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Clean Air Acts of 1955, ‘63, ‘67, ‘70, ‘77, ‘90 This was a national law instituted in the US, however many other countries followed suite soon after The.

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Presentation on theme: "Clean Air Acts of 1955, ‘63, ‘67, ‘70, ‘77, ‘90 This was a national law instituted in the US, however many other countries followed suite soon after The."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Clean Air Acts of 1955, ‘63, ‘67, ‘70, ‘77, ‘90 This was a national law instituted in the US, however many other countries followed suite soon after The administration that was in office was President Eisenhower Act stated that air pollution was dangerous towards the general health of the citizens and authorized the Surgeon General to investigate, research, and educate about the dangers of air pollution It was the EPA that first brought up the issue of air pollution and is presently the leading agency that deals with such problems In the beginning this law was a failure People simply did not listen In the past 10 years restrictions have allowed for the Act to be a complete success, emissions have gone down and the public is healthier David Hickey

3 Cuyahoga River Fire 1969 This disaster took place on the Cuyahoga River that runs through Northeast Ohio Pollution from Cleveland steel mills was responsible for the disaster Because the river was so polluted by oil and other flammable pollution a fire was able to start, and floated on top of the water This was the 8th time a fire has occurred dating back to 1868 Firemen were called in and quickly put out the large fire in 30 min. Over $50,000 of damage occurred this time, however the combination of all the fires has resulted in $1.5 million in damage The large environmental activism of the late 60’s helped to save the Cuyahoga river and resulted in the Clean Water Act of 1972 David Hickey

4 The National Environment Policy Act (NEPA)
A national policy put in place in 1969 during the Nixon administration. Requires federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts their proposed actions will have, think of reasonable alternatives to those actions and incorporate environmental values into their decision making processes. Environmental Protection Agency responsible for regulation and enforcement of this act. Now a central aspect of the EPA and has inspired similar acts to be put in place in other countries. Has worked well so far, as Environmental awareness has spread and continues to spread across the globe. Andi Cara

5 The Burning of the Cuyahoga River
In Cleveland, Ohio the Cuyahoga River caught fire several times due to the build up of oil on its surface. Fires occurred from 1868 to 1969. Pollution that sparked the fire caused by the manufacturing plants along the river and the lack of government regulation. After the June 22, 1969 fire, the EPA and other organizations took notice and began steps to clean the river and remove the industrial sludge that had formed a layer on top. Helped to spur the Clean Water Act and Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Today, the river is clean and usable, and now “flows” rather than “oozes.” Andi Cara

6 Citations Slide One http://www.epa.gov/Compliance/nepa/
Slide Two Andi Cara

7 Alien Species Prevention & Enforcement Act 1992
This act was based mostly in Hawaii The president at the time was Bill Clinton The act stated that plants or animals protected under the Lacey Act were not to be shipped in the U.S. mail. It prohibited the shipping of “certain injurious animals, plant pests, plants and materials under federal quarantine” along with the plants and animals stated in the Lacey Act It was to be supervised by the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Interior, the Postal Service, and the state of Hawaii So far the act has been successful Citations: Ally

8 Chernobyl 1986 The disaster took place at Chernobyl, a nuclear power plant in Ukraine The people responsible for the accident were the workers on duty at the time who were doing a very bad job of supervising the plant while routine tests were done There was a steam explosion and fire that released nuclear particles into the atmosphere After the incident, all plans for nuclear power plants were halted in Belarus, construction plans for the nuclear plants in Ukraine were put on hold, the head of the independent Russian nuclear energy inspectorate announced there would not be another Chernobyl because of the safety standards that he put into place The health of many people was greatly affected, cancer developed and birth defects also became evident. It was clear that the nuclear particles released into the air had affected everyone around the plant. Citations Ally

9 Antarctic Treaty – Madrid Protocol
International treaty signed in Madrid in 1991 under the Bush administration, enforced in 1998 under the Clinton administration The purpose is to provide protection for the environment and dependent ecosystems by ensuring that the environment is a fundamental value in the planning and conduct of all human activities in Antarctica The Protocol: limits unpleasant impacts on the environment adverse effects on climate or weather patterns adverse effects on air or water quality changes in the atmospheric, terrestrial (including aquatic), glacial or marine environments; changes in the productivity of species endangering species degradation of areas of biological, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness significance requires prior assessment of the environmental impacts of all activities monitoring to assess predicted impacts and to detect unforeseen impacts Administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Recognized as one of the most successful sets of international agreements, which set an example of peaceful cooperation to protect the environment. The Protocol has helped regulate activities and keep Antarctica undisturbed and protected because of the support of the Treaty Parties. Megan Keane

10 Love Canal (NY) 1942 to 1953 A landfill in the Niagara Falls, New York
Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation were responsible for the chemical disaster William T. Love- envisioned a canal connecting the two levels of the Niagara River which is separated by Niagara Falls. Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation acquired the use of the site in 1947 and buried 21,000 tons of toxic waste there over the next five years.Then without knowledge of the chemicals, the city built homes and schools over the landfill and people started to feel the effects of the hazardous waste. Effects cancer, birth defects, miscarriages heavy rains flooded basements, as a result, houses began to reek of chemicals, and residents experienced chemical burns on their feet. The Federal Disaster Assistance Agency assisted in funding the City of Niagara Falls to cure the Love Canal site The Love Canal Area Revitalization Agency (LCARA) was founded to restore the area The government relocated more than 800 families and reimbursed them for their homes The United States Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or the Superfund Act, that holds polluters accountable for their damages and helps in the clean-up of toxically polluted residential locations . www. jersey.uoregon.edu Megan Keane

