# Earthquakes.

## Presentation on theme: "Earthquakes."— Presentation transcript:

Earthquakes

What is an earthquake? Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip Caused by sudden stress changes in the earth. Usually occur at or near plate boundaries Some are strong and can be felt on the surface, some are weak and can only be felt by a seismograph

Three Types of Faults Strike-Slip Reverse Normal Three types of faults
Form depending on type of plate motion and complex reaction of earth’s lithospheric blocks Strike-slip Normal Thrust Normal

What causes earthquakes?
Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to deform Plastic deformation – does not cause earthquakes Elastic deformation – rock stretches then reaches a breaking point, releasing energy.

Elastic Rebound – deformed rock goes back to its original shape

Focus – point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins Epicenter – point on Earth’s surface above focus

How Seismographs Work the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it

Typical Seismogram

Earthquake Vocabulary
Seismology – The study of earthquakes Seismograph – An instrument that records vibrations in the ground and determines the location and strength of an earthquake Seismologist – A person who studies earthquakes Seismic Wave – A wave of energy that travels through the Earth and away from an earthquake in all directions Seismogram – a tracing of earthquake motion that is created by a seismograph

Primary Waves (P Waves)
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground The first wave to arrive at a seismograph

Secondary Waves (S Waves)
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side

Comparing Seismic Waves

Surface Waves Move along the Earth’s surface
Produces motion in the upper crust Motion can be up and down Motion can be around Motion can be back and forth Travel more slowly than S and P waves More destructive

How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake?
Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves

Locating Earthquakes

Locating Earthquakes

Locating Earthquakes

How are Earthquakes Measured? Richter Scale

How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale

Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior

Seismic Waves in the Earth

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