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Institutional and Policy Landscape on DRR and CCA in Asia and Pacific

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Presentation on theme: "Institutional and Policy Landscape on DRR and CCA in Asia and Pacific"— Presentation transcript:

1 Institutional and Policy Landscape on DRR and CCA in Asia and Pacific
Jerry Velasquez, Ph.D. Senior Regional Coordinator International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Secretariat in Asia Pacific (UNISDR)

2 Spectrum of Focus of CCA

3 Number of projects by sub-region

4 Number of regional projects by main adaptation objective

5 Number of regional projects by government guidance

6 Number of regional projects by HFA priorities

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8 Evolving Conclusions At the regional level, there is a large area of methodological overlap between DRR and CCA policies. These similarities should ideally drive the necessary linkages between implementation processes and mechanisms, including funding of activities. There seems to be still little capacity for governments to systematically organize and prioritize the activities they need for DRR and CCA. The present regional focus on building capacity and on reducing the underlying sources of vulnerability may be an opportunity for looking at no-regrets approaches for CCA and DRR putting these activities concretely into more immediate development contexts.

9 Institutional Typology

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14 Evolving Conclusions The UN has the most number of institutions active in Asia Pacific engaged in DRR and CCA. Multilateral and bilateral funding institutions and UN agencies are the ones that have started on activities that address climate impacts focusing more on managing climate risks. Of the ongoing activities, IGOs and multilateral and bilateral funding institutions have activities that have closer Government ownership, which naturally comes with the nature of these organizations.

15 Enabling Environment Typology
Policy framework for CCA and DRR, made possible though a risk-based approach to adaptation. (source: John Hay, 2010)

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17 Commonalities in enabling factors in the integration of DRM, CCA and poverty reduction, and relevant entry points (source: Few et al, 2006).

18 Relevant Entry Points Engineering design studies for infrastructure;
Visioning activities, at community to national level; Multi-hazard risk assessments such as development of integrated coastal management plans; Local government strategic planning; Mid term and final reviews of projects; Preparing work programmes of high-level national coordinating institutions; Preparation of integrated national policies, legislation or progressive development strategies; Development of capacity building strategies, including both top-down and bottom up strategies such as those designed to strengthen community capacity for promoting integration of DRR-CCA into development at the local level; and Sourcing funding (internal or external) for projects designed to reduce vulnerabilities and enhance resilience.

19 WB Enabling Environment
composed of: participatory and community-based natural resource management; decentralized natural resource management; and institutional coordination. These indicators were identified because adaptation is largely a context specific and locally driven process, requiring local communities to efficiently manage common resources; effective adaptation requires enabling policies and systems at the national level, as well as effective central–local coordinating mechanisms; and the multi-sectoral nature of impacts and adaptation to climate change calls for tackling impacts from different angles in a synergistic and coordinated way at various institutional levels.

20 Regional enabling environment for fostering DRR and CCA integration:
the political commitment and awareness of regional inter governmental organization and the regional policy and institutional mechanisms related to DRR and CCA.

21 Regional Inter-Governmental Organizations

22 East Asia: Progress without Cooperation
3 towering economies - China, Japan and South Korea - account for nearly 60% of total wealth of the Asia-Pacific Significant progress on DRR, but insignificant progress on RC Some beginning made in recent years for such cooperation: First Japan-China-Korea Trilateral Summit December 2008 Expert level meeting, Seoul 2009 Ministerial level meeting, Kobe October 2009 Tri-lateral Joint Statement on Disaster Management Cooperation 3 broad areas of cooperation agreed Countermeasures to climate related disasters Earthquake-proofing of buildings and Satellite technologies for disaster management. Next meeting will be held in China in 2011.

23 South East Asia: Substantial Cooperation
ASEAN started in 1967 with 4 countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand Expanded its membership to 10 with inclusions of Brunei, Viet Nam, Lao and Myanmar and Cambodia ASEAN grew through the phases of Declarations (Bangkok 1967, Kuala Lumpur 1976) Concords (Bali 1976, 2003) Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (1976) ASEAN Vision 2020 (Kuala Lumpur 1997) Plan of Action (Hanoi 1998) ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in June 2002 Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response 2005

24 ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response
Signed by the Member States on 26 July 2005 Came into force on 24 December 2009 after being ratified by all the Member States AADMER has in all 36 Articles, divided in 11 Parts It deals in a comprehensive manner the whole cycle of disaster management starting with risk identification, assessment and monitoring, continuing with disaster prevention and mitigation, disaster preparedness, emergency response, rehabilitation, technical cooperation and scientific research and institutional arrangements and procedures. AADMER is the first and the only HFA-related binding regional agreement in the world

25 Institutional mechanism
ASEAN Experts Group on Disaster Management created in 1976 as one of the seven subsidiary bodies under ASEAN Committee on Social Development AEGDM elevated as ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) in 2003 ACDM consists of heads of national agencies responsible for disaster management in the ASEAN Member Countries and has the overall responsibility for coordinating and implementing the regional activities on disaster management. ASEAN Centre for Humanitarian Assistance (AHA Centre) in the making

26 South Asia: Promising Road Maps
SAARC Study for the Protection and Preservation of the Environment and the Causes and Consequences of Natural Disasters 1991 SAARC Meteorological Research Centre Dhaka 1995 SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre Male 2004 Male Declaration of Environment Ministers in June 2005 to formulate a Comprehensive Framework on Early Warning, Disaster Management and Disaster Prevention SAARC Comprehensive Framework on Disaster Management 2006 SAARC Disaster Management Centre New Delhi 2007

27 Organisation structure of SDMC
Governing Board Chairman (By Rotation) Member (Afghanistan) (India) Member (Maldives) Member (Nepal) Member (Pakistan) (Sri Lanka) (Bhutan) Director (Member Secretary) Water & climate related disasters Geologically related disasters Biological & other Manmade disasters Policy, Planning & Other Related Issues Administration & Finance wing

28 SAARC Regional Road Maps
SAARCC Disaster Management Centre has developed Regional Road Maps on certain key areas of disaster management through a consultative process. These include: (a) Community Based Disaster Risk Management (b) Application of S&T for Disaster Management (c) Coastal and Marine Risk Management (d) Integration of DRR in Climate Change Adaptation (e) Mainstreaming DRR in Development (f) Earthquake Risk Management Forthcoming Road Maps (a) Landslide Risk Management (b) Flood Risk Management

29 Regional programmes for implementation of road maps
Sharing of Data Products from Earth Observation Satellites for DRR in South Asia Development of Regional Protocol for Sharing of Tsunami & Cyclone Early Warning Development of Template for Harmonization of Coastal and Marine Risk Management Plans in South Asia Development of Regional Coastal and Marine Risk Mitigation Plan Development of Guidelines for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Climate Change Adaptation in respect of Flood, Cyclone, Drought and Glacial Lake Outbursts Technology Need Assessment for Integrating Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change into Disaster Risk Reduction Development of Tool Kits for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Development in South Asia Earthquake Risk Mitigation in South Asia Development of Regional Attenuation Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment First-cut Microzonation study for Select Cities Compendium of Building Codes and Regulations Development of Regional Action Plan on School and Hospital Safety

30 Two flagship projects of SAARC DMC
South Asia Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN) to develop a Network of Networks of scientific, technical, research and practicing organizations within and outside government at national and regional levels Digital Vulnerability Atlas of South Asia (DVA) to prepare Digital Vulnerability Atlas of South Asia on a GIS Platform integrating physical, social and economic data. Work on both projects ongoing

31 Central Asia: Regional cooperation in the making
5 core Central Asian States - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – looking towards north (Commonwealth of Independent States), east (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) and South (Economic Cooperation Organisation) for cooperation Central Asia is marginalized in all three organizations Central Asia is therefore searching for alternatives Treaty of Eternal Friendship in January 1997 Cooperation Agreement for Prevention and Liquidation of Emergencies 1998 Central Asian Centre for Disaster Response and Risk Reduction in offing in 2010

32 Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Set up in 1985 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, ECO includes 5 central Asian States besides Afghanistan and Azerbaijan ECO has made significant gains in the fields of economic, technical and cultural cooperation among the Member States Disaster management is not yet in active agenda of ECO 9th ECO Summit 2006 called for regional programmes for early warning, and practical steps for disaster preparedness. Since 2006 ECO has been organising annual International Conferences on Disaster Risk Management which provided a platform for the scientists and practitioners to come together to discuss issues of regional cooperation on disaster management