11 (Rio de Janeiro & Johannesburg)
Cameron Miller Period 1 Earth Summit 1992 (Rio de Janeiro & Johannesburg) Cause: International Countries involved: 172 Agency responsible: U.N. Summary: The Earth Summit was a U.N.-held conference that consisted of over 35,000 environmental activists. This huge gathering of countries, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was set up to discuss four topics: patterns in production (such as radioactive waste, lead gasoline, etc.), renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels, increase of public transportation and decrease of vehicle emissions, and “growing scarcity of water”. Something accomplished by this conference was an agreement not to do any activities on indigenous peoples’ land that would “cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate”. Also, the Convention on Biological Diversity was started at the Earth Summit as well as United Nations Environment Programme, the Global Environmental Monitoring System, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and the World Heritage Biosphere Reserve Program. Citation: Cameron Miller

12 Primary Country: New York, USA
Cameron Miller Period 1 Stephen Jay Gould Primary Country: New York, USA Major Accomplishments: Stephen Jay Gould was an extremely famous paleontologist who worked mainly with evolutionary science. He published a book called The Panda’s Thumb which talked about the “modification of the wrist bone that allows the panda to strip leaves from bamboo shoots which Gould argued must have occurred all at once or it would not have been preserved by natural selection”. For helping fill in the blanks in Charles Darwin’s theories, he received the Schuchert Award by the Paleontological Society. He was responsible for the punctuated equilibrium theory which said that rapid evolution occurred in some cases “with speciation occurring almost immediately”. Citation: Cameron Miller

13 Pittman- Robertson Act (Wildlife Restoration Act) (1937)
National Law Approved by Franklin D. Roosevelt September, The purpose of this law is to provide funding for the restoration, rehabilitation, and improvement of wildlife habitat, wildlife management research, and the distribution of information produced by the projects. There was an 11% tax on all hunting equipment, and that money goes directly towards restoring and protecting wildlife habitats. The USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service) is the primary agency This is efficient because the act provides a “user-pay, user-benefit” because every time hunting, boating, shooting, and fishing equipment is purchased their money goes towards restoring wildlife. Courtney Stein

14 Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Lived in Shrewsbury, England
He was a scientist who came up with the idea of “natural selection” in 1838 “Natural selection” - the force that promotes change in species over generations. It produces new species from changes that accumulate in the population over long periods of time This benefits the environment because organisms are more likely to survive and reproduce which creates diversity Wrote many books such as On the Origin of Species which discussed evolution and diversity Courtney Stein

15 Courtney Stein Period 3 9/16/09 Citations Courtney Stein

16 Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982
WHO AND WHEN? National treaty created in 1982 Ronald Regan was in office PURPOSE? It encourages the development of repositories to help dispose of high-level radioactive waste The waste is put underground so water cannot spread radioactivity It helps to develop a transportation system transport nuclear waste safely WHO’S INVOLVED? The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Hayley Litchfield

17 They have faced a number of challenges,
EFFICANCY They have faced a number of challenges, Legislative mandates Regulatory modification Fluctuating funding levels Conflicting needs and expectations of various interest groups The identification and scheduling of disposal sites has not been finalized, the date has changed from 1998 to 2010. The major disposal site is not finalized, causing waste to be sitting in over 129 sites in 39 different sites until the site is authorized. Contracts must be made Once the sites are finalized the process can continue and the transportation can begin Hayley Litchfield

18 Exxon Valdez (Alaska) 1989 WHEN? March 24, 1989 WHERE?
Alaska, Bligh Reef and Prince William Sound WHO? Exxon Valdez oil tanker WHAT? The oil tanker was going around Bligh Reef when it tipped over and spilled 10.8 million gallons of unrefined Alaskan crude oil. Wind and tides carried the oil south into the sound and onto beaches It covered 1200 miles of rocky beaches Exxon Valdez (Alaska) 1989 Hayley Litchfield

19 Continued… Exxon was given a deadline of September 15th to clean up the site Exxon employed 10,000 workers to help clean up Environmental groups worked to save oiled seals, otters and birds Aleyska Pipeline Service company, a nonprofit company, designed Service Escort Response Vessels to help prevent another spill and to supply immediate aid if another occurred. Initially cleanup was not a success Microorganisms were sprayed onto some beaches Hayley Litchfield

20 Exxon Valdez Citations
Hayley Litchfield Period 3 APES NWPA Citations Exxon Valdez Citations Hayley Litchfield

21 Ocean Dumping Act - ODA (1972)
United States National Law 85 other countries signed similar acts prohibiting waste disposal in water Richard Nixon president when signed, U.S congress passed law Aim to regulate intentional disposal of materials into ocean waters that endanger human health and welfare, the marine environment, and the earth's ecological systems, and that may have dire economic consequences Originally allowed EPA to enforce law The law has been successful in helping to reduce the amounts of sewage and materials being disposed of in water Large fines enforce law Water that has been contaminated in earlier years is still highly toxic and prohibits many water activities and marine life Caroline Olsen

22 Lester R. Brown b.1934 Born New Jersey
Worked in Washington D.C, United States Environmentalist and novelist Founder and president of the WorldWatch institute 1974 Analyzes international problems> famine and overpopulation Moved to India to pursue work with rural agricultural problems Analyst at U.S Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service Founded Overseas Development Council in 1969 Published document in 26 languages with environmental trends and problems Promotes environmentally- sound consumer products Founded Earth Policy Institute Dedicated to planning a sustainable future Plan B Plan to replace all fossil fuel burning automobiles with a new economic model Wrote many books pertaining to this topic Caroline Olsen

