2 Rates of reactionReactions can be very fast, like fireworks or explosives, but they can also be very slow – such as an apple turning brown.
3 Rates of reactionChemical reactions occur when particles of reactant collide with enough energy to react.
4 Speeding up reactionsAnything that increases the chance of effective collision increases the rate (speed) of reaction. Factors include:Increased surface AreaIncreased concentrationIncreased temperatureUse of a catalyst
5 Extra surface for molecules to collide with. Surface areaThe reactions of solids can clearly only take place at the surface of the solid.If we break a solid into smaller pieces we get more area and a faster reaction.Molecules collide with the surface of the solidExtra surface for molecules to collide with.
6 Surface areaIf we grind up a solid to a powder we massively increase the surface area.We therefore massively increase the rate of any reactionSlowVery fast
7 An indigestion tablet fizzes in water – but fizzes much faster if it is crushed. Which glass has the crushed tablet?ABSolidCrushed
8 Collisions infrequent ConcentrationReactions in solution involve dissolved paticles that must collide before reaction is possible.The more crowded (concentrated) the solution, the faster the reaction.Collisions infrequentCollisions frequent
10 And so - pressure speeds up gas reactions Reactions involving gases are affected by the pressure of the gases present.If we cover one end of a bicycle pump and push in the plunger we increase the pressure.Low pressureHigh pressureWhat we are doing is squeezing the gas molecules closer together or making them more concentrated.And so - pressure speeds up gas reactions
11 How and why will this affect the rate of reaction? The Haber Process, in which nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form ammonia, is carried out at 200 atmospheres pressure.How and why will this affect the rate of reaction?The particles will be 200 times closer together and so will collide much more often.The reaction will be much faster.compress
12 More collisions per second TemperatureAt higher temperatures molecules move faster. As a result there are more collisions per second and so a faster reaction occurs. Slow molecules are also less likely to lead to a reaction than fast ones.More collisions per secondFewer collisions per second
13 Food spoils because of chemical reactions that occur. Why does food remain usable for so much longer if it is kept in a freezer?The reactions that cause the food to go off will be slower because there will be fewer and “softer” collisions between molecules at a reduced temperature.
14 Before microwave ovens were common many people used pressure cookers. It was a pan that stopped the water boiling until it reached about 115oC.How would this help cooking?The molecules move faster and collide more often and with more energy.Cooking times were greatly reduced.
15 Activation energyEnergy is given out as new bonds formChemical reactions involve the formation of bonds between atoms but often before new bonds can be formed old ones have to be broken.This means that there has to be enough energy (activation energy)to start breaking the old bonds before a reaction can occur.Activation energy needed to break existing bondsNew bonds formReactantsOld bonds start to break
16 Activation energyMost reactions are exothermic (give out heat) overall but there is still a need for energy to get the reaction started.Energy in chemicalsReactionActivation energyBreak old bondsEnergy taken inForm new bondsEnergy given out
17 Why doesn’t petrol catch fire when it is poured through air? Why is just one spark enough to create a major explosion?Energy is needed to break the bonds in petrol before new bonds can be formed by a reaction with oxygen.Once some of the bonds in one petrol molecule have been broken the subsequent reaction with oxygen gives out enough energy to break the bonds in several other petrol molecules - and so on.
19 Catalysts For chemical reactions to occur: Existing bonds have to begin breaking so that new ones can be formed.The molecules have to collide in such a way that the reacting parts of the molecules are brought together.Catalysts can help with either or both of these processes.A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without getting used up in the process.
20 CatalystsIn the presence of a nickel catalyst vegetable oil and hydrogen react to form margarine.Nickel adsorbs hydrogen gas onto its surface in such a way that the bond holding the hydrogen molecule together becomes stretched.This partial breaking of the bond lowers the activation energy making hydrogen more reactive.HBond stretchedThe stretching of the H-H bond lowers the activation energy and helps hydrogen react with the oilHHHHHNicatalyst
21 CatalystsOther catalysts, especially enzymes, absorb molecules in a way that not only stretches bonds but also brings the reacting parts of reactants right next to each other.
22 CatalystsCatalysts are used in the manufacture or application of a huge number of products.Synthetic materials like polyester are made using a catalyst.Enzymes in pineapple help cooked ham to be more tender.Biological soap powder uses biological catalysts (enzymes)Manufacture of fertiliser via the Haber Process involves use of an iron catalyst.Plastics are made using catalysts.
23 Inside car engines some of the nitrogen and oxygen from the air combine to form poisonous nitrogen oxide. Inside the exhaust system a catalyst encourages decomposition back into nitrogen and oxygen.Copy the energy profile for the uncatalysed reaction and draw in new lines showing how the presence of a catalyst will alter the profile.2NO2N2 + 2O2
24 Measuring reaction rates Rate implies we are measuring how things change over a period of time.To measure the rate of a reaction we have to track the manner in which the amount of product (or reactant) changes over time.Rate of gas formation can be measured using a syringe.For a reaction in which sulfur is precipitated we can time how long the solution takes to go cloudy.
25 Percentage completion of reaction Slower and slowerReactions do not proceed at a steady rate.They start fast and get slower and slower.This is not surprising because the reactant concentration (and the chance of collision) gets lower and lower as time progresses.fast25slower75very slow100stoppedproductreactantsPercentage completion of reaction
26 Rates and GraphsThese show the increasing amount of product or the decreasing amount of reactant.Amount of productTimeAmount of reactantTimeSteep gradient Fast reactionShallow gradient Slow reactionSteep gradient Fast reactionShallow gradient Slow reaction
27 Rate graphs and reactant concentrations Amount of productTimeAll productMix of reactantAnd productReactant Concentration fallsRate of Reaction fallsreactantsproductGradient of graph decreasesAll reactant
30 Some Reaction Rates Experiments The following slides describe the four chemical reactions that are commonly used as examples.
