2 WHAT IS HIV?? “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” A unique type of virus (a retrovirus)Invades the helper T cells in the body of the host (defense mechanism of a person)Threatening a global epidemic.Preventable, managable but not curable.
3 WHAT IS AIDS ??? “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome” HIV is the virus that causes AIDSDisease limits the body’s ability to fight infection due to markedly reduced helper T cells.Patients have a very weak immune system (defense mechanism)Patients predisposed to multiple opportunistic infections leading to death.
11 Stage 1 - PrimaryShort, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infectionMild symptomsInfected person can infect other people
12 Stage 2 - Asymptomatic Lasts for an average of ten years This stage is free from symptomsThere may be swollen glandsThe level of HIV in the blood drops to low levelsHIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
13 Stage 3 - Symptomatic The immune system deteriorates Opportunistic infections and cancers start to appear.
14 Stage 4 - HIV AIDSThe immune system weakens too much as CD4 cells decrease in number.
15 Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS CD4( T Cells) <500Bacterial infectionsTuberculosis (TB)Herpes SimplexHerpes ZosterVaginal candidiasisHairy leukoplakiaKaposi’s sarcoma
17 Blood Detection Tests HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Screening test for HIVSensitivity > 99.9%Western blotConfirmatory testSpeicificity > 99.9% (when combined with ELIZA)HIV rapid antibody testSimple to performAbsolute CD4 lymphocyte countPredictor of HIV progressionRisk of opportunistic infections and AIDS when <200HIV viral load testsBest test for diagnosis of acute HIV infectionCorrelates with disease progression and response to HAART
18 Urine Testing Urine Western Blot As sensitive as testing blood Safe way to screen for HIVCan cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV
19 Oral Testing Orasure The only FDA approved HIV antibody. As accurate as blood testingDraws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue.NOT A SALIVA TEST!
23 HIV PREVALENCE IN VARIOUS REGIONS Sub-Saharan AfricaSouth/South-East Asia42%Latin AmericaEurasiaNorth AmericaEast AsiaWestern EuropeNorth Africa/Middle EastTotal = 39.4 millionCaribbean<OceaniaSource: UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2004.
24 NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS 54 NGOs are involved in HIV/AIDS public awareness and in the care and support of persons living with HIV/AIDS.Also working on education and prevention interventions targeting sex workers, truck drivers, and other high-risk groups.But reaching less than 5 percent of the vulnerable population.
25 WHAT WE CAN DO??UNAIDS Outcome Framework 2009–2013: nine priority areasWe can reduce sexual transmission of HIV.We can prevent mothers from dying and babies from becoming infected with HIV.We can ensure that people living with HIV receive treatment.We can prevent people living with HIV from dying of tuberculosis.We can protect drug users from becoming infected with HIV.We can remove punitive laws, policies, practices, stigma and discrimination thatblock effective responses to AIDS.We can stop violence against women and girls.We can empower young people to protect themselves from HIV.We can enhance social protection for people affected by HIV.