23 Citations Ocean Dumping Act
Lester R. Brown Caroline Olsen

24 Atomic Energy Act Sean Fahey 1946

25 Congress created the law.
Fundamental U.S. law AEA regulates the use of nuclear materials and facilities in the United States. AEA provides authority that sets the standards for the use of nuclear materials to promote the nation’s common defense, protect its citizens health, and minimize potential danger to life or property. Congress created the law. AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) was originally created to monitor this law. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) was later created to replace the AEC. Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 gave responsibility to the NRC to regulate various commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses of nuclear materials and nuclear energy. Sean Fahey

26 Minamata Bay 1956 Sean Fahey

27 Minamata City, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan.
Chisso Corporation was at fault for the disaster, for their wrongful and negligent acts. 3,000 infected, 1,784 people died, 10,000 people received financial aid from Chisso. Chisso Corporation did very little to prevent the problems from occurring. Sean Fahey

28 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 1973
International Treaty Major Countries Involved- 80 countries around the world- Most Important- Indonesia and the U.S. as well as; Iceland, Norway, Japan, Western Europe, China, ect. Function-Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals is stopped and extinction does not occur. It also is, regulation of wildlife trade for conservation and animal species are sustainable. Prevent biodiversity Group Responsible for Regulation and Enforcement –IUCN (The World Conservation Union) implemented through U.S.Endangered Species Act (ESA) Perceived Efficacy- CITES has increased the monitoring of the plant and animal trade, but continues to face difficulties in implementation. Stopped a lot of unnecessary trade, but still is a concern to many countries around the world. Sam Berizzi

29 Paul Ehrlich -Born 1932 Primary State Studied/ worked at- California, at Stanford University Role in Environment- Professor of Population Studies in the department of Biological Sciences. Helped determine if the population was increasing to fast for sustainable living situations. He is an expert on environmental issues. Importance- Known for the Prediction of the “Population Bomb” a best selling book. He believed, earth's inhabitants would multiply at a faster rate than world's ability to supply food. Major Event- Published the Book, “Population Bomb” in 1968 Important Facts- - His predictions that there going to be a famine in the 1970’s that would wipe out the population was proved to be false concept. - He was known as the Bing Professor at Stanford because he was so intelligent in the subject of Biology Sam Berizzi

30 Citations- -Cites .http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL32751.pdf- Cites Paul Ehrlich Sam Berizzi Paul Ehrlich

31 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (FFDCA)
(1954,1958,1962,1996) It is a national law President Roosevelt was in office when the original act was created This law required the Food and Drug administration to set residue tolerances for unavoidable poisonous substances in our food. Congress then set a new section to the FFDCA stating that there must be residue tolerances for all pesticides in agricultural commodities. The law authorized the FDA to issue standards for food and have factory inspections. This law was created after a legally marketed toxic elixir killed many people. The FDA was responsible for Regulation and Enforcement until the EPA was formed, which is now the authority to establish tolerances for pesticide residues. This law has been successful because it protects people from being harmed by poisons and other pesticides. Lizzy McArthur

32 Aldo Leopold (1887-1948) Aldo Leopold grew up in Iowa, USA
Leopold was a scientist and scholar, exceptional teacher, philosopher, and gifted writer. Leopold went to Yale with a degree in forestry. He taught at the University of Wisconsin. He is sometimes credited as the founding father of wildlife ecology. Leopold believed that the same tools people used to disrupt the landscape could also be used to rebuild it. He wrote a book called A Sand County Almanac which is known all around the world. He was into forestry, wildlife management, conservation biology, sustainable agriculture, restoration ecology, private land management, environmental history, literature, education, esthetics, and ethics. His almanac led to a philosophy that helped many to discovering what it means to live in harmony with the land and with one another. Today, Leopold’s essays are taught in literature, history, and philosophy. Lizzy McArthur

33 Food Quality Protection Act 1996 (FQPA)
National law passed by Congress, under the Bill Clinton Administration Environmental Protection Agency was responsible for the FQPA This law enforced stricter safety standards, particularly for infants and children, and a complete re-evaluation of all existing pesticide uses. FQPA has been very successful, and work will continue. Completed 9,637 of the 9,721 tolerance reassessment decisions required by FQPA (over 99%). Recommended the revocation of 3,200 tolerances Recommended the modification of 1,200 tolerances Confirmed the safety of 5,237 tolerances Mackenzie Begley

34 Thomas Malthus Born in London, later went on to Cambridge University Economist Known for his Essay on Population The human population would grow to a point where they would eventually exceed the world's resources needed to support it. Mackenzie Begley

35 IUCN Red List 1948 International Treaty
International collaborative effort, there are no specific countries involved It is a global approach for evaluating the status of plant and animal species. The organization plays an important role in guiding conservation activities of governments The IUCN Red List is compiled and produced by the ICUN Species Programme Internationally recognized as the most authoritative inventory on the conservation status of species globally, and has been extremely successful in drawing attention to biodiversity loss Littell, Lauren

36 Chernobyl, Ukraine April 1986
The nuclear accident occurred at the Cherynobyl nuclear power plant The disaster was a result of a flawed reactor design that was operated by inadequately trained personnel and without proper regard to safety Once the disaster occurred, emergency workers responeded immediately and attempted to clean up the radioactivity on the site At the beginning of May, and estimated 40,000 residents that were within a 10 km radius of the plant were evacuated As a result, the safety of all Soviet-designed reactors has improved vastly. Modifications have been made to overcome the defficiences in all RBMK reactors still operating International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been formed to bring together operators and Western engineers to focus on safety improvements Littell, Lauren

37 Sustainable Fisheries Act
Passed under administration of President Clinton October 11, 1966 National Law The Act amends the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act . It’s amends are: -fixing increased fishing pressure -need for fishery resource conservation -fixing direct/indirect loss of habitats While there have been some success stories, the act is mainly a failure (not being enforced enough) Rachel McGlade Councils have failed to define the nation’s parameters where fishing is allowed and where it isn’t: confuses fishermen Agency Responsible: Department of Commerce (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration)