33 Regional Centre for Risk Management of Natural Disasters, Mashhad
Centre set up by Iran in 2007 with mandate to develop early warning mechanisms, monitor natural disasters, weather and environmental conditions and help member states in capacity building Centre received status of an ad hoc body affiliated to ECO, but it is yet to report any significant progress towards achieving the stated objectives, particularly for the Central Asian region Working more as a government organisation than an inter-governmental organisation

34 Western Asia: Looking For Models
Prolonged conflicts in West Asia did not encourage creation of even a single regional organisation that binds all the countries of the region together. Countries have looking beyond their region to find solutions to regional problems of disaster management. Two such organisations that have made some headway in this direction are: League of the Arab States Gulf Cooperation Council

35 Pacific Island Countries: Partnerships and Networks
Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) is the main vehicle for promotion of regional cooperation on disaster risk management in the Pacific region Set up in 1972 SOPAC became an autonomous intergovernmental organisation in 1984 SOPAC adopted a regional framework for disaster risk management in October 2005 titled “An Investment for Sustainable Development in the Pacific Island Countries – Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management A Framework for Action : Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters”,

36 Pacific Disaster Risk Management Partnership Network
The Network was established in February 2006 SOPAC The Network comprises a “open-ended, voluntary” membership of international, regional and national government and non-government organisations, toward mainstreaming DRM through addressing their disaster risk reduction and disaster management priorities. Each partner contributes resources and technical expertise to develop joint programmes and projects for assistance reflecting the evolving needs of member countries. Funding arrangement for these activities are shared consistent with the mandate of the individual partners.

37 SOPAC programmes on regional cooperation
Pacific Disaster Net ( Partnership Capability Matrix outlining areas of expertise / interest and projects of each Partner Online Monitoring against the Regional Framework for Action Regional report of progress against the Regional Framework for Action which feeds into the Hyogo Framework for Action.

38 Matrix of regional cooperation by Inter-governmental organizations
Name of Regional Organisation Year when established when DM recognised Any Framework on DM? Any legal instrument? Any specialized Centre? Any Regional Programme? East Asia None - South East Asia ASEAN 1967 1976 Yes No South Asia SAARC 1985 1987 Central Asia ECO 2006 West Asia Arab League 1945 2009 Gulf Council 1981 Pacific Islands SOPAC 1984 2005

39 Other Regional Organisations
Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) Bangkok Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC) Kobe International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) Kathmandu Regional programmes of various scientific, technical, academic and professional organisations Regional cooperation among media and corporate sectors Regional programmes of IFRC&RCC Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN) Duryog Nivaran and Practical Action

40 International Organisations
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) Mekong Committee 1957 ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee 1968 ESCAP/WMO Panel on Tropical Cyclones 1971 Regional Space Applications Programme 1994 Tsunami Regional Trust Fund 2005 ESCAP Committee on Disaster Risk Reduction 2008 Role of UNISDR and its Asia-Pacific regional unit Regional programmes of various UN agencies -UNDP, UNOCHA, WFP, UNHCR, UNESCO etc

41 Multi-lateral financial institutions
World Bank – its role in post disaster recovery and reconstruction of housing, livelihood and infrastructure Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) Asian Development Bank Disaster and Emergency Assistance Policy 2004 Asian Tsunami Fund 2005 DEAP Action Plan 2008 Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund 2009

42 Pan Asia-Pacific Cooperation
Leadership of Asia-Pacific for development of global framework for disaster reduction – Yakohama Strategy and Hyogo Framework of Action Beijing Action for Disaster Reduction 2005 Delhi Declaration on Disaster Reduction 2007 Kuala Lumpur Declaration 2008 Kuala Lumpur Action Plan Forthcoming 4th AMCDRR in Incheon 2010

43 Evolving Conclusions Seamless activities of multiple agencies in multi-dimensional programmes and initiatives as never seen before. Need for greater coordination and synergy of efforts for optimum utilization of scarce resources for maximum gains. Huge scope and opportunities for sharing and cross learning of experiences across regions both within and outside the Asia-Pacific Due to the historical nature of the institutions in the region, DRR and CCA have evolved separately and only little progress has been made in fostering better cooperation. Newer institutions may be opportunities to foster and lead this integration effort driven largely by high level political guidance.

44 Thank you UNISDR Secretariat Asia Pacific UNESCAP Building - 4th Floor, Section B Rajdamnern Nok Avenue Bangkok - Thailand Phone: Fax:


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