Presentation on theme: "Institutional and Policy Landscape on DRR and CCA in Asia and Pacific"— Presentation transcript:
1 Institutional and Policy Landscape on DRR and CCA in Asia and Pacific Jerry Velasquez, Ph.D. Senior Regional Coordinator International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Secretariat in Asia Pacific (UNISDR)
8 Evolving ConclusionsAt the regional level, there is a large area of methodological overlap between DRR and CCA policies. These similarities should ideally drive the necessary linkages between implementation processes and mechanisms, including funding of activities.There seems to be still little capacity for governments to systematically organize and prioritize the activities they need for DRR and CCA.The present regional focus on building capacity and on reducing the underlying sources of vulnerability may be an opportunity for looking at no-regrets approaches for CCA and DRR putting these activities concretely into more immediate development contexts.
14 Evolving ConclusionsThe UN has the most number of institutions active in Asia Pacific engaged in DRR and CCA. Multilateral and bilateral funding institutions and UN agencies are the ones that have started on activities that address climate impacts focusing more on managing climate risks. Of the ongoing activities, IGOs and multilateral and bilateral funding institutions have activities that have closer Government ownership, which naturally comes with the nature of these organizations.
15 Enabling Environment Typology Policy framework for CCA and DRR, made possible though a risk-based approach to adaptation. (source: John Hay, 2010)
17 Commonalities in enabling factors in the integration of DRM, CCA and poverty reduction, and relevant entry points (source: Few et al, 2006).
18 Relevant Entry Points Engineering design studies for infrastructure; Visioning activities, at community to national level;Multi-hazard risk assessments such as development of integrated coastal management plans;Local government strategic planning;Mid term and final reviews of projects;Preparing work programmes of high-level national coordinating institutions;Preparation of integrated national policies, legislation or progressive development strategies;Development of capacity building strategies, including both top-down and bottom up strategies such as those designed to strengthen community capacity for promoting integration of DRR-CCA into development at the local level; andSourcing funding (internal or external) for projects designed to reduce vulnerabilities and enhance resilience.
19 WB Enabling Environment composed of:participatory and community-based natural resource management;decentralized natural resource management; andinstitutional coordination.These indicators were identified becauseadaptation is largely a context specific and locally driven process, requiring local communities to efficiently manage common resources;effective adaptation requires enabling policies and systems at the national level, as well as effective central–local coordinating mechanisms; andthe multi-sectoral nature of impacts and adaptation to climate change calls for tackling impacts from different angles in a synergistic and coordinated way at various institutional levels.
20 Regional enabling environment for fostering DRR and CCA integration: the political commitment and awareness of regional inter governmental organization andthe regional policy and institutional mechanisms related to DRR and CCA.
22 East Asia: Progress without Cooperation 3 towering economies - China, Japan and South Korea - account for nearly 60% of total wealth of the Asia-PacificSignificant progress on DRR, but insignificant progress on RCSome beginning made in recent years for such cooperation:First Japan-China-Korea Trilateral Summit December 2008Expert level meeting, Seoul 2009Ministerial level meeting, Kobe October 2009Tri-lateral Joint Statement on Disaster Management Cooperation3 broad areas of cooperation agreedCountermeasures to climate related disastersEarthquake-proofing of buildings andSatellite technologies for disaster management.Next meeting will be held in China in 2011.