38 Thomas Malthus He published an essay called “An Essay on the Principles of Population” ( ) England -Attended Jesus College in Cambridge -Professor of Political Economy at Haileybury College In his revised essay he: -introduced the possibility of "moral restraint” this would bring the unchecked population growth rate down   Malthus came up with the theory that natural plants and animals produce more offspring than we can produce food and necessities for Moral restraint - voluntary abstinence which leads to neither misery nor vice Rachel McGlade Charles Darwin looked to him when formulating his theory on natural selection *Important because it was our first glance of how the population is hurting the environment and our natural resources*

39 Laws, Events, & VIPs Project
By Emma Getsinger APES: Period 3 Emma Getsinger

40 The Lacey Act (16 U.S.C. SS ) National conservation law; introduced by Iowa Rep. John F. Lacey, signed by President William McKinley May of 1900 Bans commerce of illegally sourced plants and their products, including wood and timber products. Prohibits trade in wildlife, fish, and plants that have been illegally taken, possessed, transported, or sold. Extremely powerful tool for the U.S. agencies, fighting wildlife crime and the illegal logging industry. Very Successful One of the broadest, most comprehensive forces in the federal arsenal to stop wildlife crime. Emma Getsinger

41 The Love Canal (New York)
Niagara Falls, New York Named after William T. Love It was a canal excavated to create a “dream city” that could be generated by the power from Niagara Falls. In the 1920s, turned into a chemical and municipal landfill sight. 21, 000 tons of toxic waste buried beneath the neighborhood right by Hooker Chemical. In spring of 1978, the canal exploded. Chemical waste was in backyards, trees and plants were turned black; the air was filled with the choking smell of chemicals. Birth Defects began and traces of leukemia were found in the humans that had been there during the explosion. Citizens were eventually evacuated. 96 families had been evacuated. Because of this disaster, EPA recently proposed a system to ensure that the more than 35 million tons of hazardous wastes produced in the U.S. each year, including most chemical wastes, are disposed of safely. Emma Getsinger

42 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act( CERCLA, “Superfund”)
Enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980 Major Amendments enacted in 1986 (known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act, or SARA). National Law Occupational Safety & Health Administration was involved The law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. The EPA was responsible for regulation and enforcement The Law has been successful, and it is important that it continues to be followed Brandon Tripodi CERCLA  

43 Exxon Valdez The disaster was on March 24, 1989
This took place on the Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, where the ship, the “Exxon Valdez” grounded while trying to avoid icebergs in the Alaskan waters. The Captain, Captain Hazelwood was in quarters at the time, allowing him being the source of the blame Within six hours of the grounding, the Exxon Valdez spilled approximately 10.9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Eight of the eleven tanks on board were damaged. This was the largest oil spill in U.S. waters. More than 11,000 personnel, 1,400 vessels and 85 aircraft were involved in the cleanup, along with shoreline cleanup that lasted for months. Today, scientists continue to study the affected shorelines to understand how an ecosystem like Prince William Sound responds to, and recovers from, an incident like the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Brandon Tripodi  Exxon Valdez

44 Mining Act of 1872 This is a National Act that was designed to promote westward expansion in the USA. The Republican president Ulysses S. Grant, was in office when this bill was signed. This Act enabled anyone in the west the right to enter and claim public land for the prospect of minerals, no matter what other values may have existed on the land like wildlife habitat, recreation, or water resources. Under the Mining Law there are no provisions for environmental protection and no requirements for reclaiming and restoring the land when the miners are through. There has been no revisions to the act, but the Secretary of Agriculture has regulated and continues to regulate mining to protect the environment. This Act has been successful, but today Environmentalists are finding some problems including... They believe it is unfair that the Mining companies are receiving huge amounts of money for the natural resources they are taking from public land because they do not have to pay anything back to the government. Also, the Mining Law did not address the environment or land reclamation after people are done using it, and abandoned mines are extremely dangerous for the surrounding habitat. Olivia Malvisi The gold rush of 1849 prompted the creation of the Mining Act of 1872.

45 Minamata Bay ( ) Minamata is a small factory town in Japan dominated by the Chisso Corporation. It is on the Shiranui Sea, which its people depend greatly upon. The Chisso Corporation, a fertilizer, petrochemical, carbicle, and plastic-maker company, is responsible for this disaster. From 1932 to 1968 they dumped 27 tons of mercury compounds into the Minamata Bay. This disaster came in the form of disease, and became known as, “Minamata Disease.” In 1958 the Chisso Corporation began to dump the waste into the Minamata River instead of the Minamata Bay, hoping to diminish accusations toward the company. But, nothing came with that and they continued to contaminate the water sources, and the people. They also installed “Cyclator,” which was designed to treat waste water, but the often ignored this crucial step in the production process. The Chisso Corporation also began making deals with the victims of “Minamata Disease,” saying they would pay for their misfortunes but not accept responsibility. In 1959 the fisherman began protesting the Chisso Corporation, but nothing came of the protests because they stopped after threats from the Chisso management. In 1993, 40 years after the disaster, the Japanese Court was still resolving a suitable compensation for the victims. Today the Chisso Corporation: Does NOT dump ANY type of waste into the bay. No longer uses the chemicals that caused “Minamata Disease.” Has implemented environmentally safe technology in their production process. Olivia Malvisi The waste being  poured into the Bay.

46 Citations Slide 1: Picture on Slide 1: Slide 2: Picture on Slide 2: Olivia Malvisi

47 Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act (August 1977)
National law Jimmy Carter was in office when this was passed- the congress felt the need to regulate mining activity The act regulates the amount of mining that is occurring. In addition, it establishes a mandatory uniform for mining activities. Lastly, the law watches effect that coal mining has on the environment. This act is enforced by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement in the Department of the Interior. They promote the regulations that are needed to make the act be successful. Overall, this act has been very successful. Something that would need to be worked on would be the enforcement of people other than the office. For example, it would be good if states began enforcing the law to make sure it all happened.

48 James Lovelock (1919) Born and raised in England, but worked at many different universities in the US. His general role with the environment is that he was a scientist and an author. His major accomplishments are formulating the Gaia Hypothesis, which was accepted by many environmentalist. In addition, he discovered methyl chloride as a natural atmospheric gas (1975). The thing that really made James Lovelock famous was his writing of over 200 scientific papers, which unlocked the mystery of many things. He has written 4 books on his Gaia Hypothesis, which would probably be the aspect of Lovelock that made him most famous.

49 Sources James Lovelock Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act-
James Lovelock

50 Soil Conservation Act (1935)
The Soil Conservation Act was a national law in the United States under the Roosevelt administration. After more than 30 years of research Hugh Bennett, a soils scientist, the Soil Erosion Service was an interior department of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. One of the main reasons for the development of this agency was as a response to the deadly Dust Bowl storms. The agency took soil surveys of various places in the U.S. The agency also took steps toward conservation. For example, they provided soil salinity control. It also publishes maps of soil erosion and various other soil problems. The agency also had a group of engineers that focused on improved efficiency of soil use. Although the U.S. continues to have soil problems today, then have been much lessened by the efforts put forth from the Soil Conservation Act. Wesley Blummer Links: Wesley Blummer

51 Garrett Hardin 1915 - 2003 Links:
Garrett received a B.S. from the University of Chicago and a PhD from Stanford. He then lived and taught as a professor in Santa Barbara. His main accomplishment was his essay The Tragedy of the Commons. He wrote about human over population, and this topic led him to write about abortion, immigration, and sociobiology. “But if a pasture is run as a commons open to all, the right of each to use it is not matched by an operational responsibility to take care of it. It is no use asking independent herdsmen in a commons to act responsibly, for they dare not. The considerate herdsman who refrains from overloading the commons suffers more than a selfish one who says his needs are greater. Christian-Marxian idealism is counterproductive. That it sounds nice is no excuse. With distribution systems, as with individual morality, good intentions are no substitute for good performance.” Wesley Blummer Links: Wesley Blummer

52 Aldo Leopold 1887-1948 Considered the father of wildlife ecology
Born in Burlington, Iowa Joined Forest service in 1909 and worked as a ranger and supervisor in New Mexico Convinced New Mexico to preserve 500,000 acres of Gila National forest Him and 7 other conversationalists created the wilderness society in 1935 He is best known for writing A Sand County Almanac which was published a year after his death Taught at the University of Wisconsin until his death Died helping to fight a wildfire

53 SARA 10/17/1986 National treaty (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization act) passed by EPA Regan was president during this act Talks about how plans for hazourdous waste treatment need to be permanent and innovative Increased focus on human health Trust fund increased to 8.5 billion $ Seems to have helped the chemical cleanup situation and has raised awareness

54 Solid Waste Disposal Act Of 1965
By: Paige Baldwin 9/16/09 Paige Baldwin

55 Solid Waste Disposal Act
National Law Signed into law by President Gerald Ford This act focused on research, demonstrations, and training. It provided for sharing with the states the costs of making surveys of waste disposal practices and problems, and of developing waste management plans. The Solid Waste Disposal Act is now commonly known as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The RCRA established the federal program regulating solid and hazardous waste management. This was one of many changes to the Solid Waste Disposal Act. Agency Responsible for Regulation & Enforcement: EPA This law has been very successful. It has opened doors for so many new laws to help with improper disposal of hazardous and solid waste along with other such things. Paige Baldwin

56 Citations http://www.osha.gov/dep/oia/whistleblower/acts/swda.html
Paige Baldwin

57 Robert Kennedy Jr. 1954 – Still Alive
By: Paige Baldwin Period 3 9/16/09 Paige Baldwin

58 Robert Kennedy Jr. Washington D.C.
An attorney specializing in environmental law, a professor at Pace Law School, and co-host of Ring of Fire on the Air America Radio network He successfully lead the fight to protect New York City's water supply. The New York City watershed agreement, which he negotiated on behalf of environmentalists and New York City watershed consumers, is regarded as an international model in stakeholder consensus negotiations and sustainable development. He assisted several indigenous tribes in Latin America and Canada in successfully negotiating treaties protecting traditional homelands. He helped lead the fight to turn back the anti-environmental legislation during the 104th Congress. He was named one of Time magazine's “Heroes for the Planet” for his success helping Riverkeeper lead the fight to restore the Hudson River. Paige Baldwin

59 Citations http://www.robertfkennedyjr.com/about.html
Paige Baldwin

60 Paige Gasparino Period 1 9/16/09
Declaration of the Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Declaration) June Paige Gasparino Paige Gasparino Period 1 9/16/09

61 International Treaty All members of the United Nations attended the meeting in Stockholm, Sweden and are held responsible for enforcement. It is their responsibility to recognize their local and national governments because they will bear the greatest burden. International cooperation is imperative to raise resources to support developing countries. This is a communal treaty because, “The conference calls upon Governments and peoples to exert common efforts for the preservation and improvement of the human environment, for the benefit of all the people and for their posterity” Paige Gasparino

62 “Man is both creature and molder of his environment, which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the opportunity for intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth. In the long and tortuous evolution of the human race on this planet a stage has been reached when, through the rapid acceleration of science and technology, man has acquired the power to transform his environment in countless ways and on an unprecedented scale. Both aspects of man's environment, the natural and the man-made, are essential to his well-being and to the enjoyment of basic human rights the right to life itself” The idea behind the Stockholm Declaration is to educate the public about the affect they have on the environment and to raise awareness that we are causing the problem. We have reached a point when we must shape our actions throughout the world with a more prudent care for their environmental consequences. Ignorance and indifference can cause irreversible harm on our environment. Americas need to come into harmony with one another to solve the problems they are producing. Paige Gasparino

63 Sources Paige Gasparino

64 Multiple-Use Sustained Yield Act
By: José Corte-Real José Corte-Real

65 Multiple-use Sustained Yield Act
The basic definition o Sustainable yield is - The continuous yield of a biological resource, such as timber or water from a forest or river/lake, by controling harvesting periodically. This is the fist law to equally join the five major uses of forest resources into one law. It gives the Secretary of Agriculture the right to develop and adminster timber, water, range, recreation, and wildlife, also known as the five major resources provided by a forest. José Corte-Real

66 Multiple-use Sustainable Yield act (cont.)
This was made because by 1950 the forests weren’t producing enough to meet the growing needs of the the increasing population so they needed this to help control what we took and gave back. This law allowed the forests to be only used as necessary by the American people and not just for economical gain. José Corte-Real

67 Bhopal Disaster José Corte-Real

68 Bhopal Disaster In the region of Bhopal in India what is considered the largest industrial disaster happened on the night of December 3rd 1984. A Union Carbide plant leaked 42 tons of toxic methyl isocyanate gas. People were awaken by burning gas in their lungs, just in the first day it is estimated 2,259 and many more died from being trampled as they tried to get away from the gas. Estimates are that 8,000-10,000 people died after 72 hours and 25,000 since then in gas related diseases. Manufacturers say that the disaster was caused by water entering a tank full of methyl isocyanate wasn’t refrigerated and when water made its way into the tank it caused a mass overheating up to 200 degrees celcius (approx 400 farenheit) leaking the toxic gas. José Corte-Real

69 Bhopal disaster (cont.)
The causes of this accident have been pretty well lined out since the accident They used hazardous chemicals (MIC) instead of a less dangerous one. They stored these potentially hazardous chemicals in large tanks that had possible corroding material in the pipelines. Poor maintenance after the planted stopped production. (Failed to maintain regulations) Safety systems shut down to save money. (Mainly the MIC tank refrigeration system which would have prevented this whole accident in the first place) The company refuses to take liability for its actions and the spill remains uncleaned. More than 20,000 people still live in the vicinty of the spill and new generations continue to be born with birth deffects and are contaminated through ground soil contamination. José Corte-Real

70 Works Consulted Bhopal http://www1.american.edu/TED/bhopal.htm
Multiple-use Sustainable Yield Act José Corte-Real

71 Water Quality Act – 1987 An Amendment to the Clean Water Act of 1972
Happy Child The Water Quality Act is an amendment to a federal law set in the United States. It was enacted under the 100th United States Congress during the last two years of Reagan’s presidency. The Clean Water Act prohibited discharge of any pollutant from a point source without an NPDES permit. The Water Quality Act has specific storm water permitting requirements that enables clean runoff from construction sites (see below) and urban areas. Not So Clean Water Clean Water

72 Citations

73 Gifford Pinchot (1865 – 1946) Pinchot was the first chief of the United States Forest Service, and the Governor of Pennsylvania. He was born in Simsbury , CT. He restructured and professionalized the management of the nation’s forests. He was in regular correspondence with White House representatives, and used his influence to change how the national forests were used. Gifford Pinchot National Forest

74 Citations

75 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act-1968

76 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
Public law to preserve river of outstanding natural beauty Divides rivers into three categories Wild river areas Scenic river areas Recreational river areas Each river in system is administered with the goal of enhancing and protecting river value 17% of U.S rivers have been protected and preserved under act Act administrated by senator Frank Church and signed by Lyndon Baines Johnson

77 Important Quotation “It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United States that certain selected rivers of the Nation which, with their immediate environments, possess outstandingly remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural or other similar values, shall be preserved in free-flowing condition, and that they and their immediate environments shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. The Congress declares that the established national policy of dams and other construction at appropriate sections of the rivers of the United States needs to be complemented by a policy that would preserve other selected rivers or sections thereof in their free-flowing condition to protect the water quality of such rivers and to fulfill other vital national conservation purposes.” (Wild & Scenic Rivers Act, October 2, 1968)

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79 Teddy Roosevelt United States president-1901 Sportsman and naturalist
Protected some 230 million acres of national land Created national parks service Created 51 wildlife refuges Gifford Pinchot New lands act of 1902

80 George Bird Ginnell American anthropologist, historian, naturalist, and writer Worked with Teddy Roosevelt in preservation of Yellow Stone national park Founded first Audubon Society in 1886 Studies and writings on native Americans Pawnee Gros Ventre Cheyenne Advocate for environmental protection Naturalist on Clusters expedition to black hills (1874)

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82 APES Laws and VIPs Project
By Ann Fucigna Ann Fucigna

83 The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990
It was a national law signed by U.S. President George Bush This Act was passed to prevent oil spills in the future after the Exxon Valdez incident “It established a federal liability system for all spills; it developed a trust fund to assist in the cost of spill clean ups; it reinforced penalties against spills; and it required companies to create spill-scenario plans before being allowed to operate.” (Thinkquest) It also created the Oil spill liability trust fund that gives up to 1 bil. to clean up any one incident Ann Fucigna

84 Oil Pollution Act Continued…
Has been extremely successful in cleaning up oil spills The Federal Trustees are in charge of this act and the Coast Guard responds to the spills Ann Fucigna

85 Rachel Carson She was a scientist and ecologist from Springdale, Pennsylvania Born: May, Died: April Accomplishments: Editor-in-Chief of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of The Sea, various environmental articles Best known for her book “Silent Spring” which told the public about the harmful effects of the overuse of pesticides She started her work on Silent Spring at her house in Silver Spring, Maine Discovered the harmful affects DDT had on the environment Ann Fucigna

86 Rachel Carson Continued…
"The more I learned about the use of pesticides, the more appalled I became," Carson recalled. "I realized that here was the material for a book. What I discovered was that everything which meant most to me as a naturalist was being threatened, and that nothing I could do would be more important.” (Time) The work she did not only went against farmers and their businesses but she also raised awareness all over the country about the affects we have on our environment Because of her work, the government banned DDT Ann Fucigna

87 Sources OPA: Rachel Carson: Ann Fucigna

88 Convention on Biodiversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was enacted at a signing in Rio de Janeiro from June 3rd to 14th, 1992. Having secured its 30th ratification in September 1993, the Biodiversity Treaty entered into force December 29, One hundred sixty-seven nations have signed the treaty since it was opened for signature at UNCED. A United Nations press release lists nations that have ratified the treaty as of December 1993. It was signed by the Community and all the Member States at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

89 Convention of Biodiversity
The CBD is designed to conserve biological diversity, ensure the sustainable use of this diversity and share the benefits generated by the use of genetic resources, in particular through appropriate access to genetic resources and appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and technologies, and through adequate funding. The convention emphasizes the role of indigenous and local communities in conserving biodiversity. These populations heavily and traditionally depend on the biological resources on which their traditions are based. The treaty has been very effective; however it has also caused many issues among the members of the UN.There still need to be more compromises made to ensure peace among the UN members concerning the Convention on Biodiversity.

90 Lester R. Brown The Washington Post called Lester Brown "one of the world's most influential thinkers." The Telegraph of Calcutta refers to him as "the guru of the environmental movement.” In May 2001, he founded the Earth Policy Institute to provide a vision and a road map for achieving an environmentally sustainable economy. This organization analyzes international problems, such as famine and overpopulation. In November 2001, he published Eco-Economy: Building an Economy for the Earth, which was hailed by E.O. Wilson as "an instant classic.”

91 Clean Water Act (1972) The Clean Water Act (CWA) is a national act (“primary federal law in the U.S governing water pollution”). The act was signed into law by President Richard Nixon. The CWA is enforced to reduce direct pollutant discharges into waterways, finance wastewater treatment facilities, and manage pollutant runoff. This achieves restoring and maintaining chemical, physical, and biological integrity. The EPA is responsible for regulations and enforcement. Since the CWA has come into effect, “pesticides such as DDT, and industrial chemicals, such as PCB’s, show significant decreasing trends around the nation.”

92 Three Mile Island (1979) The disaster occurred near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Nobody was responsible for the disaster, there was a failure in the secondary cooling circuit 4 a.m. causing the temperature to rise. It is a nuclear power plant that had radioactive fuel melt in one of their reactors, luckily most of the radioactive material was kept inside, away from the public. In order to negate the disaster, the reactor shut down automatically, but the relief valve failed to close, which allowed the cooling air to escape. There was also bad communication between agencies. The outcome was cleaning up the TMI2 sector, which took 12 years and roughly $973M. Precautionary health records were taken, however, not much radioactive material escaped.

93 Sources Clean Water Act: greenerloudoun.wordpress.com/2008/05/14/noaa-study-shows-1970-clean-water-act-has-had-positive-impact-on-coastal-waters/ Three Mile Island: americanhistory.si.edu/tmi/index.html

94 Energy Policy Act Passed in 2005 and signed by George W. Bush
Provides loans for “innovative technologies” (advanced nuclear reactor designs), those that are not harmful to the environment (abstain from emitting green house gases) Biofuel (ethanol) increase to mix with gasoline and raise the amount of gasoline from 4 billion gallons (2006) to 7.5 (2012) Finds alternatives to energy sources such as coal, which is arguable because this causes more air pollution Claims to reduce air pollution with “clean coal initiatives” ($200) Not a very aggressive policy Supports other energy sources such as wind and tidal power Katie Rohn

95 Robert Kennedy Jr. One of the major environmental leaders in the movement to clean up the Hudson River Time magazine referred to him as “hero of the planet” Has done international work to preserve traditional homelands in Latin America and Canada Author of many well-known environmental books such as Crimes Against Nature Has played a large role in protecting New York City’s water supply Is the chairman of the Waterkeeper Alliance (environmental program making sure rivers, lakes, etc. stay healthy) Katie Rohn

96 Jane Goodall April 3 1934-present day
Paige Gasparino Period 1 9/16/09 Paige Gasparino

97 Studied Chimpanzees in Eastern Africa
Born in London, England Studied Chimpanzees in Eastern Africa Goodall is best known for her study of chimpanzee social and family. Established the JGI (Jane Goodall Institute), which supports the Gombe research. Recognized for innovative, community-centered conservation and development programs in Africa. Major part of characterizing Chimpanzees from other similar species Paige Gasparino

98 "It's very hard to look back with hindsight and say oh well I would have done it differently. If I had gone to Gombe and had access to information about the effect of feeding bananas on wild chimpanzees I wouldn't have done it". (J. Goodall) Her work is so important because chimps are becoming endangered. Jane knows she can not do this single-handedly so tries to accomplish a holistic approach. Paige Gasparino

99 Convention of Climate Change & the Kyoto Protocol (March 21, 1994)
There are 183 countries that have signed and ratified Kyoto Protocol (NO USA) Group responsible – UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) The goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce four greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphurhexaflouride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) Kyoto Protocol is a success for now, because it slows down the process of global warming, but is superficial in the long run, and at the same time is very $$$$ Reilly Harmer

100 Rachel Carson ( ) Didn’t work anywhere specific, but did a lot of work in the Chesapeake Bay Scientific Writer (DDT) Silent Spring Reilly Harmer

101 The Wilderness Act of 1964 The Wilderness Act was passed on September 3, 1964 under the Johnson administration. The act was national and was created to protect wilderness areas in perpetuity. It gave a legal definition of wilderness: ...an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain. The act is very successful and is already protecting over 106 million acres of land with more bills pending. It restricts human usage and the use of cars, motorboats, camps etc. The Wilderness Society helps to enforce this act by creating realistic policies by collaborating with communities and conservation groups. Other organizations such as the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of the Interior, National Park Service, Forest Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Service also help enforce the Wilderness Act. Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, Montana Maggie

102 Alfred Wegener Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin.
He earned a PhD in astronomy at the University of Berlin in He was very interested in meteorology and climatology as well. Wegener came up with the idea of plate tectonics and continental drifts which had been published in 1915 in his book, The Origin of Continents and Oceans. Alfred Wegener came up with the concept of Pangaea, a huge land mass that broke apart over 200 million years ago. The broken pieces of this land mass have become the 7 continents today. Once his ideas were published in his book, his ideas were not taken seriously because he had not come up with scientific proof. In the 1960s, his theory was finally accepted after further information on geology had been discovered. Alfred Wegener quickly became recognized as a founding father of one of the biggest scientific revolutions of the 20th century. Maggie

103 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 (1984 amendment)
Law enacted in the United States Richard Nixon / Gerald Ford were president in 1976 This law gave the EPA control over what happened to hazardous waste, from its generation to its disposal. This Act spelled out which wastes were hazardous to the environment, and set out to correct the incorrect disposal of them. The EPA also got control over non-hazardous solid waste. The 1984 amendment, the Federal Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, worked to minimize disposal of hazardous waste on usable land and worked to establish the safe ways to dispose of hazardous waste. It also limited the types of waste that could be stored in underground tanks. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) worked with Congress to enforce the RCRA . This act is still efficient. One of the cleaning facilities, the Clean Harbors incinerator in Nebraska, goes annual checkups and services to keep it up to date with EPA regulations. This incinerator stores and treats hazardous waste. <http://www.deq.state.ne.us/RCRA.nsf> <http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp> <http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/rcra.html> Caroline

104 Paul Ehrlich (1932-present day)
Based his work in the United States Paul Ehrlich is a biologist and an environmental scientist He wrote many books, his first being The Population Bomb in This book predicted that the population would decrease due to starvation in the 1970s. After his predictions failed, he wrote other books, such as The End of Affluence in 1974, also failed in their predictions in the decrease in population. He also taught at Stanford in the Center for Conservation Biology. Although his predictions were incorrect, he had a large affect on the public’s perception of environmental issues during his time in the media "Giving society cheap, abundant energy would be the equivalent of giving an idiot child a machine gun." The American Spectator, 1992 <http://dynamics.org/~altenber/PAPERS/EHRLICH/> <http://www.stanford.edu/group/CCB/Staff/Ehrlich.html> <http://www.nationalcenter.org/dos7111.htm> Caroline

105 The Montreal Protocol Libby Bora & Convention of Ozone Depletion
It is an international agreement designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer- the U.N. is responsible for its enforcement Today, 191 countries have ratified the treaty The protocol formally recognized the significant threat of ozone-depleting substances to the ozone layer and provided a mechanism to reduce and phase out the global production and use of these compounds. It searches for ozone-friendly alternatives to these compounds, which were supposed to be completely phased out by 2000. This ozone protocol represents a landmark in the successful reduction of global production, use and emissions of ozone-depleting substances. According to research the ozone layer is now starting to recover. Additional emission reductions after 2012 are being negotiated – these reductions have potentially much larger effects on climate Libby Bora

106 Charles Darwin (1809–1882) Born, worked, and became famous in England
was a naturalist or "natural historian” and an author His theory of evolution by natural selection, now the unifying theory of the life sciences, explained where all of diverse kinds of living things came from and how they became adapted to their particular environments. Darwin's work represents many fields of science including biology, geology, anatomy, geography, and paleontology- his work was controversial--many of his fellow scientists rejected his theories His major publications were The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871) Darwin's Theory of Evolution included; variation, competition, offspring, genetics, and natural selection Libby Bora

107 Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
gives EPA authority to require more information from companies relating to chemical substances/mixtures addresses the production, importation, use, and disposal of certain chemicals Federally-managed EPA Office of Pollution Prevention Gerald Ford was President law needs slight reform, in order to update it to modern times, but overall it has worked well Eleanor Palmer

108 John Muir (1838-1914) Naturalist Pioneer in conservation movement
Convinced Teddy Roosevelt to protect many sites that are National Parks today Sierra Club: preserve sites Yosemite, Sequoia & Kings Canyon, Grand Canyon, and Mt. Rainier Worked mostly in Wisconsin, though traveled throughout the U.S. and world Published four books Eleanor Palmer

109 Citations TSCA: John Muir www.epa.gov www.chemalliance.org
John Muir Eleanor Palmer

110 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Passed in 1974, amended in 1986 & 1996.
Law passed in the United States. President Nixon/ Ford. Under SDWA public water systems are required to follow water quality standards. Water systems are subject to possible tests for contaminants. If necessary, the water can be treated to reduce contaminants. Reported over 506,000 violations of the SDWA since 2004. Some of the biggest polluters contribute the most to towns. A need to step up enforcement. Will Doughty

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