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Session 8 Lexical Semantic

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1 Session 8 Lexical Semantic
Matakuliah : G0922/Introduction to Linguistics Tahun : 2008 Session 8 Lexical Semantic

2 LEARNING OUTCOMES Students are able to give their own examples on semantics relation among words Bina Nusantara University

3 OUTLINE Definition of Semantics Semantics properties
Semantics relation among words synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, homonymy, polysemy Bina Nusantara University

4 Semantics Definition The study of the linguistics meaning of morphemes, words, phrases and sentences Lexical semantics: the meaning of words and the meaning relationships among words Phrasal/Sentential semantics: concerned with the meaning of syntactic units larger than words Pragmatics: the study of how context affects meaning Bina Nusantara University

5 Semantic Properties Words and morphemes have meanings.
Semantic properties are pieces of information of the words on which speakers of the language agree. - For example: the semantic property of ‘female’ is found in the words: tigress, hen, aunt, maiden, woman Words that share a semantic property are said to be in a semantic class. Semantic properties can be represented using semantic features, which are a formal or notational device that indicates the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses or minuses Bina Nusantara University

6 Semantics relation among words
Synonymy Antonymy Hyponymy Homonymy Polysemy Bina Nusantara University

7 Semantics relation among words
Synonyms Words or expressions that have the same meaning in some or all contexts E.g remember = recall Purchase = buy Big = large Antonyms Words or phrases that are opposites in their meaning E.g. dark x light Boy x girl Dead x alive Bina Nusantara University

8 Semantics relation among words
Homonymy A single form of word that has two or more meanings which do not relate one another E.g. bank : place for saving money sides of the river bark : sound of a dog : the outer part of a tree trunk 2. Polysemy A word that has two or more related meaning E.g. Fork : instrument for eating : instrument for taking hays (the shape is similar) bright : shining; intelligent Bina Nusantara University

9 Semantics relation among words
3. Hyponymy A relationship between two words in which the meaning of the words includes the meaning of the other word Red is hyponym of color – meaning that the meaning of red includes the meaning of color Cat is a hyponym of animal – meaning that the meaning cat includes the meaning of animal. Metonyms Substitutes for the object that is meant, the name of an attribute or concept associated with that object. The use of crown for king, the use of ice for hockey, Washington for government Bina Nusantara University

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