23 South East Asia: Substantial Cooperation ASEAN started in 1967 with 4 countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and ThailandExpanded its membership to 10 with inclusions of Brunei, Viet Nam, Lao and Myanmar and CambodiaASEAN grew through the phases ofDeclarations (Bangkok 1967, Kuala Lumpur 1976)Concords (Bali 1976, 2003)Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (1976)ASEAN Vision 2020 (Kuala Lumpur 1997)Plan of Action (Hanoi 1998)ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in June 2002Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response 2005
24 ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response Signed by the Member States on 26 July 2005Came into force on 24 December 2009 after being ratified by all the Member StatesAADMER has in all 36 Articles, divided in 11 PartsIt deals in a comprehensive manner the whole cycle of disaster management starting with risk identification, assessment and monitoring, continuing with disaster prevention and mitigation, disaster preparedness, emergency response, rehabilitation, technical cooperation and scientific research and institutional arrangements and procedures.AADMER is the first and the only HFA-related binding regional agreement in the world
25 Institutional mechanism ASEAN Experts Group on Disaster Management created in 1976 as one of the seven subsidiary bodies under ASEAN Committee on Social DevelopmentAEGDM elevated as ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) in 2003ACDM consists of heads of national agencies responsible for disaster management in the ASEAN Member Countries and has the overall responsibility for coordinating and implementing the regional activities on disaster management.ASEAN Centre for Humanitarian Assistance (AHA Centre) in the making
26 South Asia: Promising Road Maps SAARC Study for the Protection and Preservation of the Environment and the Causes and Consequences of Natural Disasters 1991SAARC Meteorological Research Centre Dhaka 1995SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre Male 2004Male Declaration of Environment Ministers in June 2005 to formulate a Comprehensive Framework on Early Warning, Disaster Management and Disaster PreventionSAARC Comprehensive Framework on Disaster Management 2006SAARC Disaster Management Centre New Delhi 2007
28 SAARC Regional Road Maps SAARCC Disaster Management Centre has developed Regional Road Maps on certain key areas of disaster management through a consultative process. These include:(a) Community Based Disaster Risk Management(b) Application of S&T for Disaster Management(c) Coastal and Marine Risk Management(d) Integration of DRR in Climate Change Adaptation(e) Mainstreaming DRR in Development(f) Earthquake Risk ManagementForthcoming Road Maps(a) Landslide Risk Management(b) Flood Risk Management
29 Regional programmes for implementation of road maps Sharing of Data Products from Earth Observation Satellites for DRR in South AsiaDevelopment of Regional Protocol for Sharing of Tsunami & Cyclone Early WarningDevelopment of Template for Harmonization of Coastal and Marine Risk Management Plans in South AsiaDevelopment of Regional Coastal and Marine Risk Mitigation PlanDevelopment of Guidelines for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Climate Change Adaptation in respect of Flood, Cyclone, Drought and Glacial Lake OutburstsTechnology Need Assessment for Integrating Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change into Disaster Risk ReductionDevelopment of Tool Kits for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Development in South AsiaEarthquake Risk Mitigation in South AsiaDevelopment of Regional Attenuation Models for Seismic Hazard AssessmentFirst-cut Microzonation study for Select CitiesCompendium of Building Codes and RegulationsDevelopment of Regional Action Plan on School and Hospital Safety
30 Two flagship projects of SAARC DMC South Asia Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN) to develop a Network of Networks of scientific, technical, research and practicing organizations within and outside government at national and regional levelsDigital Vulnerability Atlas of South Asia (DVA) to prepare Digital Vulnerability Atlas of South Asia on a GIS Platform integrating physical, social and economic data.Work on both projects ongoing
31 Central Asia: Regional cooperation in the making 5 core Central Asian States - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – looking towards north (Commonwealth of Independent States), east (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) and South (Economic Cooperation Organisation) for cooperationCentral Asia is marginalized in all three organizationsCentral Asia is therefore searching for alternativesTreaty of Eternal Friendship in January 1997Cooperation Agreement for Prevention and Liquidation of Emergencies 1998Central Asian Centre for Disaster Response and Risk Reduction in offing in 2010
32 Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Set up in 1985 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, ECO includes 5 central Asian States besides Afghanistan and AzerbaijanECO has made significant gains in the fields of economic, technical and cultural cooperation among the Member StatesDisaster management is not yet in active agenda of ECO9th ECO Summit 2006 called for regional programmes for early warning, and practical steps for disaster preparedness.Since 2006 ECO has been organising annual International Conferences on Disaster Risk Management which provided a platform for the scientists and practitioners to come together to discuss issues of regional cooperation on disaster management
