid to produce manganese (II) sulfate and hydrogen gas.Silver chlorate is decomposed with heat to give silver chloride and oxygen gas.Chromium metal is heated in oxygen to produce chromium(III) oxideCopper(II) hydroxide and potassium sulfate are produced when potassium hydroxide reacts with copper(II) sulfate
9 ExamplesSodium hydroxide reacts with phosphoric acid to produce trisodium phosphate and waterPotassium reacts with water to produce hydrogen and potassium hydroxide.Aluminum reacts with iron(II) nitrate to form aluminum nitrate and ironMagnesium hydroxide decomposes to form magnesium oxide and water
10 ExamplesWhen solid copper reacts with aqueous silver nitrate, the products are aqueous copper(II) nitrate and solid silver.The reaction between solid iron(III) oxide and carbon monoxide gas produces solid iron and carbon dioxide gas.The reaction between solid zinc sulfide and oxygen gas produces solid zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide gas.