Presentation on theme: "EU Institutions And its Tools EU Institutions And its Tools."— Presentation transcript:
EU Institutions And its Tools EU Institutions And its Tools
European Commission Composition President & VPs Sets the broad policy directs the allocation. appointed by majority of heads of member states during a meeting of European Council. ( Treaty of Nice, 2003) Final approval is by the European Parliament Commissioners Nominated by national governments Supervise directorate-generals Each member can propose only one commissioner (Nice) List of commissioners is approved by Council and president. Final approval is by the European Parliament 4 year term Must remain neutral Each commissioner is assigned a policy area The nationality of the directorate- general is different than the Commissioner of that policy area.
European Commission Policy Areas Agriculture and rural development Competition Economic and financial affairs Education and culture Employment, social affairs and equal opportunities Enterprise and industry Fisheries and maritime affairs Environment Health and consumer protection Internal market and services Justice, Freedon and security Taxation and customs union Transport and energy
European Commission Role Initiation, formulation and coordination of Community policy. Implements, manages ad controls, checks the proper application of EU law. Plans and implements common policies, executes the budget and manages Community Programs Acts as an observer of what is enacted by the treaties Takes violators to the ECJ Suggests policies and is in charge of drafting proposals of EU policies
European Parliament Composition Elected by all the peoples of the EU President is elected from the MEPs MEPs sit by political groups not nationalities Act as representatives of all the States in the Community 5 year terms Meets in Strasbourg but most business is done in Brussels
European Parliament Role Powers are advisory & supervisory Provide formal opinion on issues of social policy, Economics, Social cohesion Research First opinion is when Commission make a proposal Second opinion is when Council makes a decision Approves Commissioners Dismiss the Commission as a whole Right to question the Commission Right to be heard by Council Right to bring issue to ECJ Approves Council budget Hears petition of citizen, resident or registered office or group in EU on EU activity affecting them directly
European Council Composition Heads of state or government of the EU and the President of the Commission Meets twice a year Chaired by Member state holding the EU Presidency Role Defining the general political guidelines Setting priorities Political direction Resolving certain issues Reports to EP after each meeting through an annual report
Council of Ministers Composition Referred to as the Council Composed of one member of each State Appointed by each Member State Set by Article 145 of Treaty of Rome Chaired by Member state who holds Presidency Presidency of Council and EP rotate every six months Alphabetical as it appears in their mother tongue Troika represents the Council in external affairs Current president, past president and next president Assisted by CEC and Secretary-General ( High Rep) Assisted by Coreper and a General Secretariat Coreper is Council’s ambassador (mainly prepares for meetings)
Council of Ministers Role Most important body in decision making in EU Ensure the coordination of the general economic policy of the Member States Use its power to make decisions General Council meetings deal with policy issues in foreign affairs, finances, labor, industry, research, internal market, budget, environment and social affairs. Foreign affairs Council Specialized Council Meetings Decisions are made by simple majority
European Court of Justice Composition Chosen from Member States Agreement by the Council 6 year terms President is elected from ECJ members Full court is 13 judges ( now likely 25) Role Cases are brought by Commission or national courts Assisted by Court of First Instance Determine the direct action at a first level. Right of appeal to ECJ Court of Auditors Auditing collection and spending of EC/EU funds, analyzing and recording and making sure those funds are subject to legal & regular execution and under proper management
How a Law is made? Every proposed change to a law is based on an article of the treaty. (Legal Basis) The Legal Basis determines the legislative procedure. A proposed change is presented to the Council by: CEC itself; CEC behave of third party; Member States; EP A First proposal is drafted by a CEC directorate-general Sent to a study group (CEC, civil servants and experts) Final draft is formally approved by CEC commissioners Final draft proposal is sent out for ‘Consultation’, ‘Assent’ or ‘ Co-decision’.
Law Procedures Consultation Council consults with the EP, the EESC and the CoR. EESC – European Economic and Social Committee – Cross-section of European society and economy CoR – Committee of Regions ( Mayors, regional presidents, city/ county council chairpersons; elected for 4 year terms) Experts and civil servants with EP EP accepts, rejects or suggest changes CEC review EP comments (not required to make changes) Council receives CEC policy with changes ( if any) Council Secretariat send proposal to permanent representatives of member states. Governments send Council their opinions Council gets opinions from EESC and CoR. Proposal is either approved as a Directive, Regulation or a Decision. Less important issues are approved without debate if Coreper agree unanimously. More important issues are discussed in Council meetings
Law Procedures Assent Stages are the same as Consultation accept for EP. Council must obtain the EP’s assent ( go ahead) before decisions are taken. Applies to decisions of foremost importance to the EU EP can only accept or reject this proposal. Co-Decision Most law making EP and Council share legislative powers If here is a difference then a committee made of equal members of EP & Council try to work out a compromise. Revised proposal is sent back to EP & Council for approval.
Types of Legislation Regulation Binding in its entirety Focus is on everyone; all member states and citizens Adopted by Council in co-decision with EP Enforced as of date published in ‘Official Journal’ Directive Adopted by the Council along with EP or thru Commission alone Member States are bound to the Directive outcome but free in terms of method and form of adoption Citizens can cite in court if not adopted nationally Decision Adopted either by the Council or by co-decision or by the Commission To take or refrain from an action, confer rights, impose obligation (Member State or Citizen)
Legislative Implementation Tools Who implements and control EU institution actions European Central Bank responsible for monetary policy Managing the Euro European Investment Bank Financing investment projects that support EU objectives European Ombudsman Citizen complaints about poor administration by EU institution or body European Council of Justice Rules on issues of Community Law Community law takes precedent over member law