33 Regional Centre for Risk Management of Natural Disasters, Mashhad Centre set up by Iran in 2007 with mandate to develop early warning mechanisms, monitor natural disasters, weather and environmental conditions and help member states in capacity buildingCentre received status of an ad hoc body affiliated to ECO, but it is yet to report any significant progress towards achieving the stated objectives, particularly for the Central Asian regionWorking more as a government organisation than an inter-governmental organisation
34 Western Asia: Looking For Models Prolonged conflicts in West Asia did not encourage creation of even a single regional organisation that binds all the countries of the region together.Countries have looking beyond their region to find solutions to regional problems of disaster management.Two such organisations that have made some headway in this direction are:League of the Arab StatesGulf Cooperation Council
35 Pacific Island Countries: Partnerships and Networks Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) is the main vehicle for promotion of regional cooperation on disaster risk management in the Pacific regionSet up in 1972 SOPAC became an autonomous intergovernmental organisation in 1984SOPAC adopted a regional framework for disaster risk management in October 2005 titled “An Investment for Sustainable Development in the Pacific Island Countries – Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management A Framework for Action : Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters”,
36 Pacific Disaster Risk Management Partnership Network The Network was established in February 2006 SOPACThe Network comprises a “open-ended, voluntary” membership of international, regional and national government and non-government organisations, toward mainstreaming DRM through addressing their disaster risk reduction and disaster management priorities.Each partner contributes resources and technical expertise to develop joint programmes and projects for assistance reflecting the evolving needs of member countries.Funding arrangement for these activities are shared consistent with the mandate of the individual partners.
37 SOPAC programmes on regional cooperation Pacific Disaster Net (Partnership Capability Matrix outlining areas of expertise / interest and projects of each PartnerOnline Monitoring against the Regional Framework for ActionRegional report of progress against the Regional Framework for Action which feeds into the Hyogo Framework for Action.
38 Matrix of regional cooperation by Inter-governmental organizations Name of Regional OrganisationYearwhen establishedwhen DM recognisedAny Framework on DM?Anylegal instrument?Any specialized Centre?Any Regional Programme?East AsiaNone-South East AsiaASEAN19671976YesNoSouth AsiaSAARC19851987Central AsiaECO2006West AsiaArab League19452009Gulf Council1981Pacific IslandsSOPAC19842005
39 Other Regional Organisations Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) BangkokAsian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC) KobeInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) KathmanduRegional programmes of various scientific, technical, academic and professional organisationsRegional cooperation among media and corporate sectorsRegional programmes of IFRC&RCCAsian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN)Duryog Nivaran and Practical Action
40 International Organisations United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP)Mekong Committee 1957ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee 1968ESCAP/WMO Panel on Tropical Cyclones 1971Regional Space Applications Programme 1994Tsunami Regional Trust Fund 2005ESCAP Committee on Disaster Risk Reduction 2008Role of UNISDR and its Asia-Pacific regional unitRegional programmes of various UN agencies -UNDP, UNOCHA, WFP, UNHCR, UNESCO etc
41 Multi-lateral financial institutions World Bank – its role in post disaster recovery and reconstruction of housing, livelihood and infrastructureGlobal Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)Asian Development BankDisaster and Emergency Assistance Policy 2004Asian Tsunami Fund 2005DEAP Action Plan 2008Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund 2009
42 Pan Asia-Pacific Cooperation Leadership of Asia-Pacific for development of global framework for disaster reduction – Yakohama Strategy and Hyogo Framework of ActionBeijing Action for Disaster Reduction 2005Delhi Declaration on Disaster Reduction 2007Kuala Lumpur Declaration 2008Kuala Lumpur Action PlanForthcoming 4th AMCDRR in Incheon 2010
43 Evolving ConclusionsSeamless activities of multiple agencies in multi-dimensional programmes and initiatives as never seen before.Need for greater coordination and synergy of efforts for optimum utilization of scarce resources for maximum gains.Huge scope and opportunities for sharing and cross learning of experiences across regions both within and outside the Asia-PacificDue to the historical nature of the institutions in the region, DRR and CCA have evolved separately and only little progress has been made in fostering better cooperation. Newer institutions may be opportunities to foster and lead this integration effort driven largely by high level political guidance.
44 Thank youUNISDR Secretariat Asia Pacific UNESCAP Building - 4th Floor, Section BRajdamnern Nok Avenue Bangkok - ThailandPhone: Fax: