Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Keefe 1415. Valence electrons These are the electrons that are available to participate in reactions: they are always in the OUTSIDE shell of."— Presentation transcript:
Valence electrons These are the electrons that are available to participate in reactions: they are always in the OUTSIDE shell of electrons The number of valence electrons determines the chemical properties of the element
Valence Electrons Lithium and sodium each have 1 outer electron, so they have similar properties. For example, they are soft metals and they corrode easily in air.
Valence Electrons In forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas Octet- a set of 8 valence electrons
Valence electrons Exceptions to the OCTET RULE include H, He, and B: H and He are happy with just TWO electrons B is happy with SIX electrons
Valence Electrons Atoms of metals tend to LOSE all of their valence electrons to leave a complete octet in the next-lower energy level Atoms of nonmetals tend to GAIN electrons or SHARE electrons with another nonmetal to achieve an octet
Anions versus Cations Cations want to LOSE electron(s) and therefore have a net POSITIVE charge:
Anions Versus Cations Name of a cation is the same as the element name, then add the word ‘ion’: ion
Anions Versus Cations Some transition metals have multiple possible oxidation states (charges). To name them, you add a ROMAN NUMERAL after the name of the element to indicate the charge: ion
Anions versus Cations Anions want to GAIN electron(s) and therefore have a NEGATIVE charge
Anions Versus Cations drop the last syllable and add ‘ide’ Name of an anion is usually the name of the element, BUT drop the last syllable and add ‘ide’: Clorine atoms form chloride anions Oxygen atoms for oxide anions
Lewis dot structures of atoms valence electrons Simply put the symbol of the element and add dots around it until you have represented all the valence electrons:
Compound: any substance made up of two or more elements.
Binary Compounds “Binary” means “two”, as in there are two different elements involved. There are two types: Ionic Covalent
Ionic Compounds Ionic Compounds are made from a Metal and a Non-metal.
Ionic Compounds Naming: metal cation first, then non- metal anion with –ide at the end. Example: NaCl: Sodium Chloride In this Ionic Compound, there is one Sodium atom for every Chlorine atom.
Balancing Ionic Compounds Sometimes an Ionic Compound will have little numbers included in its formula: Ex. Magnesium Chloride = MgCl 2
Balancing Ionic Compounds These numbers are called subscripts, and they tell you how many of the previous atoms you have. One magnesium, two chlorines Magnesium Chloride = MgCl 2
Balancing Ionic Compounds Beryllium Fluoride: how do you know whether or not subscripts are needed?
Balancing Ionic Compounds There is nothing in their name that indicates that numbers are necessary in the formula You need the: Oxidation Number (we call it the charge)
Balancing Oxidation State Numbers We’re trying to get these two numbers to add up to zero: Be 2+ and F - BeF 2 = Beryllium Fluoride
A visual representation Be 2+ F - We need two “minus ones” to balance out “plus two”
Another Trick: How about Aluminum Oxide? First, find their oxidation numbers: Al 3+ and O -2 How can we balance out a 3+ and a -2? Trick: Swap the numbers! Al 2 O 3 = Aluminum Oxide
Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba 2+ and Cl . Solution: 1. Balance charge with + and – ions 2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the negative ion Ba 2+ Cl Cl 3. Write the number of ions needed as subscripts BaCl 2 Writing a Formula
Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na +, S 2- 2. Al 3+, Cl - 3. Mg 2+, N 3- Learning Check
1. Na +, S 2- Na 2 S 2. Al 3+, Cl - AlCl 3 3. Mg 2+, N 3- Mg 3 N 2 Solution
1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds:
Examples: NaCl ZnI 2 Al 2 O 3 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds sodium chloride zinc iodide aluminum oxide
Complete the names of the following binary compounds: Na 3 Nsodium ________________ KBrpotassium________________ Al 2 O 3 aluminum ________________ MgS_________________________ Learning Check
Complete the names of the following binary compounds: Na 3 N KBr Al 2 O 3 MgS Solution sodium nitride potassium bromide aluminum oxide magnesium sulfide
Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a Roman Numeral to indicate the charge on the individual ion. 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ Cu +, Cu 2+ Fe 2+, Fe 3+ copper(I) ion iron(II) ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion Transition Metals
These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because they can have more than one possible charge: anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al Names of Variable Transition Ions
Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. FeCl 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron (III) chloride CuCl (Cu + ) copper (I) chloride SnF 4 (Sn 4+ ) tin (IV) fluoride PbCl 2 (Pb 2+ )lead (II) chloride Fe 2 S 3 (Fe 3+ )iron (III) sulfide Names of Variable Ions
Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these)
Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr 2 iron (_____) bromide CuClcopper (_____) chloride SnO 2 ___(_____ ) ______________ Fe 2 O 3 ________________________ Hg 2 S________________________ Learning Check
Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: iron ( II ) bromide copper ( I ) chloride tin (IV) oxide iron (III) oxide mercury (I) sulfide Solution FeBr 2 CuCl SnO 2 Hg 2 S Fe 2 O 3
Polyatomic ions: MEMORIZE (and I have a trick to help)
Naming polyatomic ions YAS THERE ARE MOAR “ate” anions have one more oxygen then the “ite” ion, but the same charge. If you memorize the “ate” ions, then you should be able to derive the formula for the “ite” ion and vice-versa: Examples: sulfate is SO 4 2-, so sulfite has the same charge but one less oxygen (SO 3 2- ) nitrate is NO 3 -, so nitrite has the same charge but one less oxygen (NO 2 - )
Naming Polyatomics A sulfate ion is SO 4 2-. To get the formula for hydrogen sulfate ion, you add a hydrogen ion to the front of the formula. Since a hydrogen ion has a 1+ charge, the net charge on the new ion is less negative by one.
Naming polyatomics Add one more hydrogen to the mix and you get: