What does HIV/AIDS stand for? HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
What causes HIV/AIDS? The human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection and AIDS. People who are infected with this virus may not have any symptoms and may not realize they have become infected.
Definition of HIV HIV is a retrovirus that infects and kills the CD4+ T cells of the human immune system. As CD4+ T cells are destroyed, the immune system fails, leading to AIDS. CD4+ cells are a type of white blood cell that help our bodies fight infection
Definition of AIDS People with HIV with a CD4+ T cell count below 200 mL of blood or 14% of all lymphocytes.
HIV Statistics CDC estimates between 800,000 and 900,000 U.S. residents are living with HIV. Of those people, approximately one-third of them are unaware of their infection. 40,000 new HIV infections occur every day worldwide, with half occurring in people under the age of 25. AIDS is the 6 th leading cause of death among 15-24 year olds and their infection is usually the result of sexual behavior. Two teenagers an hour become infected with HIV in the United States. New York State has the greatest number of AIDS cases with 194,341 Even without NYC, New York ranks in the top 7 states. There are 23 AIDS cases in Cortland County. Only 10% of people infected with HIV tell their partners about it.
How is HIV/AIDS Contracted? Vaginal and anal secretions Semen Blood (IV drug use/blood transfusion) Do we need to worry about blood transfusions today? Mother to child (breast milk/labor)
You Can Not Get HIV From… Closed-mouth kissing Hugging Touching, holding, or shaking hands Coughing or sneezing Sharing food or eating utensils Sharing towels or combs Sharing bathroom facilities or water fountains
How HIV progresses into AIDS: WINDOW PERIOD ASYMPTOMATICSYMPTOMATIC AIDS
STAGE 1: WINDOW PERIOD Point of infection Takes 1-3 months for antibodies to show up on an HIV test A person in the window period would test negative even though are actually positive Can infect another person Person looks and feels fine T-cells are approximately 1000 per milliliter of blood
Stage 2: ASYMPTOMATIC Stage lasts three months after infection to approximately 10 years after infection Immune system is under attack T-cells are being destroyed Person still looks and feels fine Experiencing no symptoms of sickness Can infect another person T-cells are approximately 1000-500 per milliliter of blood
Stage 3: SYMPTOMATIC Typically three years to ten years after infection, a person will develop symptoms of HIV Immune system is still being destroyed Person begins to feel sick: weight loss, fatigue, diarrhea, night sweats, vomiting Can still infect another person Person’s t-cell count drops to approximately 500-200 per milliliter of blood
People who have HIV symptoms experience one or more of the following: flu-like symptoms swollen glands diarrhea night sweats weight loss, fatigue yeast infections pneumonia cancer
Stage 4: AIDS When T-cell count drops below 200 per milliliter of blood, a person is diagnosed with AIDS A person typically becomes infected with opportunistic diseases like: Karposi’s sarcoma (cancer of blood vessels) or pneumosystic pneumonia, AIDS dementia A person dies from the opportunistic disease, not from AIDS
What is an opportunistic infection? HIV does not cause death directly. Instead, it weakens the body's ability to fight disease. Infections which are rarely seen in those with normal immune systems are deadly to those with HIV. People with HIV can get many infections (called opportunistic infections). Many of these illnesses are very serious, and they need to be treated. Some can be prevented Examples of opportunistic infections: Pneumonia, Influenza
HIV Testing Who should get tested? Anyone who has: had unprotected sex shared needles had a blood transfusion before 1985 had sex or shared needles with someone engaging in the above behaviors When should you get tested? 1-3 months after a risky behavior
Types of HIV tests Traditional blood test -Confidential- results are kept in a confidential file; no one but your doctor should see this file unless you give consent. -Anonymous- your name does not go on the file, a number is recorded instead. Ora-sure rapid HIV test Ora-quick rapid HIV test
Treatment There are 30 antiretroviral drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat people infected with HIV. These drugs fall into four major classes. Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors interfere with the critical step during the HIV life cycle known as reverse transcription. During this step, RT, an HIV enzyme, converts HIV RNA to HIV DNA. There are two main types of RT inhibitors. Nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors are faulty DNA building blocks. When these faulty pieces are incorporated into the HIV DNA (during the process when the HIV RNA is converted to HIV DNA), the DNA chain cannot be completed, thereby blocking HIV from replicating in a cell. Non-nucleoside RT inhibitors bind to RT, interfering with its ability to convert the HIV RNA into HIV DNA.
Treatment Continued… Protease inhibitors interfere with the protease enzyme that HIV uses to produce infectious viral particles. Entry and fusion inhibitors interfere with the virus' ability to fuse with the cellular membrane, thereby blocking entry into the host cell. Integrase inhibitors block integrase, the enzyme HIV uses to integrate genetic material of the virus into its target host cell. Multidrug combination products combine drugs from more than one class into a single product.