31 Marble chips are calcium carbonate. Acid and marbleMarble chips are calcium carbonate.They react with acid to evolve a gas.calcium carbonate+ hydrochloric acid calcium chloride+ water+ carbon dioxideCaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)Marble chipsGlass tubeGas syringeHydrochloric acidThe gas given off can be collected in a syringe and readings taken every 30 seconds or so.
32 Measure the agreed mass of marble chips Acid and marbleMeasure the agreed mass of marble chipsSet up the syringe, flask and connectorMeasure the acid / water.Add the marble chips and quickly insert the bung and start stop clock.Take syringe readings at 30 second intervals.TimeReading0 s0 cm3
34 Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Acid and metalReactive metals (eg. Magnesium) react with acid to evolve hydrogen gas.magnesium+ hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride+ hydrogenMg(s) HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) H2(g)As the gas given off leaves the flask the total mass of the flask and its contents decreases slightly.Readings of the mass(g) can be taken. Typically at 1 minute intervals.MgHCl11.7211.7311.7111.7111.7411.8011.77
35 Measure the agreed volume of acid / water into the conical flask. Acid and metalMeasure the agreed volume of acid / water into the conical flask.Have a loose plug of cotton wool to prevent “spitting” of droplets of liquid.Have a piece of magnesium of known mass ready.Add the magnesium, place the cotton wool in the neck and start taking mass readings immediately.MgHClCotton wool11.7211.7311.7111.7111.7411.7711.80TimeReading0 s0 cm360120
37 Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen.Hydrogen peroxide water+ oxygen2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) O2(g)Oxygen gas is given off and can be measured using a gas syringe or a balance.The reaction is catalysed by a wide range of solids.Remember the catalyst NEVER produces more product - just quicker
39 Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate In this reaction sulphur is precipitated which makes the solution turn cloudy.Sodium thiosulphate+ hydrochloric acid sodium chloride+ water+ sulphur dioxide+ sulphurNa2S2O3(aq) HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s)The effect of changing conditions such as temperature or concentrations can be studied by measuring how long it takes to produce enough sulphur to make the solution opaque (non see-through).
40 Measure the agreed volume of thiosulphate / water into the conical flask. Prepare a piece of paper with a cross drawn on it.Measure the required volume of acid in a measuring cylinder.Add the acid to the flask, start the clock, swirl the flask.Look down through the flask until the cross disappears. Note the time.Look down here
41 Sketch a graph of the results. Imran studied the effect of temperature upon the time it took for the flask to go cloudy.Sketch a graph of the results.Using the reactions at 25oC and 40oC, explain how the time taken lets you work out the relative rate of reaction.Time(s) vs Temp(oC)TimeTempTemp(oC)Time taken(s)251003060354045155010
44 A pupil performed an investigation into the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid. The results below where obtained.i) Plot a graph of gas volume (y-axis) against time (x-axis)ii) When was the rate of reaction fastest?iii) Use the graph to find the volume of gas produced after 35 seconds.iv) Use the graph to tell after how long the reaction stopped.v) On the graph sketch a line showing the experiment repeatedat a higher temperature.
45 Experimental Results Answer 300250200150Volume / cm310050102030405060708090Time / secondsii) The reaction was fastest at about 25 seconds as the gradient of the line is highest at this point.iii) About 175 cm3iv) About 55 seconds.v) Higher temperature reaction is in red.
46 A flask was connected to a gas syringe by a glass delivery tube A flask was connected to a gas syringe by a glass delivery tube. 30cm3 of water and 0.5g of manganese dioxide were added to the flask. Then 5cm3 of hydrogen peroxide was added and the stopper quickly fitted. Readings of the volume of gas produced were taken every 10 seconds.i) Plot a graph of volume of gas (y-axis) against time (x-axis). Label this curve A.ii) Without emptying the flask another 10cm3 of water and a further 5cm3 of hydrogen peroxide were added. Sketch the shape of the second experiment and label it B.
47 Answer A B Time (s) Notes: Curve B is an experiment with half the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. This shouldproduce about half the rate as shown by a line with half the gradient of A. However, the same amount was added so 58cm3 of gas will still be produced.
48 i) The results above were obtained from an experiment where the loss in mass was recorded as lumps of zinc reacted with hydrochloric acid. Plot a graph of mass loss (y-axis) against time (x-axis).On the graph sketch the lines you would expect ifa) the concentration of acid was reduced,b) the temperature was increased.
50 Which of these would speed up the rate at which magnesium dissolves in acid? Cool the acid.Cut up the magnesium.Add water.Coat the magnesium in oil.
51 Why does breaking up solids increase the rate of reaction? Makes more solid.Creates more energy.Increases surface area.Increases the concentration.
52 Why does temperature increase the rate of reaction? Acts as a catalyst.Increases the concentration.Increases number of molecules.Makes collisions more frequent and harder.
53 Why does a catalyst increase the rate of reaction? Provides a route with a lower activation energy.Helps provide energy for the reaction.Increases the speed of reactant molecules.Reduces the number of molecular collisions.
54 Why do most reactions start fast and get slower and slower? They run out of energy.They run out of catalyst.The concentration of reactant molecules gets less and less.The surface area increases.